Godfrey Higgins




Volume I [867 pages]
Volume II
[525 pages]




Page 152

The time has now arrived when it becomes proper to enter upon an examination of the doctrines of the celebrated Buddha of India, which were the foundations of all the mythoses of the Western nations, as well as of those which we have seen of Cristna; and from these two were supplied most of the superstitions which became engrafted into the religion of Jesus Christ.

I shall shew, that Buddha and Cristna were only renewed incarnations of the same Being, and that Being the Solar power, or a principle symbolized by the Sun—a principle made by the sun visible to the eyes of mortals : and particularly exhibiting himself in his glory at the vernal equinox, in the heavenly constellation known by the name of Taurus, as BUDDHA, and subsequently in that of Aries, as CRISTNA.

Page 153

"Buddha is variously pronounced and expressed Boudh, Bod, Bot, But, Bad, Budd, Buddou, Boutta, Bota, Budso, Pot, Pout, Pota, Poti, and Pouti. The Siamese make the final T or D quiescent, and sound the word Po; whence the Chinese still further vary it to Pho or Fo. In the Talmudic dialect the name is pronounced Poden or Pooden; whence the city, which one contained the temple of Sumnaut or Suman-nath, is called Patten-Sumnaut. The braod sound of the U or Ou or Oo, passes in the variation Patten into A, pronounced Ah or Au; and in a similar manner, when the P is sounded B, we meet with Bad, Bat, and Bhat. All these are in fact no more than a ringing of changes on the cognate letters B and P, T and D. Another of his names is Saman, which is varied into Somon, Somono, Samana, Suman-Nath, and Sarmana. From this was borrowed the sectarian appellation of Samaneans, or Sarmaneans. A third is Gautama, which is indifferently expressed Gautameh, Godama, Godam, Codam, Cadan, Cardam, and Cardana. A fourth is Saca, Sacya, Siaka, Shaka, Xaca, Xaca-Muni or Xaca-Menu and Kia, which is the uncompounded form of Sa-Kia. A fifth is Dherma, or Dharma, or Dherma-rajah. A sixth is Hermias, Her-Moye, or Heri-Maya. A seventh is Datta, Dat-Alreya, That-Dalna, Date, Tat or Tot, Deva-Tut or Deva-Twasta. An eighth is Jain, Jina, Chin, Jain-Deo, Chin-Deo, or Jain-Eswar. A ninth is Ahran. A tenth is Mahi-Man, Mai-Man, or (if Om is added) Mai-Man-Om. An eleventh is Min-Eswara, formed by the same title Min or Man or Menu joined to Eswara. A twelfth is Gomat or Gomat-Eswara. A thiteenth, when he is considered as Eswara or Siva, is Ma-Esa or Har-Esa; that is to say, the great Esa or the Lord Esa. A fourteenth is Dagon or Dagun, or Dak-Po. A fifteenth is Tara-Nath. And a sixteenth is Arca-Bandhu or Kinsman of the Sun."*

* Faber, Pag. Idol. B. iv. Chap. v. p. 351.

"Wod or Vod is a mere variation of Bod; and Woden is simply the Talmudic mode of pronouncing Buddha : for in that mode of enunciation, Buddha is expressed Pooden or Poden; and Poden is undoubtedly the same word as Voden or Woden."* This etymology is assented to by Sir W. Jones, if it were not, as I believe it was, originally proposed by him. Woden was the God of the Scuths and Scandinavians, and said to be the inventor of their letters; as Hermes was the supposed inventor of the letters of the Egyptians. This, among other circumstances, tends to prove that the religion of the Celts and Scuths of the West was Buddhism. The Celtic Teutates is the Gothic Teut or Tuisto, Buddha's titles of Tat, Datta, or Twashta. Taranis is Tara-Nath. Hesus of Gaul is, Esa, Ma-Hesa, and Har-Esa. But those are by the Latin writers called Mercury.**

* Ib. p.355.

** Faber, orig. Pag. Idol.

Page 154

My reader will observe that I have given from Mr. Faber sixteen different names of Buddha, by which he undertakes to prove that he was known at different times and in different places. Mr. Faber enters at great length into the discussion of each, and proves his case, in almost every instance, in a way which cannot reasonably be disputed. ... In my Celtic Druids I have shewn that the worship of Buddha is everywhere to be found—in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. Hu, the great God of the Welsh, is called Buddwas; and they call their God Budd, the God of victory, the king who rises in light and ascends the sky.

In Scotland, the country people frighten their children by telling them, that old Bud or the old man will take them. In India, one of the meanings of the word Buddha is old man.

In this inquiry it seems of the first consequence to ascertain the meaning of the word Buddha. From the examination of the accounts of the different authors, this celebrated word appears to have the same meaning as to the first word of Genesis, that is, Wisdom, or extremely wise, or wise in a high degree. M. Creuzer gives it savant, sage, intelligence, excellente, et supérieure. He says, it allies itself or is closely allied to the understanding, mind, intelligence unique, and supreme of God.

This is confirmed by Mr. Ward, the missionary, who tells us that Buddha is the Deity of WISDOM, as was the Minerva of Greece. When devotees pray for wisdom to their king, they say, may Buddha give thee wisdom.*

* Ward's Hist. of Hind. p.452.

… In the Pali, of Ceylon, it means universal knowledge or holiness.*

* Asiat. Res. Vol. XVII. p.33.

In Sanscrit we have, Sanskrit Root, Budh, to know, to be aware; Budhyati, he knows, is aware; Bodhay~mi, I inform, I teach.

Buddhi, wisdom; Buddha, sage, wise; Bodha, WISDOM.

Two facts seem to be universally agreed upon by all persons who have written respecting Buddha. The first is, that at last he is always found to resolve himself into the sun, either as the sun, or as the higher principle of which the sun is the image or emblem, or of which the sun is the residence. The second is, that the word Buddha means WISDOM. Now, we cannot believe that this WISDOM would be called by so singular a name as Buddha, without a cause.

Page 155

It has been observed by several philologers that the letters B D, B T, universally convey the idea either of former or of creator. But Genesis says the world was formed by WISDOM. Wisdom was the Buddha or former of the world : thus WISDOM, I conceive, became called Bud. Wisdom was the first emanation, so was Buddha. Wisdom was the Logos by which the world was formed; but Buddha was the Creator : thus the Logos and Budd are identical, the same person of the Trinity.

… I shall shew that Logos, Bud, and Rasit, were only names in different languages for the same idea.

Mr. Whiter says, "Through the whole compass of language the element B D denotes Being : hence we have the great Deity worshipped all over the East—Budda."* Then Buddha will mean the existent or self-existent wisdom, self existent as an integral part of the Trinity. He then informs us that, in Persian, Bud-en Bud, signifies to be. The same as Is, est, existo. Bud is clearly the I am that I am of our Bible; or, in the original, which has no present tense, the I shall be, or the I have been; or what, perhaps, this celebrated text may mean, THAT WHICH I HAVE BEEN, I SHALL BE—Eternity, past and future.

* Etymol. Univ. Vol. I. p.310.

"… The following is the speech of Arjoon respecting Vishnu as Cristna—Thou art all in all. … O supreme Bhagavat, thou art the Buddha Avatar who shall tranquilize and give ease to Devaties, human creatures, and Ditytes."*

* Camp. Key, Vol. II. p.294.

I think I could scarcely have wished for a more complete proof of the truth of my doctrine of the renewal of the Avatars, than the above. It shews, in fact, that both Buddha and Cristna are nothing but renewed incarnations in each cycle.

The ancient identity of the worship of Buddha and of Cristna, receives a strong confirmation from the fact, that the Buddhists have TEN incarnations of Buddha, the same as the followers of Cristna, and, what is remarkable, called by the same names.*

* Ward's India, p.387.

Page 156

… The only fact worthy of notice here is, that Buddha was universally allowed to be the first of the incarnations; that Cristna was of later date; and that, at the æra of the birth of Christ, eight of them had appeared on the earth, and that the other two were expected to follow before the end of the Cali-Yug, or of the present age. …

Between the Brahmins and the Buddhists there exists the greatest conceivable enmity … The ancient histories of the Hindoos are full of accounts of terrible wars between the different sectaries, which probably lasted, with the intermissions usual in such cases, for many generations, and extended their influence over the whole world; and we shall see in the course of this work, that, in their results, they continue to exercise an influence over the destinies of mankind.

Buddha is allowed by his enemies, the Brahmins, to have been an avatar. Then here is divine wisdom incarnate, of whom the Bull of the Zodiac was the emblem. Here he is the Protogonos or first-begotten, the God or Goddess Mhtij of the Greeks, being, perhaps, both male and female. He is at once described as divine wisdom, the Sun, and Taurus. This is the first Buddha or incarnation of wisdom, by many of the Brahmins often confounded with a person of the same name, supposed to have lived at a later day. In fact, Buddha or the wise, if the word were not merely the name of a doctrine, seems to have been an appellation taken by several persons, or one person incarnate at several periods, and from this circumstance much confusion has arisen.

The mother of Buddha was MAIA, who was also the mother of Mercury, a fact of the first importance. Of this Maia or Maja the mother of Mercury, Mr. Davies* says, "The universal genius of nature, which discriminated all things, according to their various kinds or species—the same, perhaps, as the Meth of the Ægyptians, and the Mhtij of the Orphic bards, which was of all kinds, and the author of all thingsKai Mhtij pfwtoj genetwr. Orph. Frag." To this, Mr. Whiter adds, "to these terms belong the well-known deities Budda and Amida. The Fo of the Chinese is acknowledged to be the Fod or Budda of the Eastern world, and the Mercury of the Greeks." He then gives the following passage from Barrow's Travels : "The Budha of the Hindus was the son of Maya, and one of his epithets in Amita. The Fo of China was the son of Mo-ya, and one of his epithets is Om-e-to; and in Japan, whose natives are of Chinese origin, the same God Fo is worshipped under the name of Amida. … "

* Apud Whiter, Etymol. Univ. p.103.

Page 157

The followers of Buddha teach that he descended from a celestial mansion into the womb of Maha-Maya, spouse of Soutadanna, king of Megaddha on the north of Hindostan, and member of the family of Sakya Sa-kia,* the most illustrious of the caste of Brahmins. His mother, who had conceived him, (BY A RAY OF LIGHT, according to De Guignes,) sans souillure, without defilement, that is, the conception was immaculate, brought him into the world after ten months without pain. He was born at the foot of a tree, and he did not touch the earth, Brahma having sought him to receive him in a vase of gold, and Gods, or kings the incarnations of Gods, assisted at his birth. The Mounis** and Pundits (prophets and wise men) recognized in this marvelous infant all the characters of the divinity, and he had scarcely seen the day before he was hailed Devata-Deva, God of Gods. Buddha, before he was called by the name of Buddha, or WISDOM, very early made incredible progress in the sciences. His beauty, as well as his wisdom, was more than human; and when he went abroad, crowds assembled to admire him. After a certain time he left the palace of his father, and retired into the desert, where he commenced his divine mission. There he ordained himself priest, and shaved his head with his own hands, i.e. adopted the tonsure. He there changed his name to Guatama.

* If we look back to Section 2, we shall see that Mr. Faber states Sa-kia to be a name of Buddha. This Xaca or Saka is the origin, as I shall shew, of the name of our Saxon ancestors.

** Mounis are nothing but Menus or wise men, like the Minoses of Crete, &c., Rashees of India, and Sophis of Persia.

After various trials, he came out of them all triumphant; and after certain temptations or penitences, to which he submitted in the desert, were finished, he declared to his disciples that the time was come to announce to the world the light of the true faith, the Gods themselves descending from heaven to invite him to propagate his doctrines. He is described by his followers as a God of pity, the guardian or saviour of mankind, the anchor of salvation, and he was charged to prepare the world for the day of judgment.

Amara thus addresses him : "Thou art the Lord of all things, the Deity who overcomest the sins of the Cali-Yug, the guardian of the universe, the emblem of mercy towards those who serve thee—OM : the possessor of all things in vital form. THOU ART BRAHMA, VISHNU, and MAHESA : thou art the Lord of the universe : thou art the proper form of all things, moveable and immoveable, the possessor of the whole, and thus I adore thee. Reverence be unto thee, the bestower of salvation.— … I adore thee, who art celebrated by a thousand names, and under various forms, in the shape of BUDDHA the God of mercy. Be propitious, O most high God."*

* Moore's Pantheon, pp. 23, 33, 39.

Buddha was often said not to have been born of a virgin, by to have been born, as some of the heretics maintained Jesus Christ was born, from the side of his mother.* He was also said to have had no father. This evidently alludes to his being the son of the androgynous Brahme-Maia.** …

* And as Mani was said to be born.

** Ratramn. de Nat. Christ. Cap. iii. ap. Fab. Pag. Idol. B. iv. Ch. v. p.432.

Page 158

Mons. De Guignes* states that Fo, or Buddha, was brought forth not from the matrix, but from the right side, of a virgin, whom a ray of light had impregnated. The Manichæans held that this was the case with Jesus Christ, and by this single fact, without the necessity for any others, they identify themselves with the Buddhists.

* Hist. des Huns, Tome I. Part. ii. p.224.

St. Jerom says,* Apud Gymnosophistas Indiæ, quasi per manus, hujus opinionis auctoritas traditur, quod Buddam, principem dogmatis eorum, è latere suo virgo generavit.

* Hieron. in Jovinianum.

We see here that the followers of Buddha are called Gymnosophists. It has been observed that the Meroe of Ethiopia was a Meru. This is confirmed by an observation of Heliodorus, that the priests of Meroe were of a humane character, and were called Gymnosophists.*

* De Paw, Recherches sur les Égyptiens, Vol. II.

Buddha as well as Cristna means shepherd. Thus, he was the good shepherd. M. Guigniaut says, there is a third Guatama, the founder of the philosophy Nyaya. I ask, may not this be the philosophy of a certain sect, which in its ceremonies chaunts in honour of Crista the word IEYE, in fact, the name of the Hebrew God Ieue, or Jehovah as we disguise it ?* We know that names of persons in passing from one language into another, have often been surprisingly changed or disguised; but there is no change here; it is the identical name.

* See Maur. Hist. Hind. Vol. II p.339, ed. 4to.

Page 159

One cannot reflect for a moment upon the different Avatars of India, without being struck with the apparent contradiction of one part to the other. Thus Cristna is the Sun, yet he is Apollo. He is Bala Rama, and yet Bala Cristna. He is also Narayana floating on the waters. Again, he is Vishnu himself, and an incarnation of Vishnu. He is also Parvati, the Indian Venus. In short, he is every incarnation. All this is precisely as it ought to be, if my theory is correct. He is an Avatar or renewed incarnation, in every case, of the sun, or of that higher principle of which the sun is an emblem—of that higher principle which Moses adored when he fell down upon his face to the blazing bush. The adoration of the solar fire, as the emblem of the First Great Cause, is the master-key to unlock every door, to lay open every mystery.

Buddha may be seen in the India House with a glory round his head. This I consider of great consequence. The glory round the head of Jesus Christ is always descriptive of his character, as an incarnation of that Higher Power of which the sun is himself the emblem, or the manifestation.

In my Celtic Druids I have observed, that the word Creeshna, of the old Irish, means the Sun. Now, in the Collectanea of Ouseley,* we find Budh, Buth, Both, fire, the sun; Buide lachd, the great fire of the Druids. We also find in Vallancey's ancient Irish history, that they brought over from the East the worship of Budh-dearg, or king Budh, who was OF THE FAMILY OF SACA-SA, or bonus Saca. In the Hindoo Chronology there is a Buddha Muni, who descended in the family of Sacya : and one of his titles was Arca-bandu, or Kinsman of the Sun. If my reader will look back a little, and observe that the Hindoo Budhh was of the family of SAKYA, he will, I think, believe with me that here we have the Hindoo Buddha in Ireland. It is impossible to be denied. How contemptible does it make our learned priests appear, who affect to despise facts of this kind, and to consider the learning wherein they are contained, beneath their notice ! But they do not despise them; they hate them and fear them. They feel conscious that they prove a state of the world once to have existed, which shakes to their foundations numbers of their nonsensical dogmas, and, with them, their gorgeous hierarchies.

* Vol. III. No. I.

Page 160

M. Matter has made a very correct observation (as we proceed in our inquiries, every new page will produce some additional proofs of its truth); he says, L'Antiquité vraiment dévoilée, nous offrirait peut-être une unité de vue, et une liaison de croyances, que les temps modernes auraient peine à comprendre.* This was the doctrine of the learned Ammonius Saccas, of which I shall treat hereafter.

* Matter sur les Gnostiques, Vol. II. p.205.

The farther back we go in history the more simple we find the icons of the Gods, until at last, in Italy, Greece, and Egypt, we arrive at a time when there were no icons of them. … For Buddha is never seen in the old temples, where his worship alone prevails, but in one figure, and that of extreme simplicity. And in many temples about Cabul, known to be Buddhist, there are no images at all. …

The images of Buddha can be considered only as figures of incarnations, of a portion of the Supreme Being; in fact, of human beings, filled with divine inspiration; and thus partaking the double quality of God and man. No image of the supreme Brahm himself is ever made; but in place of it, his attributes are arranged, as in the temple of Gharipuri, thus :



















Thus each triad was called the Creator. In the last of these divisions we find the Trinity ascribed to Plato, which I have noticed in B. I Ch. II. Sect. 4. We see here whence the Greeks have obtained it, and as was very common with them, they misunderstood it,* and took a mere figurative, or analogical, expression of the doctrine, for the doctrine itself. Probably the Earth, fire, water, might be given to the canaille, by Plato, to deceive them, as it has done some moderns, to whose superstition its grossness was suitable.

* Moore's Panth. p.242.

Page 161

The figure in the plates numbered 8, descriptive of Buddha or Cristna, is given by Mons. Creuzer. The following is the account given of this plate by Mons. Guigniault :* Crichna 8e avatar ou incarnation de Vichnou, sous la figure d'un enfant, allaité par Devaki, sa mère, et recevant des offrandes de fruits; près de là est un groupe d'animaux rassembés dans une espèce d'arche. La tête de l'enfant-dieu, noir, comme indique son nom, est ceinte d'une auréole aussi bien que celle de sa mère. On peut voir encore, dans cette belle peinture, Buddha sur le sein de Maya."**

* 61, xiii.

** Of the two trays which are placed by the figure with the infant, one contains boxes, part of them exactly similar to the frankincense boxes now used in the Romish churches, and others such as might be expected to hold offerings of Myrrh or Gold. The second contains cows, sheep, cattle, and other animals. If my reader has ever seen the exhibition of the nativity in the church of the Ara Cœli at Rome, on Christmas-day, he will recollect the sheep, cows, &c., &c., which stand around the Virgin and Child. It is an exact icon of this picture. Hundreds of pictures of the Mother and Child, almost exact copies of this picture, are to be seen in Italy and many other Romish countries.

… But yet there is one circumstance of very great importance which is peculiar to Buddha, and forms a discriminating mark between him and Cristna, which is, that he is continually described as a Negro, not only with a black complexion, in which he agrees with Cristna, but with woolly hair and flat face. M. Creuzer observes, that the black Buddha, with frizzled or curled hair, attaches himself at the same time to the three systems into which the religion of India divides itself.

Mr. Moore, on his woolly head, says, "Some statues of Buddha certainly exhibit thick Ethiopian lips;* but all woolly hair : there is something mysterious, and unexplained, connected with the hair of this, and only of this, Indian deity. The fact of so many different tales having been invented to account for his crisped, woolly head, is alone sufficient to excite suspicion, that there is something to conceal—something to be ashamed of; more than meets the eye."**

* The lips are often tinged with red to shew that the blackness does not arise from the colour of the bronze or stone of which the image is made, but that black is the colour of the God.

** Moore's Pantheon, p.232.

The reason why Buddha is a Negro, at least in the very old icons, I trust I shall be able to explain in a satisfactory manner hereafter. The Brahmins form a species of corporation, a sacerdotal aristocracy, possessing great privileges; but the Buddhists have a regular hierarchy; they form a state within a state, or a spiritual monarchy at the side of a temporal one. "They have their cloisters, their monastic life, and a religious rule. Their monks form a priesthood numerous and powerful, and they place their first great founder at their head as the sacred depositary of their faith, which is transmitted by the spiritual prince, who is supported by the contributions of the faithful, from generation to generation, similar to that of the Lamas of Thibet." M. Creuzer might have said, not similar to, but identical with the Lama himself; who, like the Pope of Rome, is God on Earth, at the head of all, a title which the latter formerly assumed. Indeed the close similarity between the two is quite wonderful to those who do not understand it.

The monks and nuns of the Buddhists, here noticed by M. Creuzer, take the three cardinal vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience,—the same as the monks and nuns of the European Christians. This singular fact at once proves the identity of the orders in the two communities, and that they must have had a common origin. I know not any circumstance of consequence in their economy in which they differ.

Page 162

Maya is called the great mother, the universal mother. She is called Devi, or the Goddess par' exochn—the Grand Bhavani, the mother of gods and of men. She is the mother of the Trimurti, or the being called the Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer, whom she conceived by Brahm : and when the Brahmins can get no farther in their mystics, they finish by calling her Illusion. …

A certain order of persons called Samaneans are noticed by Porphyry and Clemens Alexandrinus. …

Porphyry, in his treatise on Abstinence, gives a very good description of the Brahmins and Samaneans,* from which it appears that the latter had precisely the same monastic regulations in his time, that they have at this day.

* De Abs. Lib. iv. Sect. xvii.

The Hermes of Egypt, or Buddha, was well known to the ancient Canaanites, who had a temple to .$% erm, "The Projector, by which they seem to have meant the material spirit, or rather heavens, considered as projecting, impelling, and pushing forward, the planetary bodies in their courses."* Notwithstanding the nonsense about material spirit or heavens, the Hermes, or Buddha, is very apparent.

* Parkhurst, Lex. In voce %.$ rme.

Page 163

… In the Samaneans and Buddha of Porphyry and Clemens, we have a proof that the doctrines of Buddhism were common in their day.

"Both Cyril and Clemens Alexandrinus* agree in telling us, that the Samaneans were the sacerdotal order both in Bactria and in Persia. But the Samaneans were the priests of Saman or Buddha, and it is well known that the sacerdotal class of Bactria and Persia were the Magi : therefore the Magi and the Samaneans must have been the same, and consequently Buddha, or Maga, or Saman, must have been venerated in those regions. With this conclusion, the mythologic history of the Zend-avesta will be found in perfect accordance. The name of the most ancient Bull, that was united with the first man Key-Umurth, is said to have been Aboudad. But Aboudad, like the Abbuto of the Japanese, is plainly nothing more than Ab-Boud-dat, or father Buddh-Datta."** But this is not the only proof of the Buddhism of the Persians. According to the Desatir of Moshani, Maha-bad, i.e. the great Buddha, was the first king of Persia and of the whole world, and the same as the triplasian Mithras.***

* Clemens Alexandrinus in particular states that the Samaneans were the priests of the Bactrians. Strom. Lib. i. p.305; Faber, Pag. Idol. B. iv. Ch. v. p.235.

** Faber, Pag. Idol. B. iv. Ch. v. p.353. *** ibid.

Buddha has his three characters, the same as Brahma, which produced three sects, like those of the Brahmins—that of Buddha or Gautama, that of Jana or Jina, and that of Arhan or Mahiman.* I think in the last of these titles may be found the Ahriman or the Ma-Ahriman, the destroyer, of Persia. But Buddha is allowed by the Brahmins to have been an incarnation of Vishnu, or to be identified with Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, and like them he was venerated under the name OM.

* Ibid. p.349.

Colonel Franklin (p. 5) says, "The learned Maurice entertains no doubt that the elder Boodh of India is no other that the elder Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, and that that original character is of antidiluvian race; … ."

Buddha in Egypt, was called Hermes Trismegistus; Lycophron calls him Tricephalus. This speaks for itself, as we have seen that Buddha is identidied with Brahman, Vishnu, and Siva.

Page 164

Mr. Moore says, "Most, if not all, of the Gods of the Hindoo Pantheon, will, on close investigation, resolve themselves into the three powers, and those powers into one Deity, Brahm, typified by the sun."* Again, "In Hindu mythology every thing is indeed the Sun." Nothing can be more true. Mr. Moore adds, "We may here, as usual with all Hindoo deities, trace Kama's genealogy upwards to the sun, who is Brahm."**

* Pantheon, pp. 6, 16.

** Ibid. p.447.

Buddha is stated by Sir W. Jones to be Woden, and not a native of India.* But it is remarkable, that Woden is his Tamul name, and the Tamulese are now in South India. This will be found of importance hereafter.

* Asiat. Res. Vol. II 4to. p.9.

Mons. Guigniaut, in his notes on Creuzer, has very justly observed that the earliest notice we have of the Persian religion has come from the north, from ancient Aria or Balch, the ancient Bactriana. He says, "Nous avons déjà parlé des temples souterrains de Bamian, à quelque distance de Caboul. Ici la Perse et l'Inde, Hom et Brahma, Bouddha et Zoroaster, semblent se donner la main."* …

* Creuzer, Vol. I. p.677.

Page 165

The following copy, in Moore's Hindoo Pantheon, of an inscription which was found in Bengal, the very focus of the country of the Brahmins, is of itself, as its genuineness cannot be disputed, almost enough to prove the original identity of Cristna and Buddha. The address is said to be the Supreme Being : "Reverence be unto thee in the form of Buddha : reverence be unto thee, Lord of the earth : reverence be unto thee, an incarnation of the Deity, and the eternal one : reverence be unto thee, O God ! in the form of the God of mercy : the dispeller of pain and trouble : the Lord of all things : the Deity who overcomest the sins of the Kali Yug :the guardian of the universe; the emblem of mercy toward those who serve thee, OM ! the possessor of all things in vital form. Thou art Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesa;* thou art the Lord of the universe; thou art the proper form of all things, moveable and immoveable; the possessor of the whole, and thus I adore thee; reverence be unto thee, the bestower of salvation : reverence be unto thee, (Kesava,) the destroyer of the evil spirit, Kesi.—O Damordara ! shew me favour. Thou art he who resteth upon the face of the milky ocean, and who lieth upon the serpent Sesha."** Again Mr. Moore says, "In Ceylon, the Singhalese have traditions respecting Buddha, that, like the legends of Krishna, identify him with his prototype, Vishnu." I think with Mr. Moore and Major Mahony, that the identity of Buddha and Vishnu is clearly made out.***

* Is the Ma-hesa of Mr. Moore the MA or great-hesus of Gaul ? I believe so. But, nous verrons.

** Pp. 222, 224.

*** Ib. p.228.

In my last chapter I said, that the word OM was used exactly like our word Amen. In the above prayer is a proof of what I there advanced, with this only difference, that it was not spoken but meditated on, in profound silence, at the end of the distich or the prayer. …

Page 166

… Mr. Franklin makes an observation which is new to me, that the ancient Etrurians had the countenances of Negroes, the same as the images of Buddha in India.* …

* Researches on Bodhs and Jeynes, p.149.



Page 166

The following observations of the very celebrated astronomer Cassini, made more than a hundred years ago, and extracted form La Loubière's History of Siam, will enable me to elicit several conclusions respecting the famous Neros, of the greatest importance. As an astronomer, M. Cassini is in the first rank. No one will deny that his calculations upon acknowledged or admitted facts are entitled to the highest respect. I think they will enable me to point out the origin of many of the difficulties respecting Buddha and Cristna, and to explain them. …

Page 168

Many of our divines have been much astonished at the coincidence between the prophecy of the heathen Sybil and that of Isaiah; the difficulty I flatter myself I shall now be able to remove, by shewing that it related to the system of cycles, which Mons. Cassini detected in the Siamese manuscript.

I shall now proceed to prove that the period of 600 years, or the Neros alluded to by Cassini, which has been well described by the most celebrated astronomers as the finest period that ever was invented, Josephus says was handed down from the patriarchs who lived before the flood, is the foundation of the astronomical periods of the Indians, and is probably the age or mundane revolution alluded to by Virgil. On the subject of this fine cycle, and the important consequences deduced by Mons. Bailey from the knowledge of it by the ancients, my Celtic Druids may be consulted. There my reader will see proofs that it was probably the invention of a period long prior to any thing which we have been accustomed to contemplate as founded on historical records.

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The prophecy of Isaiah may be said to have been a mystery, an example of judicial astrology. It required no divine inspiration to prove to the initiated, that, at the end of the cycle then running, a new cycle would commence, or that the cycle of the God Cristna, the Sun, would be born again : and this leads us to a discovery which will account for and remove many of the difficulties which our learned men have encountered respecting Buddha and Cristna. It is evident that both of them being the sun, mystically and astrologically speaking, their year was 600 years long, and their birthday on the first year of the 600, on which was a conjunction of sun and moon at the vernal equinox. The day of the first birth of Buddha was at the vernal equinox of that 600 when the sun entered Taurus, of Cristna of that 600 nearest to the time when he entered Aries. The birthdays of both returned every 600 years—when the Phen or Phenishe or Phoenix was consumed on the altar of the temple of the sun at Heliopolis, in Egypt, and rose from its ashes to new life. This, I think, seems to have been purely astrological.

At first many persons will be greatly surprised at the assertion, that the passages of Isaiah, ch. viii. 14, viii. 8, are not prophecies of Christ. …

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Again, Dr. Adam Clarke maintains, that the prophecy of Isaiah—A virgin* shall conceive and bear a son, and call his name Immanuel, does not mean Christ.**

* The word virgin here is, in the Hebrew, %.-3 olme, and is preceded by the emphatic article % e, therefore of course it means THE NOT A virgin. In the Phœnecian, Bochart says, %.-3 olma signifies virgin. This is evidently the same word, the celestial virgin, the Alam Venus of Lucretius, and the Brahme-Maia of India, or the Virgin Astres, alluded to by Virgil.

** Class. Journ. Vol. IV. p.169 of No. VI. and No. VII.

I can entertain little doubt that this prophecy was well known to the Gauls or Celts and Druids, long before the time of Christ, as is made sufficiently evident by an inscription VIRGINI PARITURÆ, which was found at Chartres upon a black image of Isis. This image was made by one of their kings, and the Rev. M. Langevin says it was existing in his day, about 1792.* They are almost the words of Isaiah, and Mons. Langevin says, were inscribed one hundred years before the birth of Christ. Along with the statue of Isis was a boat, which M. Langevin says was the symbol under which this Goddess was adored. This was the Argha of India, of which I shall treat hereatfter.

* Recherches Hist. sur Falaise, par Langevin, prêtre.

This prophecy, which our divines have been so eager to make apply to Jesus Christ, was known also to the Egyptians and Greeks, as well as to the Hindoos and Jews. This fact strongly supports my rendering, that it related to their sacred OM.*

* See Celtic Druids, Ch. v. Sect. viii. p.163, note.

Singular as my reader may imagine it to be that Isaiah alludes to the OM of India, he will not think it so very paradoxical and singular, when he learns, that the history of Cyrus, who is prophesied of by name by Isaiah, is taken from a passage in the life of Cristna, from some history of whom Herodotus must have copied it.

The connection noticed by Cassini between the prophecy of Isaiah, the oriental cycles, and the prophecy of the Sybil in Virgil, has a strong tendency to confirm the explanation which I have given above of the word -!&,.3 omnual or Immanuel, used by Isaiah.

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In the celebrated history called The Gospel of the Infancy, which, I think it probable, was originally in Arabic, but of which there are some passages remaining in Greek, Jesus is said to have been sent to a school-master, to whom he explained the mystical meaning of the letters. This gospel was peculiarly the gospel of the Nestorians, and of the Christians of St. Thomas on the coast of Malabar, of whom I shall have to speak hereafter. This story is repeated in another Gospel, called the Gospel of St. Thomas, which in the Greek, and, for the reasons which the reader will see, was probably translated from Syriac, Hebrew, or Arabic. When the master taught Jesus the word Aleph, (the mystical meaning of which has been proved to be the Trinity by Chardin,) he pronounced the second letter, which is written in the Greek letters, but in the Hebrew language, Mpeh Mpeth, after which it is said, that he explained to his master the meaning of the prophets. Here we see the mystical . Mem, or 600 of Isaiah, only written in Greek letters. This was the explanation of the mystery of Isaiah, of the prophets. If the person translating this work from the Hebrew had given to the letters the Greek names, Alpha, Beta, &c., the mystery would not have been contained in them; therefore he gave them in Hebrew. Mr. Jones says, these Gospels were published in the beginning of the second century. They were received by the Manichæans, and the Gnostic sects, particularly that of the Marcosians (probably followers of Marcus). The Gnostics existed, as will be proved, not only before St. Paul, who wrote against them, but also before the Christian æra.*

* Jones on Canon, Vol. I pp. 396, 433; Vol. II p. 232.

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When the chief priest placed his hands on the candidate for orders or for initiation into the priesthood, he Samached him, that is, he made the mark of the cross, or marked the candidate with the number of or sign of 600.* This letter in the Hebrew means 60 and 600, (the two famous cycles of the Indians,) the Samach being, in fact, nothing but the M final.

* See Celtic Druids, Ch. iv. Sect. ix.

And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of WISDOM; for Moses (4/. smk) samached him, laying his hands upon him. Deut. xxxiv. 9., ceijotonia.

The Mem final—the letter Samach—was adopted for the 600, because the cycles of 60 and 600 are, in reality, the same, or one a part of the other : they would equally serve the purpose of the calendar. If they reckoned by the Neros, there were 10 Neroses in 6000; if the reckoning was made by 60, there were 100 times that number in 6000 years. This we shall understand better presently. This explanation of the Samach completes what I have said respecting the X being the mark for 600, in my Celtic Druids, Ch. iv. Sect. ix.

But M is the sign of the passive as well as of the active principle, that is, of the Maia. Thus it is the symbol of both; that is, of the Brahme-Maia; and this is the reason why we find this the Monogram of the Virgin upon the pedestal of the Goddess Multimammia, and of the Virgin Mary, with the Bambino, or black Christ, in her arms, as may be seen in many places in Italy.

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The Momphta of Egypt, named by Plutarch, admitted by Kircher to be the passive principle of nature, is evidently nothing but the Om-tha or Om-thas, with the Mem final, the sign of 600, prefixed. The sun was the emblem of the active principle, the moon of the passive principle. Hence she was generally female, often called Isis, to which she was dedicated, and Magna Mater.*

* Clarke's Travels, Vol. II p.318.

The recurrence of the word Om, in the names of places in Egypt, and in Syria,* about Mount Sinai, is very remarkable, and raises strong ground for suspicion that it has a relation to the Om of India. We must remember that this Om is the Amen or sacred mystical word of the Bible, of the law given on Sinai. It is also the word Omen—good or bad—which means prophecy.

* Vide Burchardt's Travels.

There was a remarkable eclipse in March 4710 of the Julian period,* about the time of Herod's death, and the birth of Christ. This is as it ought to be. The conjunction of the Sun and Moon took place on the birth of Christ. This was exactly 600 years after the birth of Cyrus, who was the Messiah, to use the epithet of the Old Testament, who immediately preceded Jesus Christ.

* See Asiat. Res. Vol. X. p.48; Clamet, Chron.; and Encyclop. Britt. Chron. p.754.

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This is a most important Cycle, and I think we shall here see the reason for the information of such very long periods by the Hindoos. The Neros or cycle of 600 was originally invented to enable them to regulate the vernal and autumnal Phallic festivals. After some time they discovered that their cycle of 600 no longer answered, but that their festivals returned at a wrong period, as the equinox, which once fell on the first of May, now took place on the first of April. This led ultimately to the discovery, that the equinox preceded about 2160 years in each sign, or 25,920 years in the 12 signs; and this induced them to try if they could not form a cycle of the two. On examination, they found that the 600 would not commensurate the 2160 years in a sign, or any number of sums of 2160 less than 10, but that it would be ten, or, that in ten times 2160, or in 21,600 years, the two cycles would agree : yet this artificial cycle would not be enough to include the cycle of 25,920. They, therefore, took two of the periods of 21,600, or 43,200; and, multiplying both by ten, viz. 600 x 10=6000, and 43,200 x 10=432,000, they found a period with which the 600 year period, and the 6000 year period, would terminate and form a cycle. Every 432,000 years the three periods would commence anew : thus the three formed a year or cycle, 72 times 6000 making 432,000, and 720 times 600 making 432,000.

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It is necessary to observe, that few of the numbers respecting the precession are absolutely correct : for instance, the number of years for a sign is 2153, instead of 2160; the difference arises from fractions, as I have stated above, and is so small, that it is not worth notice. The following observation of M. Volney's will explain it.

"Edward Barnard discovered from ancient monuments that the Egyptians priests calculated, as we do, the movement of the precession at 50" 9'" ¾ in a year : consequently that they knew it with as much precision as we do at this day.

"According to these principles, which are those of all astronomers, we see that the annual precession being 50" and a fraction of about a fourth or a fifth, the consequence is, that an entire degree is lost, or displaced, in seventy-one years, eight or nine months, and an entire sign in 2152 or 2153 years."*

* Transl. of Volney on Anc. History, Vol. II. p.453.

Again Volney says, "It is, moreover, worthy of remark, that the Egyptians never admitted or recognized, in their chronology, the deluge of the Chaldeans, in the sense in which we understand it : and this, no doubt, because among the Chaldeans themselves it was only an allegorical manner of representing the presence of Aquarius in the winter solstitial point, which presence really took place at the epoch when the vernal equinoctial point was in Taurus : this carries us back to the thirty-first (3100) or thirty-second century before our æra, that is, precisely to the dates laid down by the Indians and Jews."*

* Ibid. p.455.

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From the epochas and cycles explained by Mons. Cassini we may readily infer the mode which was adopted by Eusebius and the Christian fathers in settling the times of the festivals and of the births, &c., of John and Jesus. It is almost certain that they were indebted to the Sommono Codomites or Samaneans, noticed by Clemens Alexandrinus, as shewn above. All this dovetails perfectly into the astronomical theories of Mons. Dupuis; into what the learned Spaniard, Alphonso the Great, said,—that the adventures of Jesus are all depicted in the constellation; into what Jacob is reported to have said, that the fortunes of his family were read in the stars; and also into what Isaiah said, that the heavens were a book. This was really believed by some of the Cabalists, who divided the stars into letters.*

* See Basnage, Hist. Jews, B. iii.

We must recollect that the likeness between the history of Hercules and Jesus Christ is so close that Mr. Parkhurst has been obliged to admit, that Hercules was a type of what the Saviour was to do and suffer. Now M. Dupuis has shewn the life of Hercules in the sphere in a manner which admits not of dispute; and Hercules, as it has also been shewn, is the Hericlo, the Saviour 600.

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I will now shew that the Mosaic system is exactly the same as that of the Brahmins and the Western nations; I will unfold one part of the esoteric religion. But first I shall avail myself of the statement of several facts of the highest importance, which cannot be disputed, made by Col. Wilford in the Asiatic Researches.*

* Vol. X p.33.

In consequence of certain prodigies which were reported to have been seen at Rome, about the year 119 before Christ, the sacred College of Hetruria was consulted, which declared that the EIGHT REVOLUTION OF THE WORLD was nearly at an end, and that another, either for the better or the worse, was about to take place.*

* Ibid.; Plutarch in Syllam, p.456.

Juvenal, who lived in the first century, declared that he was living in the ninth revolution,* or sæculum. This shews that the cycle above alluded to had ended in Juvenal's time, and that a new one had begun : and this ninth revolution consisted evidently of a revolution of more than 100 or 120 years—of several centuries at least.

* Satire xiii. v.28.

This statement of Juvenal's, which no author has yet ever pretended to understand, will now explain itself, and it completes and proves the truth of my whole system. It is of the greatest importance to my theory, as it is evidence, which cannot be disputed, of the fact on which the whole depends. Virgil lived before Christ, Juvenal after him. This is quite enough for my purpose, as we shall soon see.

About sixty years before Christ the Roman empire had been alarmed by prodigies, and also by ancient prophecies, announcing that an emanation of the Deity was going to be born about that time. And that a renovation of the world was to take place.

Previous to this, in the year 63 B.C., the city had been alarmed by a prophecy of one Figulus, that a king or master of the Romans was about to be born, in consequence of which the Senate passed a decree, that no father bring up a male child born that year : but those among the Senators, whose wives were pregnant, got the decree suppressed.* These prophecies were applied to Augustus, who was born 63 years before Christ according to some persons, but 56 according to several writers in the East, such as the author of the Lebtarikh and others. "Hence it is, that Nicolo de Conti, who was in Bengal and other parts of India in the fifteenth century, insists that the Vicramaditya was the same as Augustus, and that his period was reckoned, from the birth of that Emperor, fifty-six years before Christ." Now, it is evident that these fifty-six years before Christ bring us to the æra of the Buddha of Siam, for the beginning of the new æra, foretold by the Cumæan Sibyl, as declared by the Mantuan or Celtic poet, the Druid of Cisalpine Gaul, in his fourth eclogue.** This, in some old manuscripts seen by Pierius, is entitled Interpretatio Novi Sæculi.***

* See Sup. to Tit. Liv. CII. Decad. Cap. xxxix.

** The æras of the Heroes, or Messiahs, of the cycle, (as the Bible calls Cyrus,) did not always commence on their births, either in very old or modern tiems. Thus Buddha's æra, above mentioned, was from his death; Jesus Christ's is four years after his birth. Mohamed was born A.D. 608, his æra begins 625.

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Tacitus says, "The generality had a strong persuasion that it was contained in the ancient writings of the priests, that AT THAT VERY TIME the East should prevail : and that some one who should come out of Judea, should obtain the empire of the world : which ambiguities foretold Vespasian and Titus. But the common people, (of the Jews,) according to the usual influence of human wishes, appropriated to themselves, by their interpretation, this vast grandeur foretold by the fates, nor could be brought to change their opinion for the true, by all their adversities."* Suetonius says, "There had been for a long time all over the East a constant persuasion that it was (recorded) in the fates (books of the fates, decrees, or fortellings), that AT THAT TIME some one who should come out of Judea should obtain universal dominion. It appeared by the event, that this prediction referred to the Roman Emperor : but the Jews referring it to themselves, rebelled."

* Hist. Cap. xiii.

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Josephus says,* "That which chiefly excited them (the Jews) to war, was an ambiguous prophecy, which was also found in the sacred books, that at that time some one, within their country, should arise, that should obtain the empire of the whole world. For this they had received by tradition, that it was spoken of one of their nation : and many wise men, were deceived with the interpretation. But, in truth, Vespasian's empire was designed in this prophecy, who was created Emperor (of Rome) in Judea.

* De Bello, Lib. vii. Cap. xxxi.

Another prophecy has been noticed by Prideaux* of one Julius Marathus, in these words : Regem populo Romano naturam paturire.**

* Connec. P. ii. B. ix. P.493, fol.

** Suet. In Oct. Cap. xciv.

Among the Greeks, the same prophecy is found. The Oracle of Delphi was the depository, according to Plato, of an ancient and SECRET prophecy of the birth of a son of Apollo, who was to restore the reign of justice and virtue on earth.* This, no doubt, was the son alluded to by the Sibyl.

* Plato in Apolog. Socr. Et de Repub. Lib. vi.; A. Clarke's Evidences; Chatfield on the Hindoos, p.245.

Du Halde, in his history of China, informs us, that the Chinese had a prophecy that a holy person was to appear in the West, and in consequence they sent to the West, which I think would be Upper India, and that they brought thence the worship of Fo, (i.e. Buddha,) whom they call Fwe, K-yau, and Shek-ya. This is evidently the Iaw of Diodorus, and the Iau of Genesis, and the Sa-kia the name of Buddha.

Now, according to my idea, the Sibyl of Virgil would have no difficulty, as, from her skill in judicial astrology, she would know very well when the Neros would end. Isaiah might easily learn the same (even if he were not initiated, a thing hardly to be believed) from the Sibyl of Judæa,* perhaps called a Huldah. Nothing is so likely as that Augustus should permit his flatterers to tell the populace that his age exactly suited to the prophecy. Few persons would dare to canvas this matter too closely; it was good policy, to strengthen his title to the throne. But respecting him I shall have much to say hereafter. The Hindoo works, Colonel Wilford informs us, foretell the coming of Cristna, in the same manner, at the time he is said to have come. Nothing is more likely. This has been erroneously supposed to prove them spurious. Any astronomer might tell it, for it was what had been told for every new age, before it arrived, that a great personage would appear—in fact the presiding genius, Cyrus, or Messiah, of the Cycle.

* Named by Pausanias and Ælian. Vide Asiat. Res. Vol. X. p.30.

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In addition to all these prophecies, which are in themselves sufficiently striking, there is yet another very celebrated one respecting Zeradusht, which is noticed by Mr. Faber. He maintains, and I think proves, the genuineness of this famous prophecy of Zeradusht, who declared that in the latter day a virgin should conceive and bear a son, and that a star should appear blazing at noon-day. "You, my son," exclaimed the seer, "will perceive its rising before any other nation. As soon, therefore, as you shall behold the star, follow it whithersoever it shall lead you : and adore that mysterious child, offering him your gifts with profound humility. He is the almighty WORD, which created the heavens."* This prophecy, Mr. Faber observes, is found among the Celts of Ireland, ascribed to a person of the name of Zeradusht,** a daru or Druid of Bockhara, the residence of Zeradusht (whose mother was called Dagdu, one of the names of the mother of the Gods). He shews by many strong and decisive proofs, that this can be no monkish forgery of the dark ages.

* Vol. II. p.97.

** This Zeradusht is no other than the person generally called Zoroaster by our old authors. Now I learn from the learned oriental Professor Lee, of Cambridge, that the latter orthography is a complete mistake, and that in all the old oriental authors it is spelt Zeradusht. I think this furnishes a very strong proof of the real antiquity and genuineness of the Irish record : for if they had been merely compiled or formed from the woks of the Western nations, they would have had the Western mode of spelling the word, and would not have had the Eastern mode, of which they could know nothing. It proves that they had this word direct from the East, and not through the medium of Western reporters.

Amongst other arguments against its being a forgery, Professor Lee observes, that the very same prophecy, in the same words, is reported by Abulfaragius to have been found by him in the oriental writings of Persia. This prophecy thus found in the East and in Ireland, and in the Virgini parituræ, of Gaul, before noticed, previous to the Christian æra, is of the very first importance. … This prophecy is alluded to in the gospel of the Infancy; …

The star above spoken of, was also known to the Romans, "Chalcidius, a heathen writer who lived not long after Christ, in a commentary upon the Timæus of Plato, discoursing upon portentous appearances of this kind in the heavens, in different ages, particularly speaks of this wonderful star, which he observes, presaged neither diseases nor mortality, but the descent of a God among men : Stellæ quam à Chaldæis observatam fuisse testantur, que Deum nuper antum muneribus venerati sunt."* Nothing can be more clear than that the Romish Christians got their history of the Star and Magi from these Gentile superstitions.

* In Timæum, Platonis, p.19, apud Hind. Hist. of Maurice, Vol. II. p.296.

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… The Persians, the Chinese, and the Delphians, could not prophesy of Cæsar, and the close resemblance of the prophecies from all parts of the world, could not be the effect of accident. …

Page 192

… M. Cassini has shewn that the æra of Buddha ought to be fixed to the year 543, not 544, before Christ. It is said that the Cali Yug took place 3101 years before Christ. The era of Buddha, it has been stated, is calculated from his death. Now let us count the difference between his death and the beginning of the cycle for his life, and it will be 57. Take this from the time of the Cali Yug has run, and it will give 3103- 57=3044. Take from this the time which Christ is placed too late, according to Usher, viz. 4 years, and we shall have from the beginning of the Cali Yug 3040. Divide this by the mystical number of Martianus Capella, the Monogram of Christ, THS, =608, and we shall have exactly the number of five yugs, or five great Neroses, between the flood, or the entrance of the Sun into the Hindoo Aries or the beginning of the Cali Yug, and Christ. This and the three in the preceding 2160 years, the time the Sun took to pass through Taurus, make up the eight.

Page 195

With respect to the time fixed by Eusebius for the age of the world before Christ, we must recollect that it is very different from all others, because at the time when he and his master, Constantine, were settling and establishing the Christian religion—destroying by the agency of Theodoret such gospel histories as they thought wrong, and substituting such as they thought right—they may be fairly supposed to have had information on these subjects, which may very easily have been lost in later times. I think no one will believe that it was by accident, that the number of the years of the Sun's precession in a sign, (2160,) the number of Eusebius, (5200,) and the eight cycles, agreed with the doctrines of Juvenal and Censorinus and the eight Avatars of India.




Page 196

Thus we have two systems of the Neros, one of 600, and the other of 608 years each.

Page 197

In the annals of China, in fact of the Chinese Buddhists, in the reign of the Emperor YAU, (a very striking name, being the name of the God of the Jews,) it is said, that the sun was stopped ten days, that is, probably, ten degrees of Isaiah,* a degree answering to a year, 360 degrees and 360 days.

* Pref. to the last Vol. of Univers. Hist. p.xiii.

As might well be expected, when Joshua stopped the sun it was observed in India. Mr. Franklin says, "1575 years before Christ, after the death of Cristna (Boodh the son of Deirca), the sun stood still to hear the pious ejaculations of Arjoon. This is the great leader of the Jews—Moses."*

* On Buddhists and Jeynes, p.174.

The author of the Cambridge Key says, that in the text of the Bible the sun is said to stand still in A.M. 1451, the year in which Moses died. This is the Cali year 1651, in which the sun stood still to hear the pious ejaculations of Arjoon for the death of Cristna.* The learned Jesuit Baldæus observes, that every part of the life of Cristna has a near resemblance to the history of Christ : and he goes on the shew that the time when the miracles are supposed to have been performed was during the Dwaparajug, which he admits to ended 3100 years before the Christian æra.** So that, as the Cantab says, If there is meaning in words the Christian missionary implies that the history of Christ was founded on that of Crishnu.

* Vol. II. p.224. ** Ibid.

After this, in p.. 226, Cantab goes on to shew, that it is almost impossible to doubt that the history of Cristna was written long prior to the time of Christ. The same mythos is evident, in all these widely-separated nations. Its full meaning, I have no doubt, will be some day discovered.

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Noah began a new world, and thus also did Cristna.

In looking back to the Jewish history, I find the flood ended on the day that Noah finished his 600th year, when a new world began. We have already seen that the year of the saviour Cristna was feigned to be 600 years—the duration of the Neros. He was the saviour of India, expressly predicted in the ancient writings of the Brahmins. The saviour of the Jews and of Europe was the same. The Jewish incarnations were the same as those of the Hindoos, as was indeed almost every part of their system. …

The first cycle began with the sun in Taurus, the creation of the system, and ended with Enoch, who did not die, but who ascended into heaven. I think this speaks for itself.

Enoch is said to have lived 365 years, but it is probable that his life was only 360, the time which was necessary to intercalate to make up the difference between the three Neroses, and the precession for one sign, 1800+360=2160, when the system of Noah, the correct system, began.

… The cycles were like men, and died of old age. … The Arabians called Enoch Edris, and say that Edris was the same as Elijah, who did not die. And the Arabians and the Jews also had a tradition, that Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, revived in Elijah.* Thus the Jewish and Arabian traditions unite Enoch and elijah, and Elijah and Phinehas, by correct renewed incarnations; and I suppose every one who reads this will recollect, that the Jews are said to have believed Jesus to be Elijah.** Jesus declares that John Baptist came in the SPIRIT and power of Elijah.*** These circumstances have at least a strong tendency to prove, if they do not really prove, that the Hindoo doctrine of renewed incarnation was the esoteric religion of the Jews. When Elijah went up to heaven, he left his cloak and prophetic office to Elisha, or to the Lamb of God.****

* See Hottinger de Mohamedia Genealogia. ** Mark viii. 28.

*** Matt. xi. 10, 14.

**** In a future page I shall shew, that this cloak is the Pallium of the Romish church, by the investiture with which the Popes infused a portion of the Holy Ghost into their Bishops. Without the investiture there was no bishop.

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The annus magnus of the ancients was a subject of very general speculation among the Greeks and Romans, but not one of them seems to have suspected the sacrum nomen, cognonem, et omen, of Martianus Capella. Several of them admit that by the Phœnix this period was meant, or at least that its life was the length of the great year. From this I conclude that, as it was well known to Martianus Capella, it must have been a secret known only to the initiated. Solinus says, it is a thing well known to all the world, that the grand year terminates at the same time as the life of the Phœnix.* This is confirmed by Manilius and Pliny.

* Solini Polyhistor. Cap. xxxvi. Ed. Salmas.

George Syncellus says, that the Phœnix which appeared in Egypt in the reign of Claudius, had been seen in the same country 654 years before. On this Larcher says, "This pretended Phœnix appeared the seventh year of the reign of Claudius, the year 800 of Rome, and the 47th year of our æra. If we take from 800 the sum of 654, which is the duration of life of this bird, according to this chronographer, we shall have for the time of its preceding apparition the year 146 of the foundation of Rome, which answers to the year 608 before our æra." It is surely a very extraordinary accident that make the learned Larcher's calculation exactly agree with the term of one of the great Neroses, which the bird's name means; …

… I before stated that I suspected the first ended with the birth of Enoch. The second ended with the birth of Noah. The third ended with Noah leaving the ark, when he was 600 years old. The fourth ended about the time of Abraham, and was probably Isaac, whose name may mean joy, gladness, laughter, and who was called because he was the saviour, not because his mother laughed at God.

Page 200

It was the belief that some great personage would appear in every cycle, as the Sibylline verses prove; but it was evidently impossible to make the birth of great men coincide with the birth of the cycle. But when it was desirable to found power upon the belief that a living person was the hero of the cycle, it is natural to expect that the attempt should have been made, as was the case with the verses of Virgil and others, as I shall hereafter shew. This great person is, according to Mr. Parkhurst, the type of a future saviour.

The fifth Jewish cycle might end when the Samaritans say the prophecy of Jacob was verified, that is, when Osee, expressly called the Messiah or Saviour—Joshua or Jesus—brought the ark to Shiloh. … The language of the prophecy of Jacob to Judah, that a Lawgiver should not pass from beneath his feet till Shiloh should come, has been a subject of much dispute. Dr. Geddes and others maintain, that it is no prophecy, but Christians in general consider it to be one. The Samaritans insist that it is a prophecy, and that it was fulfilled in the son of Nun, Osee, called properly Jesus or the Saviour, and improperly Joshua, on his bringing the ark to Shiloh, as remarked above. Sir William Drummond has shewn, in a most ingenious and convincing manner, in his Œdipus Judaicus, how this prophecy is depicted on the sphere.

The sixth incarnation I will not attempt to name. The Jews, like the Hindoos, had many saviours or incarnations, or persons who at different times were thought to be inspired, or to be persons in whom a portion of divine wisdom was incarnate. This makes it difficult to fix upon the right person. Might not Samson be one of them ? He was an incarnation, as we shall soon see.

The next cycle must be, I think, that of Elias, ('Hlioj) or Elijah, &%? -! al-ieu, or God the Lord, according to Calmet and Cruden, but I should say, God the self-existent; that is, it means to say, an incarnation or inspiration of 'Hlioj or the God, &%? ieu, the IAO of the Greeks, or the solar power.* He left his prophetic power to Elisha, which Cruden and Calmet say means the Lamb of God.

* It is curious to observe numbers of churches in Greece dedicated to St. Elias, which have formerly been temples of the sun.

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Of the hero of the eighth age it is said in our version, Thus saith the Lord to his anointed, HIS MESSIAH, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden to subdue nations.* Here I beg it may be observed that if persons doubt the existence of Joshua or Abraham, they cannot well doubt the existence of Cyrus. This observation will be found of importance hereafter. The eighth period began about the Babylonian captivity, about 600 years before Christ. The ninth began, as the Siamese say, with Jesus Christ, making all eight cycles before Christ.

* Isaiah xiv. 1.

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I shall now endeavour to demonstrate the existence of the cycle of 600 or 6000 among the Western nations. Col. Wilford has shewn that the Buddhas and Brahmins were well known and distinguished from each other by Strabo, Philostratus, Pliny, Porphyry, &c.* The alternate destruction of the world by fire and water was taught by Plato. In his Timæus he says, that the story of Ph~eton's burning the world has reference to a great dissolution of all things on earth, by fire. Gale** shews the Jews, as well as Plato, maintained that the world would be destroyed at the end of 6000 years; that then the day of judgment would come :manifestly the Jewish and Christian Millenium.

* Asiat. Res. Vol. IX. P.298.

** Court Gent. Vol. I B. iii.Ch. vii. Sect. iii. v.

On this subject Plato says, "When the time of all things is full, and the change is needful, and every kind upon the earth is exhausted, each soul having given out all its generations, and having shed upon the earth as many seeds as were appointed unto it, then doth the pilot of the universe, abandoning the rudder of the helm, return to his seat of circumspection, and the world is turned back by fate and its own innate concupiscence. At that time also the Gods, who act in particular places as colleagues of the supreme Dæmon, being aware of that which is coming to pass, dismiss from their care the several parts of the world. The world itself being and having a great concussion within itself, makes another destruction of all living things. But in due process of time it is set free from tumult, and confusion, and concussion, and obtaineth a calm, and being set in order, returneth into its pristine course, &c."* Nimrod then adds, "as we farther learn from Virgil, that the next renovation of the world will be followed by the Trojan war—I do not think that more words are necessary in order to evince that the Ilion of Homer is the Babel of Moses." …

* Plat. Polit. P.37. apud Nimrod, Vol. I. p.511.

The doctrine of the renewal of worlds has been well treated by Dr. Pritchard.* He shews that the dogma was common to several of the early sects of philosophers in Greece;** that traces of it are found in the remains of Orpheus; that it was a favourite Doctrine of the Stoics, and was regarded as one of the peculiar tenets of that school; and that we are indebted chiefly to their writings for what we know of this ancient philosophy. But although the successive catastrophes are shewn to have been most evidently held by them, yet, from the doctor's account, it is very clear that they were not generally understood; …

* Anal. of Egypt. Myth. p.178

** See Lipsius de Physiol. Stoic. Dissert. 2.

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… None of the Fathers have written more clearly respecting the Millenium than Irenæus, and he expressly declares that, after it, the world shall be destroyed by fire, and that the earth shall be made new after its conflagration.* Here is the admission of the identical renewal of worlds held by the oriental nations. …

* Floyer's Sibyls, p.244.

St. Augustin has an indistinct view of the true system. He says, that the fifth age is finished, that we are in the sixth, and that the dissolution of all things will happen in the seventh.* He evidently alluded to the thousands, not the Neroses; and that the world should be burnt and renewed.** Barnabas says, "In six thousand years the Lord shall bring all things to an end." He makes the seventh thousand the millenium, and the eighth the beginning of the other world. …

* Civ. Dei, Lib. xxii. Cap. xxx.; Ouseley, Orient. Coll. Vol. II. No. ii. p.119.

** Floyer's Sibyls, p.245.

Nothing astonishes me more than the absolute ignorance displayed in the writings of the ancients, of the true nature of their history, their religious mythology, and, in short, of every thing relating to their antiquities. At the same time it is evident that there was a secret science possessed somewhere, which must have been guarded by the most solemn oaths.

Page 205

Plutarch in Sylla has stated, that on a certain clear and serene day, a trumpet was heard to sound which was so loud and clear, that all the world was struck with fear. On the priests of Etruria being consulted they declared, that a new age was about to commence, and a new race of people to arise,—that there had been EIGHT races of people, different in their lives and manners,—that God has allotted to each race a fixed period, which is called the great year,—that when one period is about to end and another to begin, the heaven or the earth marks it by some great prodigy. …

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Among all the ancient nations of the world, the opinion was universal, that the planetary bodies were the disposers of the affairs of men. Christians who believe in Transubstantiation, and that their priest have an unlimited power to forgive sins, may affect to despise those who have held that opinion, down to Tycho Brahe, or even to our own times; but their contempt is not becoming, it is absurd. From this error, however, arose the opinion, that the knowledge of future events might be obtained from a correct understanding of the nature of the planetary motions. This was, perhaps, an improvement on the other. It was thought that the future fortunes of every man might be known, from a proper consideration of the state of the planets at the moment of his birth. As, of course, these calculations would continually deceive the calculators, it was very natural that endeavours should be made (overlooking the possibility that the system might be false from the beginning) to ascertain the cause of these failures. This was soon believed to arise from a want of correctness in the calculation of the planetary motions—a fact which would speedily be suspected and then ascertained. This produced the utmost exertion of human ingenuity, to discover the exact length of the periods of the planets; that is, in other words, to perfect the science of astronomy. In the course of these proceedings it was discovered, or believed to be discovered, that the motions of the planets were liable to certain aberrations, which it was thought would bring on ruin to the whole system, at some future day. … Experience would teach them that they could never be certain they had discovered all the aberrations, and thus they could never be certain that they had calculated all the periods. They would also perceive that the longer they made their cycles or periods the nearer they came to the truth. For this reason it was, and it was a sensible reason, that they adopted the very long periods : for it was evident that, in every one of the lengthened periods, multiples of 600, the cycle of the Sun and Moon would be included, and with it would make a cycle. When our priests can discover, or suppose, no other reason for these lengthened periods than a wish to appear the most ancient of nations, I fear they estimate the understandings of those who discovered the Neros, by the measure of their own.

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I am always rejoiced when I find my theories supported by learned Christian dignitaries. I then flatter myself that they cannot be the produce of a too prurient imagination. Bishop Horsley could not help seeing the truth, that the fourth Eclogue of Virgil referred to the child to whom the kings of the Magi came to offer presents. In the second volume* of Sermons, he has undertaken to prove that this Eclogue is founded on old tradition respecting Jesus Christ, and that he is the child of whom Virgil makes mention. I suspect the learned Bishop had at least a slight knowledge or the esoteric doctrine. On this I shall say more when I treat of the Sibyls; I shall then shew that the bishop is perfectly right.

* Sermon I.

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An account is given by Suidas, to which reference has already been made, of the formation of the world as held by the Tuscans, or Etrurians. They supposed that God, the author of the universe, employed twelve thousand years in all his creations, and distributed them into twelve houses : that in the first chiliad, or thousand years, he made the heaven and the earth; in the next the firmament which appears to us, calling it heaven; in the third the sea and all the waters that are on earth; in the fourth, the great lights, the sun and the moon, and also the stars; in the fifth every volatile, reptile, and four-footed animal in the air, earth, and water; in the sixth man. It seems therefore, according to them, that the first six thousand years were passed before the formation of man, and that mankind are to continue for the other six thousand years, the whole time of consummation being twelve thousand years. For they held, that the world was subject to certain revolutions, wherein it became transformed, and a new age and generation began; of such generations there had been in all, according to them, eight, differing from one another in customs and way of life; each having a duration of a certain number of years assigned them by God, and determined by the period which they called the great year. If Suidas can be depended on, and I know no reason to dispute his authority, we have here, among these Italian priests, in the six ages of creation, evident proofs of the identity of their doctrines with those of the Hindoos, the ancient Magi of Persia, and the books of Genesis. And what is more, we have, if Mons. Cuvier can be depended on, proofs that these very ancient philosophical priests all taught the true system of the universe, one of the most abstruse and recondite subjects in nature. To what is this to be attributed ? Most clearly either to the learning of the primeval nation, or to revelation. Different persons will entertain different opinions on this subject.

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The date of Pythagoras's birth has been much disputed by learned men. After what the reader has seen, he will not be surprised to find this great philosopher connected, as has been already noticed from the work of La Loubière, like the Jewish worthies, Augustus Cæsar, and others, with one of the Neroses. …

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… We have every reason to believe, that Pythagoras travelled far to the East to acquire knowledge. In looking through the great mass of facts and doctrines charged to him, we find much oriental doctrine intermixed with truth and science, the same as we find at this day among the Brahmins : truth and science very much more correct than that which his successors (whose ignorance or uncertainty respecting him is admitted) knew or taught, mixed with an inconceivable mass of nonsense, of that description of nonsense, too, which his followers particularly patronized, and taught as sense and wisdom. Have we not, then, reason to make a selection, and give Pythagoras credit only for such parts as we find of the wise character to which I have alluded, and throw out all the remainder as the nonsense of his successors ? What can be more striking than the fact of his teaching that the planets moved in curved orbits, a fact for the statement of which he got laughed at by his ignorant successors, but a fact which we know to be well-founded !

All his doctrines, we are told by his followers, were founded on numbers, and they pretend to give us what was meant by these numbers, and choice nonsense they give us,—nonsense very unworthy of the man who taught the 47th proposition of Euclid, and the true planetary system. Then are we to believe them ? I reply, no; we ought to believe only such parts as are analogous to the oriental systems, and to good sense. All the remainder must remain sub judice. …

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… But I have little doubt that out of the shreds and patches left us by his successors, of the real value of which they were perfectly ignorant, a beautiful oriental garment might be manufactured—bearing a close analogy to the purest of what we find in the East, which, in our eyes, at this day, would be beautiful, but which, by his ancient biographers, would, like his planetary orbits, be treated with contempt. … It is said, that the Monad, the Duad, the Triad, and the Tetractys, were numbers held in particular respect by him. The last is called the perfection of nature. But Dr. Lempriere says, "Every attempt, however, to unfold the nature of this last mysterious number has hitherto been unsuccessful." This seems wonderful. Surely Dr. Lempriere cannot have understood the Hebrew language, or he would at once have seen that this can be nothing but the Tetragrammaton of the Hebrews—the sacred name %&% ieue or ieu-i—THE self-existent, the I am, often called the name of four letters, or, in other words, the TETRACTYS. This is confirmed by what, according to Aristotle, Pythagoras said of his Triad. "He affirmed that the whole and all things are terminated by three." Here are the three letters of the sacred word, without the emphatic article,—the three signifying I am Jah. Of the Tetractys he says, "Through the superior world is communicated from the Tetractys to the inferior, LIFE and the being (not accidental, but substantial) of every species." "The Tetractys is the divine mind communicating." This can be nothing but the Tetragrammaton of the Hebrews. I confess I can entertain no doubt that his Monad, his Duad, his Triad, and his Tetractys, formed the Hindoo Trinity, and the sacred name of four, including the three.

We have already seen that Buddha was born after TEN MONTHS, sans souillure, that is, he was to produce of an immaculate conception. … Hercules was a TEN MONTHS' child, as were also Melager, Pelias, Neleus, and Typhon.* The child foretold in the fourth eclogue of Virgil was also a ten months' child. Augustus also was the produce, after a ten months' pregnancy, of a mysterious connexion of his mother with a serpent in the temple of Apollo.** then ten months' pregnancy of all the persons named above, had probably an astrological allusion to the ten ages. The name of Augustus, given to Octavius, was allusive to his sacred character of presiding dæmon of the Munda, i@F:@H or cycle. Solomon, according to the Bible, was also a ten months' child.

* Nimrod, ib.

** Ibid. p.458

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Several of the Hindoo incarnations, particularly that of Salivahana and of Guatama, of whom I shall treat by and by, are said like Scipio, Augustus, Alexander, &c., to have been born after a ten months's pregnancy of their mothers, and also to have been produced by a serpent entwining itself round the body of the mother. The coincidence is too striking to be the effect of accident.*

* Trans. Asiat. Vol. I. p.431.

The mother of Cyrus, or the incarnation of the solar power, had, as we might expect, a very mythological name. She was called MANDA-ne.* In the oriental language this would have the same meaning as i@F:@H, correctly a cycle. In the same spirit the mother of Constantine was called Helen, her father Coilus. It has often been construed to mean world, when it meant cycle. It was, I think, one of the words used by the mystics to conceal their doctrine, and to delude the populace.

* This I take to be a word formed of Munda and Anna.

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Mr. Maurice has laboured hard to prove that the Babylonians were the inventors of the Neros. This he does because he fancies it supports the Mosaic system. I shall now shew that it cannot have been invented either by them or by the Egyptians; and I suppose no one will suspect the Greeks of being the inventors of it. And this will compel us to go for it to the ancestors and country of Abraham, if we can only find out who and where they were : this I do not despair of doing in due time.




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I will now shew how the cycle of 600, or the Neros, was concealed in another system and by another kind of mysticism. I scarcely need remind my reader that the cross has been an emblem used by all Christians, from the earliest age. In my Celtic Druids he may see many proofs that it was used by the most ancient of the Gentiles, the Egyptians and the Druids. The meaning of it, as an emblem, has been a matter much disputed. It has generally been thought to be emblematic of eternal life. It has also been considered, from a fancied similarity to the membrum virile, to be emblematic of the procreative powers of nature. The general opinion, I think, seems to have settled upon a union of the two—that it meant eternally renovating life, and this seems to agree very well with the nature of the cycle—with the Neros, which eternally renovated itself, and of which it was probably an emblem. But in my opinion, it is much more probable, that it became the emblem of generation and regeneration, from being the emblem of the cycle, than from any fancied resemblance alluded to above; and that it was the emblem, from being the figure representing the number, of the cycle.

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Mr. Payne Knight says, "the male organs of generation are sometimes represented by signs of the same sort, which might properly be called symbols of symbols. One of the most remarkable of these is the cross in the form of the letter T, which thus served as the emblem of creation and generation."*

* On Priapus, p.48.

… Among the Alchemists the T with a circle and crescent, is the numerical sign of Mercury. The sign of Venus is a crux ansata, that is, a cross and a circle.

Mr. Maurice describes a statue in Egypt as "bearing a kind of cross in its hand, that is to say, a PHALLUS, which, among the Egyptians, was the symbol of fertility."* Fertility, that is in other words, the productive, generative power. On the Egyptian monuments, in the Museum, may be seen the mystic cross in great numbers of places. And upon the breast of the one of the Mummies in the Museum of the London University, is a cross exactly in this shape, a cross upon a Calvary.

* Ant. Vol. III. p.113.

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He [Justin] presently afterward tells us that Plato said, "The next power to the Supreme God was decussated or figured in the shape of a cross on the universe." These opinions of Plato were taken from the doctrine of Pythagoras relating to numbers, which were extremely mystical, and are certainly not understood. Here we have the SON OF GOOD typified by the X, hundreds of years before Christ was born, but this is in keeping with the Platonic Trinity.

The cross was a sacred emblem with the Egyptians. The Ibis was represented with human hands and feet holding the staff of Isis in one hand, and a globe and cross in the other. It is on most of the Egyptian obelisks, and was used as an amulet. Saturn's astrological character was a cross and a ram's-horn. Jupiter also bore a cross, with a horn.

… The two principle pagodas of India, viz. at Benares and Mathura, are built in the form of crosses.* The cross was also a symbol of the British Druids.** Mr. Maurice says, "We know that the Druid system of religion, long before the time of Cambyses, had taken deep root in the British Isles."*** "The cross among the Egyptians was an hieroglyphic, importing the life that is to come."****

* Maur. Ind. Ant. Vol. II p.359.

** See Boriase, Ant. Cornwall, p.108; Maur. Ind. Ant. Vol. VI. p.68.

**** Ind. Ant. Vol. VI. p. 104; Celtic Druids, by the author.

**** Ruffinus, Vol. II p.29; Sozomen says the same, Hist. Eccl. Vol. VII. p.15.

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Nothing in my opinion can more clearly shew the identity of the two systems of the Christian priests, and of the ancient worshippers of the Sun, than the fact, unquestionably proved, that the sign or monogram used by both was identically the same. It is absolutely impossible that this can be the effect of accident.

The following are monograms of Christ, XXX ; but it is unquestionable, that they are also monograms of Jupiter Ammon. The same character is found upon one of the medals of Decius, the great persecutor of the Christians, with this word upon it, B A XXX A T O. This cipher is also found on the staff of Isis and of Osiris. There is also existing a medal of Ptolomy, king of Cyrene, having an eagle carrying a thunderbolt, with the monogram of Christ, to signify the oracle of Jupiter Ammon, which was in the neighbourhood of Cyrene, and in the kingdom of Ptolomy.*

* Bas. B. iii. Ch. xviii. S. iii.

Dr. Clarke has given a drawing of a medal, found in the ruins of Citium, in Cyprus, which he shews is Phœnecian, and, therefore, of very great antiquity. This medal proves that the Lamb, the holy cross, and the rosary, were in use in a very remote period, and that they all went together, long before the time of Jesus of Nazareth.

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On the subject of the cross Mr. Maurice says, "Let not the piety of the Catholic Christian be offended at the preceding assertion, that the cross was one of the most usual symbols among the hieroglyphics of Egypt and India. Equally honoured in the Gentile and the Christian world, this emblem of universal nature, of that world to whose four quarters its diverging radii pointed, decorated the hands of most of the sculptured images in the former country; and in the latter stamped its form upon the majestic of the shrines of their deities."*

* Maurice, Ind. Ant. Vol. I. p.359.

Mr. Maurice observes, that in Egypt, as well as India, the letter T, or in other words, the Cross, or the Crux Hermis, was very common, in which form many of the temples of India are built, and those in particular dedicated to Cristna : as for example, those at Matterea or Mattra, and at Benares. D'Ancarville and the generality of mythologists explain this symbol to refer to the Deity in his creative capacity, in both Egypt and India. Mr. Bruce frequently met with it in his travels in the higher Egypt and Abyssinia, and it was also very often noticed by Dr. Clarke. It was commonly called the crux ansata, in this form XXX and was what was referred to in Ezekiel,* in the Vulgate, and the ancient Septuagint, according to Lowth, rendered, "I will mark them in the forehead with the T or Tau." It is also referred to by Tertullian, when he says that the Devil signed his soldiers in the forehead in imitation of the Christians. It is certainly very remarkable that God should select this Mithraitic symbol for the mark to distinguish the elect from those that were to be slain by the sword of the destroyers. This may furnish another reason why Christians should moderate their anger against those who used this symbol of the creative power of God.** The Latin Vulgate*** does in fact read, "You shall mark their forehead with the letter Thau." … In the Mazoretic Hebrew it is tau, which confirms the Vulgate and shews what it was considered to be by the Mazorites of the middle ages. The cross was much venerated by the cabalists of the early Christians who endeavoured to blend the arcana of Plato and the numerical doctrines of Pythagoras with the mysteries of Christianity. I have no doubt that it is either the origin of the words Taut and Thoth, names of the Egyptian Gods, or, that these words are the originals from which it came; and perhaps of the Thor of the Celts, who went into Hell and bruised the head of the great snake. The monogram of the Scandinavian Mercury was represented by a cross. The Monogram of the Egyptian Taut is formed by three crosses thus, XXX united at the feet, and forms, to this day, the jewel of the royal arch among the free masons. It is the figure XXX and is X=600 H=8 =608.

* Ch. ix. ver. 4.

** Maurice, Ind. Ant. Vol. Vi. p.67.

*** Ezekiel Ch. ix. ver. 4.

The Samaritans had, in very early times, the Tau of their alphabet in the form of the Greek Tau, as is clearly proved by their ancient Shekels, on which it is so inscribed. St. Jerom and Origen both assert that it was so in Samaritan copies of the Pentateuch in their day. …

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On the decad or the number X, the Pythagoreans say, "That ten is a perfect number, even the most perfect of all numbers, comprehending in it all difference of numbers, all reasons, species, and proportions. …"*

* Moderatus of Gaza apud Stanley, Hist. Pyth. P. IX. Ch. iv.

The Hexad or number six is considered by the Pythagoreans a perfect and sacred number; among many other reasons, because it divides the universe into equal parts.* it is called Venus or the mother. It is also perfect, because it is the only number under X, ten, which is whole and equal in its parts. In Hebrew, VAU is six. Is vau mother EVA or EVE ? !&% eua.

The Rabbins say, that when Aaron was made high-priest he was marked on the forehead by Moses with a figure like the Greek c.* This is the Samaching. This letter X in the Greek language meant 600, the number of the Neros. … We every where meet with X meaning 600, and CH and THS meaning 608, the monograms of Bacchus according to Marianus Capella, in the churches and monuments in Italy dedicated to Jesus Christ; and in this is found a striking proof of what I said before, in the beginning of this book, respecting the two Neroses; for the use of the X for 600, and the CH and THS for 608, INDISCRIMINATELY AS MONOGRAMS OF CHRIST, connect them together, and prove that the two Neroses, the one of 600 and the other of 608, had the same origin. This must not be lost sight of, for it is a grand link which connects Christianity with the ancient oriental mythoses, in a manner which cannot be disputed, and most unquestionably proves the truth of the doctrine of Ammonius Saccas, that the two religions are in principle identical. I do not know what persons may believe on this subject : but I do know that this is evidence, and conclusive evidence.

… Thus the letter X stood for the 600 of the Hebrews, for Ezekiel's sacred mark of salvation, and for the astronomical or astrological cycle.

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… "Jamblicus thinks the crux ansata was the name of the Divine Being … Sometimes it is represented by a cross fastened to a circle as above : in other instances, with the letter T only, fixed in this manner to a circle."*

* Clarke's Travels, Vol. III p.107.

And when accompanied by the circle, it is the Linga and Ioni of India united. The Deity presided in the kingdom of Omtha, Om-tha, the cycle Om. Here we have the cycle of 600, the Om of Isaiah, the cross of Christ, and the Om-tha of Egypt all united. …

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I shall now exhibit, in an extract from my Celtic Druids, another example of the mystical numbers 600 and 608, where few persons would expect to find it, viz. in the ancient Druidical temples of Britain. "The most extraordinary peculiarity which the Druidical circles possess, is that of their agreement in the number of the stones of which they consist with the ancient astronomical cycles. The outer circle of Stonehenge consist of 60 stones, the base of the most famous of all the cycles of antiquity. … At Abury we find all the outward circles and the avenues make up exactly the 600, the Neros, which Josephus says was known before the flood. … I also think that the whole number of stones which Stonehenge consisted of was 144, … thus making the sum-total of stones exactly to the oriental cycle of vau of 144 years."

Page 226

I confess I cannot help considering the discovery of these cycles in the old temples as confirmatory in an extraordinary manner of my system. My theory respecting the Druids being oriental Buddhists is confirmed by the oriental Neroses of Siam; and my theory of the origin of the oriental doctrines is confirmed by the temples of the West. Circumstances of this kind surpass all written testimony : there can be no forged interpolations here. …

The number 650, sacred to the Sun, and found in the temple at Abury is so remarkable a manner, again confirms my theory. He must have a prurient imagination indeed who can attribute all these coincidences to accident. …

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… This shews that the earliest year in Greece was 360 days only. Thus we find the same ignorance in Greece, and in the book of the deluge of Moses, and in the Apocalypse, as well as in Egypt : but in the Indians, we find the Metonic cycle and the Neros, which evince a more correct knowledge of the length of the year; and it was shewn by the builders of the Metonic cycles of pillars in Britain.

In my Celtic Druids I have given an example of two Cromlehs in India, Plates 39 and 40; … I have since found that stone circles, similar to Stonehenge, Abury, &c., are very common in the Northern parts of India. The natives can give no account of them.

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For the origin of the cross we must go to the Buddhists and to the Lama of Tibet, who takes his name from the cross, called in his language Lamb, which is with his followers an object or profound veneration.

The cross of the Buddhists is represented with leaves and flowers springing from it, and placed upon a mount Calvary, as among the Roman Catholics. They represent it in various ways, but the shaft with the cross bar and the Calvary remain the same. …

The celebrated Monk Georgius, in his Tibetinum Alphabetum, p. 203, has given plates of the God Indra nailed to a cross, with five wounds. These crosses are to be seen in Nepaul, especially at the corners of roads and on eminences. Indra is said to have been crucified by the keepers of the Hindoo garden of Paradise for having robbed it. …

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Gen. Vallancey says, "The Tartars call the cross Lama from the Scythian Lamb, a hand, synonymous to the Jod of the Chaldeans : and thus it became the name of a cross, and of the high-priest with the Tartars; and, with the Irish, Luam* signifies the head of the church, an abbot, &c.

"From this X all nations begin a new reckoning, because it is the number of fingers of both hands, which were the original instruments of numbering : hence $* (id) iod in Hebrew is the hand and the number ten, as is Lamb with the Tartars."**

* This Luam is evidently a corruption of Lamh or Lamb. The High-priest was an incarnation of the Lamb of the Zodiac.

** Celtic Druids, App. P.312.

From the abuse of the original incarnation or divine inspiration, for if they were not identical they were very nearly allied, arose the Lama of Tibet, now become a mere tool of the Monks, by means of which their order keeps possession of the sovereign sway. If the circumstances of the Lama and the Pope be carefully examined, the similarity will be found to be very striking. In each case the Monks and their Pope have the temporal power in the surrounding territory, and in each case extensive foreign states admit their spiritual authority. And when in former times the priests gave the Pope of Italy the epithet of Deus, and elevated him as they yet do, ON THE ALTAR of St. Peter's, and bending the knee to him, offered him, to use their own words, adoration—they in fact very nearly arrived at Tibetan perfection. In each case the head of the empire is called Papa and Holy Father, and in each case the empire is called that of the Lama, the Lamh, or the Cross—for Lamh means Cross. …

"Boodism," Col. Franklin* says, "is known widely in Asia under the appellation of Shamanism : the visible head of which religion, the Dalai Lama, resides in a magnificent palace called Putala, or the Holy Mountain, near Lassa, the capital of the extensive region of Thibet. He is believed to be animated by a Divine Spirit, and death is nothing more, it is pretended, than the transmigration of the spirit into another body, like that of the Bull God Apis in Egypt." Here is the principle which will unravel all the mysteries of antiquity.

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The close coincidence between the religion of Tibet and that of the Christians, can hardly be disputed, as the knowledge of it comes to us from several persons who do not appear to have any interest in trying to deceive. "Father Grebillon observes also with astonishment, that the Lamas have the use of holy water, singing in the church service, prayers for the dead, mitres worn by the bishops; and that the Dalai Lama holds the same rank among his Lamas, that the Pope does in the Church of Rome : and Father Grueber goes farther; he says, that their religion agrees, in every essential point, with the Roman religion, without ever having had any connexion with Europeans : for, says he, they celebrate a sacrifice with bread and wine; they give extreme unction; they bless marriages; pray for the sick; make processions; honour the relics of their saints, or rather their idols; they have monasteries and convents of young women; they sing in their temples like Christian Monks; they observe several fasts, in the course of the year, and mortify their bodies, particularly with the discipline, or whips : they consecrate their bishops, and send missionaries, who live in extreme poverty, travelling barefoot even to China. Father Grueber says he has seen all this : and Horace de la Pona says, that the religion of Tibet is like an image of that of Rome. They believe in one God : a Trinity, but filled with errors; a Paradise, Hell, Purgatory; but mingled with fables : … have confessors appointed by the grand Lama, and, besides holy water, the cross, chaplets, and other practices of Christians."* The above is confirmed by Grueber and D'Orville, the missionaries, in the account of their Voyage to China.

* Remains of Japhet, 4to. P.201.

The accounts of the Jesuits are, in some instances, confirmed by the Journal of a most respectable gentleman, sent by Mr. Hastings to Tibet.* Mr. Turner says, that the mysterious word Aum or Om, is equally sacred with the Buddhists of Thibet, as with the Brahmins of Bengal, under the form of Oom maunee paimee oom. The temple at Jaggernaut, and most of the other places in India held sacred by the Brahmins, are equally held sacred by the Buddhists of Tibet.**

* Turner's Travels in Tibet.

** They have the custom of forming Carns by pilling heaps of stones over dead bodies. Like those of the Western world, pp.221, 222. Every traveller passing by adds a stone to the heap.

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I must now beg my reader to pause a little, and to reflect upon the accounts which he has read in this book respecting the prophecies of Cristna, of Isaiah, of the Sibyls, as reported by Figulus and other Romans, of the prophecy of Zoroaster, and of the Druid of Ireland,—and I would then ask him what he thinks of it. Can he for a moment doubt that all this relates to the renewal of the cycles, and to a succession of incarnations ? The mysterious child, alluded to in the beginning of this book, was a new incarnation of Divine Wisdom, the BDoJ@m@<@., the first emanation, the logos, the solar fire, the sacred, mysterious, never-to-be-spoken OM, the Trimurti, united in the person of Buddha or Cristna, born to be king of the people of SION, of the country of JUDIA, of the tribe of YUDA, whose language was that of the Baali of Siam and Persia—of the people called Palli, or Pallestini or Philistines—of the black nation of Sir William Jones, and whose name was, with Greeks, C 600, and CH and THS 608; and Jupiter, Ieu-pati, the Saviour represented in St. Peter 's by the stone image to which I have before alluded, having inscribed on it the words -g:. EoJ0D.




PAGE 234

In the Hindoo mythology we meet with a very important personage, called MENU. He is allowed to be identical with Buddha, and the Sun, and to be surnamed Son of the Self-existent, or, in other words, Son of God. The word Menu signifies mind or understanding, and is closely connected with the idea of WISDOM. It is, in short, but another epithet for Buddha. …

Menu, meaning mind, or soul, or spirit, every incarnation was a MENU, or a manifestation of the Divine Mind. …

Menu was maintained by Sir. W. Jones to be the (" nh, or, as we call him, the Noah of Genesis. This is strongly supported by the fact, that it is said in Genesis viii. 13, "in the six hundred and first year of Noah's life, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from the earth." Here is evidently the cycle of the Neros, ending with the drying of the waters, and beginning anew. Here are the ending of one year or life of Menu or Buddha, and the beginning of a new one.

The intimate connexion between Minerva and Buddha, as WISDOM and mind, I need not point out. On this Word or Person Mr. Faber says, "The import of the Greek word Nous and of the Sanscrit Menu is precisely the same : each denotes mind or intelligence : and to the latter of them the Latin Mens is evidently very nearly allied : or, to speak more properly, Mens and menu, perhaps also our English Mind, are fundamentally one and the same word."*

* Faber, orig. Pag. Idol. Vol. I p.40.

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Mr. Faber correctly observes, that the Menu of the Hindoos is the Maha-bad or Great Bud of the Buddhists : he has the same history : what applies to the one, with very little variation, applies to the other.* …

* Fab. p.123.

Mr. Faber has very successfully proved that Buddha and Zoroaster,* or the star of the Bull, and he explains the word, are the same person, the same as the Menu of the Chusas of Iran.

* Ch. iii.

In short, I believe the word Menu had the same meaning, originally, as Rasit, Wisdom; that it was the same as the mount Meru, and that Meru and Menu were dialectic variations. …

Page 236

… We have already seen that Noah and Menu were the same. Thus we find that in the Western as well as in the Eastern part of Asia, there was a Menu, and each was saved in an Ark from a flood.




Page 236

I shall now proceed to exhibit some other circumstances to prove that the God of Western and Eastern Asia was the same. In the particulars of the God Hercules some striking marks of the identity of the two will be found. In his adventures also a number of facts may be perceived, which identify him with the Samson of the Jews and the Cristna of India.

… Samson answers correctly to the Hindoo incarnation Shama, or Shama-Jaya, which is one of the thousand names of Vishnu, which the Hindoos repeat in their litanies, as is done by the Romish Christians. Bal-iswara was the son of this Shama, and the Sem-i-ramis of Assur, of Scripture.* Several of the early Christian fathers, and along with them Syncellus, acknowledge the identity of Samson and Hercules, who, they say, was copied by the Gentiles from the Bible. The whole story of Samson, the Philistines, the Lion, Thammath or Thamnuz, %;1.; tmnte, is a mythos : it is explained by Dupuis, sur tous les cultes, in his dissertation on the labours of Hercules.

* See Wilford, Asiat. Res. Vol. V. p.293.

page 237

The situation of the foot of the celestial Hercules on the Serpent's head, pretty well identifies him with the Cristna of Genesis and India. Parkhurst admits that the labours of Hercules are nothing but the passage of the sun through the signs of the Zodiac; and the circumstances relating to him he adopts as "emblematic memorials of what the real Saviour was to do and to suffer"—the name of Hercules being, according to him, "A TITLE OF THE FUTURE SAVIOUR." He could not foresee that the origin of Hercules was to be found (viz. at Maturea or Muttra) in India.

… Whatever may be the origin of the name, we know that Samson was of the tribe of Dan, or of that which, in the astrological system of the Rabbins, was placed under Scorpio, or under the sign with which the celestial Hercules rises. He became amorous of a daughter of Thamnis. %;1.; tmnte.* In going to seek her, he encountered a furious lion which, like Hercules, he destroyed. Syncellus says of him, "In this time lived Samson, who was called Hercules, by the Greeks. Some persons maintain, nevertheless,," adds he, "that Hercules lived before Samson; but traits of resemblance exist between them, which cannot be denied."**

*Judges xiv. 1.

** Dupuis, sur tous les cultes, Vol. I. pp.311, 539.

It is not surprising that Mr. Parkhurst should be obliged to acknowledge the close connexion between Hercules and Jesus—as the fact of Hercules, in the ancient sphere, treading on the head of the serpent leaves no room for doubt on this subject, and also identifies him with Cristna of India, who is seldom seen without the head of the Cobra beneath his foot : and these two facts at once locate Cristna before the Christian æra.

Page 238

… After the equinox began in Taurus, they were all incarnations of Buddha until the sun entered Aries, and after his entrance into Aries, of Cristna; and both were incarnations of Vishnu, or of the Trimurti.

Page 239

The story of Samson and Delilah may remind us of Hercules and Omphale.

Volney says, "Hercules is the emblem of the sun : the name of Samson signifies the sun : Hercules was represented naked, carrying on his shoulders two columns called the Gates of Cadiz : Samson is said to have borne off and carried on his shoulders the Gates of Gaza. Hercules is made prisoner by the Egyptians, who want to sacrifice him : but while they are preparing to slay him, he breaks loose and kills them all. Samson, tied with new ropes by the armed men of Judah, is given up to the Philistines, who want to kill him : he unties the ropes and kills a thousand Philistines with the Jawbone of an Ass. Hercules (the sun) departing for the Indies, (or rather Ethiopia,) and conducting his army through the deserts of Lybia, feels a burning thirst, and conjures Ihou, his father, to succour him in his danger : instantly the celestial RAM appears : Hercules follows him, and arrives at a place where the ram scrapes with his foot, and there comes forth a spring of water (that of the Hyads or Eridan).* Samson after having killed a thousand Philistines with the jawbone of an ass feels a violent thirst : he beseeches the God Ihou to take pity on him : God makes a spring of water to issue from the jawbone of an ass."** M. Volney then goes on to shew that the story of the foxes is copied from the Pagan mythology, and was the subject of a festival in Latium. The labours of Hercules are all astronomically explained by Mons. Dupuis in a manner which admits of no dispute. They are the history of the annual passage of the sun through the signs of the Zodiac, as may be seen on the globe, it being corrected to the proper æra and latitude.

* Eridan, river of Adonis, …

** Volney, Res. Vol. I. p.35.

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As Hercules was called Heri-cules so Mercury was called Mer-coles, or Mer-colis. … Col. Wilford speaks of a God called Hara-ja or Hara-cula.* Here Heri the saviour and the God Ie are identified with Hercules or Cristna.**

* Asiat. Res. Vol. VI. p.514.

** In an ancient inscription at Delphi Dr. Clarke found the word 'HRAKAEIOT. Ib. p.196. At the foot of Olympus was a town called Heraclea. Ib. 301.

The word Heri in Sanscrit means shepherd as well as saviour. Cristna is called Heri, and Jesus is always called Shepherd. He is the leader of the followers of the Lamb. He is the good shepherd, as was also Cristna. …

Page 242

In addition to all the other circumstances of identity between Cristna and Hercules, is the fact that they were both black. …




Page 244

The Vedas of the Brahmins have hitherto been attended with several difficulties. According to the received BRAHMIN tradition, they were originally, after being revealed by Brahma, transmitted by ORAL TRADITION to the time of Vyasa, who collected them and arranged them into books. And this Vyasa, which word it is said means compiler, has been thought to be merely an epoch in the history of the literature of India.* The number of the Vedas is also a matter of dispute; some making them in number only three, some four, and some add to them the collection of books called the Pouranas, of which they make a fifth Veda. … The Pouranas are eighteen in number; they are also the work of Vyasa. Each has a particular name. …

* Creuzer, Liv. I p.671.

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In wishing to condemn the whole of the Hindoo writings, because there are, as he says, corruptions in them, Mr. Bently does not perceive the blow which he is striking at the gospel histories, which contain 30,000 various readings, half of which must be corruptions. … I admit that many corruptions and interpolations have taken place; but I maintain that if these are sufficient to condemn the Vedas, the gospels also must be condemned, for they contain various readings or corruptions, some of them VITAL consequence to the religion. But it is not just to infer of either, that they are not genuine, because the priests have corrupted them.

… Mr. Colebrook allows, that the formulas attached to the Vedas for adjusting the periods for celebrating the religious festivals, "were evidently formed in the infancy of astronomical knowledge :" hence he infers that they were written about 200 years after the Pentateuch. But the fair inference is, that as the Vedas, and the caves, and the astronomical observations, and the formulæ, are all closely interwoven with the history of Cristna—that history is of the same early date, and the formulæ at least equally ancient. However, as Dr. Pritchard allows that the formulæ are much older than Christ, it is evident that they cannot have been written to serve any purpose in any way connected with Christianity.

But the stories related to Cristna are most clearly no interpolation; they are intimately blended with, they are, in fact, the ground-work, of the whole system. The system of the Brahmins cannot exist without them. Besides, what is to be said of the sculptures in the caves ? Are they interpolations too ? What, of the tremendous figure destroying the infant boys ? What, of the cross-shaped temple in the city of Mathura, allowed by Mr. Maurice to have been once the capital of a great empire ?* This is most certainly proved by Arrian to have been in existence in the time of Alexander. Was this built to support the apocryphal gospel history ? The April festival, in Britain and India, was it founded for the same purpose; or the statue of Hercules and Samson still remaining at Rama-deva ? Mr. Maurice acknowledges that the Evangelists must have copied from the Puranas, or the Brahmins from the Evangelists.**

* Maur. Bram. Fraud. Exp.

** Ibid. p.81.

Page 246

The forgeries of the early Christians are so numerous as to be almost incredible; but they bear no proportion to what, if we are to believe Mr. Bentley, has been taking place in India in modern times. … Buddha is allowed by Mr. Bentley to have been long previous to Cristna, and he is evidently the same as Cristna, which can only arise from his being the sun in an earlier period. This identity with Mercury and Woden, the Budvar day, the Maia mother of Mercury and Buddha, the Maturea in India and Egypt, the two Elephantas with their Cristnas, and the destroying tyrant of the gospel history in that of the Eastern, the Samaneans of Clemens Alexandrinus, and many other circumstances, unite to prove that something must be wrong in the principle of Mr. Bentley's very learned and abstruse calculations. As I have said before, the fact of Cristna being found in Egypt by the seapoys of itself decides the question.

Page 248

When it is considered that the Vyasa, of whom so much has been said, is an imaginary character, that the word means merely a compiler, and that when we say Vyasa compiled the Vedas, we ought to say, the compiler compiled them at such a time, and, that it is admitted that they were compiled from oral traditions—it does seem to me probable, that the Brahmins had any fraudulent or dishonest intention in correcting the astronomical parts of them. They contained astronomical facts, in which, in their old books, they discovered errors, and they corrected them. The astronomical tables had no connexion with religion : nor was it possible the Brahmins could foresee that these tables could ever, in London or any where else, at a future day, have any connexion with it. After the Mythos was established about the year B.C. 3101 on the Cycle of the Neros, it stood still; but the astronomy constantly advanced. The same thing takes place with our astronomical tables, tables of Logarithms, &c., &c. in every new edition errors are corrected.

Mr. Colebrook* after a very careful examination of the credit due to the genuineness of the Vedas, inclines to think the worship of Cristna may have been introduced at or after the time that the persecution took place of the Buddhists and Jains.** This I think is the truth, and as far as the fact goes agrees perfectly with my theory, that Cristna is only the Indian Hercules, the Sun in Aries. …

* Asiat. Res. Vol. VIII. 8vo. Pp. 377, 480, 497.

** Vide p.495. ed. Lond. 1808.

Page 250

Mr. Bentley has observed, that Hermes was the son of Osiris and Maia, and that Mercury was the son of Jupiter and Maia; that Buddha was also the son of Maia, and was the same as Mercury, and that his name meant WISE or WISDOM.* He allows** that the image of Siva, is generally accompanied with a Bull to indicate the commencement of the year from the sign Taurus, or first of May. He says that Sura in Sanscrit means light, and Asura means darkness. This is evidently the Surya, and 9: sr, Osiris. Mr. Bentley also shews that the Hindoo mansions of the moon were originally 28 not 27 in number.*** Coming from Mr. Bentley, my opponent, these are all important admissions—strongly supporting my system.

* Pp. 55, 56, 60. ** P.58. *** P.5.

… In a letter from him [Mr. Bentley], published by the Rev. J. Marsham, D.D., in his Elements of the Chinese Grammar, is the following passage : "July 14th, 1813, Krishna was contemporary with Yoodhisht' hira (see the Geeta), and the epoch of Yoodhisht' hira's birth was the year 2536 of the Cali Yug of the present astronomers, or about 575 years before the Christian æra." The fact of Cristna's living more than 500 years before Christ at once disposes of all the nonsense, both oral and written, about the history of Cristna being copied from that of Christ. … Mr. Bentley's admission opens the door to my theory, that renewed incarnations of the same persons were believed to have taken place, and indeed nearly prove the truth of it respecting them : for we have here one Cristna about 600 years before Christ, and another Cristna about 600 years after him. Here we have three persons of the same name in the world, at three very peculiar epochas—Cristna about 600 B.C., Christ himself at the end of this 600, and Cristna 600 years afterward.




Page 252

When the identity of the doctrines of Genesis with the story of Cristna is considered, the circumstances of the Egyptian city of Heliopolis and maturea, the city of the Sun, as I have formerly shewn, are very striking. It was the capital of Goshen, (Goshen means house of the sun,) where the Israelites settled under Jacob. It was here the priest Potiphar lived and officiated, to whose daughter Joseph was married. It was here, where a Jewish temple was built by Onias, who was at the head of a sect of schismatical or heretical Jews, whose doctrine we cannot know, or on what grounds they maintained that this was the proper place for the temple of Jehovah. But we do know that they were hated by the orthodox, as almost always happen to heretics.

Page 253

In the various accounts which different authors have given us respecting Buddha, I perceive but one plausible objection to the theory which I have proposed of his being the Sun in Taurus, as all allow that he was the Sun; and that is, the difficulty of accounting for the Cristna of the Brahmins having come to Egypt. That a colony did pass from India to Egypt no one can doubt, and that, too, after the rise of the name and mythos of Cristna. … Now, it is equally certain that the mythos did come to Italy; …

The fact of the black God Cristna being found in Italy, Germany, Switzerland, and France, is of itself, independent of all other circumstances, sufficient to decide the question. How came the French and Italians to dye their own God Cristna black, before they sent icons of him to India ? How came his mother to be black ?—the black Venus, or Isis the mother, the virgin mother of divine love, of Aur or Horus, the Lux of St. John, the Regina Cœli, treading, in the sphere, on the head of the serpent—all marks of the Jesus of Bethlehem—of the temple of the sun, or of Ceres, but not of Jesus of Nazareth.

The following observation of Mr. Seely, is alone quite sufficient to determine the question as to which of the two countries, Egypt or India, colonized the other.

Mr. Seely says, "The Cobra capella, or hooded Snake, being unknown in Africa, except as hieroglyphic, it may be concluded (as also from other arguments), that the Egyptians were the depositaries, not the inventors, of their mythological attainments."* If it be true that there are no shakes of this kind in Africa, though they are very commonly found among the hieroglyphics, I can scarcely conceive a more decisive proof, that the Egyptian mythology came from India. From the union of these considerations and indisputable facts I conclude, that, in very early times, soon after the sun entered Aries, the Brahmins did not, as at this day, object to travel from their own country; and I think we may find a probable reason for their present dissocial system being adopted. …

* On the Caves of Ellora, p.216.

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As we find that most of the other absurd doctrines with which fanatics and priests have loaded the religion of Jesus have come from India, so we also find that, from the same source, has come original sin. Mr. Maurice says, "It is the invariable belief of the Brahmins that man is a fallen creature. Upon this very belief is built the doctrine of the migration of the souls through various animal bodies, and revolving BOBUNS or planetary spheres." Hence arose all the austerities of the Yogees, Fakirs, and other fanatics, which were carried to an excess that is scarcely credible.

The Rev. Dr. Claudius Buchanan has the following passage :* "The chief and distinguishing doctrines of Scripture may be considered the four following—the Trinity in Unity : the incarnation of the Deity : a vicarious atonement for sin : and the influence of the Divine Spirit on the mind of man. Now, if we should be able to prove that all these are represented in the systems of the East, will any man venture to affirm that it happens by chance ?" No, indeed, no man, who is not a fool, will venture to say any such thing. The Doctor then goes on to admit, that the Brahmins must have known of the plural nature of the Aleim, which he calls the ELOHIM, the "Let us make man," of the first chapter of Genesis, the incarnation, the atonement, and the influence of the Holy Spirit,—the doctrine of regeneration or man twice born. …

* Christian Researches in Asia, p.256.

Original Sin, the foundation of the doctrine of the atonement, was not know to the early Christians,* and therefore it is perfectly clear that it cannot have been copied from them.

* See Jones on the Canon, Vol. II. p.348.

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The reader will recollect what was said in the first chapter respecting the two Ethiopias—the opinion of Sir W. Jones and Mr. Maurice, that a nation of blacks formerly ruled over all Asia, and the other circumstances where the black colour occurred in various ways : … May not this nation have been a nation of black Buddhists ? May not the peaceable religion of the curly-headed Buddha have pervaded and kept in peace for many generations, of which we have no history, the whole of Asia ? … Why should not a nation have ruled all Asia in peace, as the Chinese have done their empire, for several thousand years ? If these were Jain Buddhists, their propensity to propagate their doctrine, so different from the practice of the Brahmins, easily shews why it was carried to the extremest West, and why it was found in Britain. But if they were the first people, the Celts, for instance, as I believe they were, and their religion the first, it would of course go with them.

"Buddha, the son of Máyá, is considered as the God of Justice; and the Ox, which is sacred to him, is termed Dherma. So that this epithet, like that of Buddha, is not confined to any individual or any race."* "On the contrary, we learn from the institutes of Menu, that the very birth of Brahmins is a constant incarnation of Dherma, God of Justice." Here I think we have a Melchizedek. In the interior of the great temple of Bali, at Maha-bali-pore, is a couch called the bed of Dherma-rajah.** This compound word translated, is Bed of the king of justice or Bed of Melchizedek.

* Camb. Key, Vol. I. p.216.

** Chamber's Asiat. Researches.

Page 256

… The real, true, conscientious Buddhist, must have been an exact prototype of Jesus Christ, as I shall prove, both in doctrine and practice. …




Page 256

BALA or Bal was one of the names of Buddha.* It cannot be modern; in most ancient times it is every where to be found—in Carthage, Sidon, Tyre, Syria, Assyria—the Baal of the Hebrews. It is impossible to modernize him. The temples with the Bull remaining, and the ruins of the most magnificent city of Maha-bali-pore not quite buried beneath the waves, and the figure in the temples prove the antiquity of this crucified God. Captain Wilford has pointed out some very striking traits of resemblance in the temples of Bal or Buddha, in Assyria, India, and Egypt : but this is not surprising, for they were all temples of Apis, the Bull of the Zodiac.

* Wilford, Asiat. Res. Vol. X. p.134.

Page 257

When all the other circumstances are considered, it will not have surprised the reader to find the Hebrew God Baal, the bull-headed, among the Hindoo Gods. He is called Bala-Rama or Bala-hadra. He is the elder brother of Cristna, that is, probably, he preceded Cristna. M. Guigniaut says, Bala is evidently an incarnation of the sun; and Mr. Fuller remarks, that he is a modification of Sri-Rama, and forms the transition of connecting link between Sri-Rama and Cristna. This Sri is evidently the $: sr or Osiris, with the bull of Egypt. This Sri is found in the Surya of India, which is no other than Buddha; as we have seen, it is the oriental word for Bull, $&: sur, from which perhaps Syria, where the worship of Baal prevailed, had its name. Bali is allowed by the Brahmins to have been an incarnation or Avatar, but he is also said to have been a great tyrant and conquered by Cristna. In the history of this Avatar the rise of Cristnism is described. Vishnu or Cristna at first pretends to be very small, but by degrees increases to a great size, till at last he expels the giant, but leaves him the sovereignty of a gloomy kingdom.*

* Creuzer, Vol. I. p.187.

Sir W. Jones, in his Sixth Annual Discourse, gives an account of a celebrated Persian work, called the Desatir, written by a person named Moshani Fani, in which is described a dynasty of Persian kings descending from a certain Mahabad who reigned over the whole earth, by whom, he says, the castes were invented; that fourteen Mahabads or Great Buddhas has appeared or would appear; and that the first of them left a work called the Desatir, or Regulations, and which was received by Mahabad from the Creator. This Maha-Bad is evidently the great Buddha;* and the Maha-Bul or Maha-Beli the great Baal, or Bol of Syria, with the head of a bull, in fact the sun—the whole most clearly an astrological or astronomical mythos or allegory. As a mythos the Mahabadian history of Moshani Fani is very interesting; as the true account of a dynasty of kings it is nothing. But I think there is great reason to believe that the Desatir is one of the oldest religious works existing, though probably much corrupted by the Mohamedan Moshani. This work confirms what I have said in B. V. Ch. V. S.2, that Menu and Buddha were identical.

* Vide Faber, Pag. Idol. Vol. II. pp. 74-83.

Page 258

To return to the word Baal. … It is said by Parkhurst to be equivalent to the Greek _ gio<, one having authority. It is also said by him to mean the solar fire. Baal is also called Lord of Heaven, which may be the meaning of 0?.: -3, Bol smin, translated Lord of heaven. But .?.: smin or 0?.: smin meant the planets of the disposers. Its most remarkable meaning was that of a Beeve of either gender. It was an idol of the Syrians or Assyrians, often represented as a man with the head of a bull.*

* For Bull-worship, see D'Ancarville, Vol. I.

… The true God was originally called -3, Bol,* Thou shalt no more call me Baali. He was afterward called ie or %&% ieue, which meant the Self-existent, and was the root of the word Iaw, or Iao-pater, Jupiter, and in Egypt, with the head of a ram, was called Jupiter Ammon. The followers of Baal were the worshipers of the sun in Taurus : those of Iao of Ammon—of the sun in Aries. From the word -3, Bol probably came our word Bull. Here the struggle betwixt the two sects of Taurus and Aries shews itself.

* Hosea ii. 16.

Page 259

The Apollo of the Greeks was nothing but the name of the Israelitish and Syrian Bol -3, bol, with the Chaldee emphatic article prefixed and the usual Greek termination.

The most remarkable of the remains of the Indian Bal or Bala-Rama yet to be found in the West, is the temple of Heliopolis or Baalbec in Syria. … The Greek name Heliopolis proves, if proof were wanting, the meaning of the word Bal.

Page 260

The Hindoos have a sacrifice held in very high esteem which, their traditions state, goes back to the most remote æra : this is the sacrifice of a certain species of grass, called Cufa grass. This ancient sacrifice was also in use among the Egyptians.




Page 260

If the religions of Moses and the Hindoos were the same, it was reasonable to expect that we should find the celebrated Egyptian festival of the Passover in both countries, and it is found accordingly. We have in it the most solemn of the religious rites of the Brahmins, the sacrifice of the Yajna or the Lamb.

… This history of the passage of the sun and of the passage of the Israelites from Egypt, affords a very remarkable example of the double meaning of the Hebrew books. …

Page 261

Before the time of Moses, the Egyptians fixed the commencement of the year at the vernal equinox. … In the Oriental Chronicle it is said, that the day the sun entered into Aries, was solennis ac celeberrimus apud Ægyptios. But this Ægyptian festival commenced on the very day when the Paschal lamb was separated. … In this festival the Israelites marked their door-posts, &c., with blood, the Ægyptians marked their goods with red.* The Hebrew name was (.5 psh pesach, which means transit. The Lamb itself is also called Pesech, or the Passover.

* Drum. Œd. Jud. P.380.

In India, the devotees throw red powder on one another at the festival of the Huli or vernal equinox. This red powder, the Hindoos say, is an imitation of the pollen of plants, the principle of fructification, the flower of the plant. Here we arrive at the import of this mystery. A plant which has not this powder, this flower or flour, is useless; it does not produce seed. This Huli festival is the festival of the vernal equinox; it is the Yulé; it is the origin of our word holy; it is Julius, Yulius.

The followers of Vishnu observes the custom, on grand occasions, of sacrificing a ram. This sacrifice was called Yajna; and the fire of the Yajna was called Yajneswara, of the God fire. The word "Yajna, M. Dubois says (p.316,) is derived from Agni fire, as if it were to this God that the sacrifice was really offered. I need not point out the resemblance of the word Agni and the Latin Ignis." And I suppose I need not point out the resemblance of the word Agni to the Latin Agnus, to those who have seen the numerous extraordinary coincidences in the languages of Italy and India, which I have shewn in this work and in my Celtic Druids.

In this ceremony of sacrificing the lamb the devotees of India chaunt with a loud voice, When will it be that the Saviour will be born ! When will it be that the Redeemer will appear ! The Brahmins, though they eat no flesh on any other occasion, at this sacrifice taste the flesh of the animal : and the person offering the sacrifice makes a verbal confession of his sins* and receives absolution.** … The Hindoos have a sacred fire which never dies, and a sacrifice connected with it, called Oman.*** They have also the custom of casting out devils from people possessed, by prayers and ceremonies,**** which is also practised by the people of Siam. All this is very important.

* Loubière says, auricular confession is practised by the Siamese.

** Travels and Letters of the Jesuits, translated from the French, 1713; London, 1714, pp. 14-23, signed Bouchet.

*** ON the generative power of OM.

**** Travel and Letters of the Jesuits, pp. 14-23.

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The first sentence of the Reg-Veda is said to be Agnim-ile, I sing praise to fire. Here we are told that Agnim means fire. When we reflect upon the slain lamb, and the call for the Saviour, we must be struck with the scene in the fifth chapter of the Apocalypse, from verse five to ten, where praise is given to the slain Lamb. The identity of the Mythoses cannot be denied.

Page 263

… The sacrifice of the Ram is the Ram of the Zodiac at the vernal equinox. Thus the adoration of the Ram succeeded to the Bull, (but it did not entirely abolish it,) as in the case of Asteroth of the Sidonians, which had first the head of a Bull, and afterward that of a Ram.

Page 264

In Book iv. p.152, of the same work (de abstinentiá), Porphyry informs us that in very old times, the sacrificing or indeed the using of the flesh of animals was not practised either by the Athenians or by the Syrians—the Syrians, that is the natives of the ancient city of Iona and the Pallistini, the Ionians, of whom I shall speak presently. Advancing still eastwards, we find Porphyry giving an account of the Magi from Eubolus, who wrote their history, in which he states that "the first and most learned class of the Magi neither eat nor slay any thing animated, but adhere to the ancient abstinence from animals." After this he goes to the Gymnosophists called Samaneans and Brahmins of India, of whom he gives an account, and from which it appears that they have varied very little from what they were in his time. But all these accounts seem to shew signs of the first Black Buddhist people, as eating no animal food—of the Black Pelasgi or Ionians, as coming to Italy and bringing the black God and his mother along with them. And they not only brought the black God and his mother, but they brought his house, the house of Loretto, as I shall shew in its proper place.




Page 264

That the tribe of Israelites did go out from Egypt and conquer Canaan I feel no doubt; but it is very clear to me that the priests, in their books, have wrapped up the whole in allegory; that, in fact, as the learned philosophers of the Jews say, these writings had two meanings—one for the priests and one for the people. The former meaning, as might be expected, has been nearly lost; the latter is still received by most Jews and Christians. What evils have been produced by the system of endeavouring to keep the mass of mankind in ignorance ! The words (:!$" b-rasit no doubt had two meanings, one for the priests, and one for the people—wisdom for the former, beginning for the latter. This is strengthened by the fact, that the Jews divided their Cabal into two parts. …

Page 265

The Jewish Sephiroth consisted, as I have already shewn, of ten existences, which answered to the Trinity, and to the spirits or emanations of the seven planetary bodies. By some later Jews the first three were said to be Hypostases, the other seven Emanations. Here was the beginning of our Hypostatical Trinity. The first of the Sephiroth was corona, and answered to the Father, or Brahma; the second was wisdom, Sofia, the IIfwtogonoj and Aogoj, and answered to Vishnu, the Preserver; the third was prudentia or IIneuma, and answered to Siva in his generating capacity. …

The pretended genealogy of the tenth chapter of Genesis is attended with much difficulty. It reads like a genealogy : it is notoriously a chart of geography. It is exoterically genealogical, esoterically geographical. I have no doubt that the allotment of the lands by Joshua was astronomical. It was exactly on the same principle as the nomes of Egypt, which every one knows were named astronomically, or rather, perhaps, I should say, astrologically. The double meaning is clear; but probably the exact solution of the whole riddle will never be made out. Most of the names which are given in the tenth chapter of Genesis are found in the mystic work of Ezekiel. The works of all the prophets are mystical. … Many of the works of the Greeks were equally mystical.

Page 266

Speaking of the statements respecting the Gods in Homer, Maximus Tyrius says, "For every one on hearing such things as these concerning Jupiter and Apollo, Thetis and Vulcan, will immediately consider them as oracular assertions, in which the apparent is different from the latent meaning."* This is confirmed by Herodotus, who constantly says, when describing things in Egypt, there is a sacred reason (ƒeroj logoj) for this, which I shall not give. I suspect that Cicero, Pausanias, &c., were like Gibbon and Warburton, and many other of the authors, who, for the sake of the peace of society, pretend to be what they are not, a mischievous device of the priests, which has done more to retard the improvement of mankind than all other causes put together.

* Max. Tyr. Ed. Taylor, p.87, and Dissertation xvi.

The Greeks have been supposed by some persons to have learnt their mythologies from the Egyptians. But I have shewn, on the authority of their own writers, that all their OLD oracles came from the Hyperboreans by way of Thrace. Their Eleusinian mysteries I have also shewn to have come by the same route, probably from India. I consider Osiris, Bacchus, Astarte with the Bull's head, Bol or Baal, Mithra, Adonis, Apis, and Buddha, to have been contemporary, or to have formed a second class. … and therefore I conclude from this, exclusive of the other reasons given above, that these Gods are nothing but the Sun in the sign of Taurus, at the vernal equinox : and the other class are all cfioprodwpoi, or Ram-headed, and are in like manner, for similar reasons, the sun in the sign of Aries, at the vernal equinox. … In the histories of the births, death, funerals, and resurrections, of all these Gods, a striking similarity prevails, as I shall shew in a future page; but yet there are between the two classes some trifling discrepancies. …

The adoration of the Bull still continued in most countries after the equinox had receded to Aries. This was the case in Egypt, where Apis still continued, though Ammon with his sheep's head arose—if he did not, as I believe he did, change his beeve's head for that of a ram. I have shewn that Ammon meant generative power of Am, or Aum, or Om : but Am was the Bull Mithra, Buddha—therefore it must have changed. The prayers to the God Bull, of Persia, given by Mr. Faber, are very curious. Asteroth, or Astarte, in Syria, was first represented with the horns and head of a beeve, and in later times with those of a sheep.* Thus in India the Bull, the emblem of Buddha, continued to be adored long after Cristna arose, and along with him at some few places.

* Drummond, Orig., Vol. III p.229.

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M. Dubois confirms my opinion that the Brahmins came from the north, and that they established their religion on the ruins of that of Buddha. He adds, that he lived in the midst of the Jainas or followers of Buddha, and that they far surpassed the Brahmins in probity and good faith.* Herodotus** says the Pelasgians learnt the names of their Gods from barbarians; "that at first they distinguished them by no name or surname, for they were hitherto unacquainted with either; but they called them Gods, which by its etymology means disposers, from observing the orderly disposition and distribution of the various parts of the universe." It is easy here, I think, to recognize the planets, the disposers, the ./: smim, of the first book of Genesis.

* Seeley's Wonders of Ellora, Pp. 42, 305, 324, 326, 327, 549, &c.

** Euterpe, LII. p.377.

We have seen that the days of the week are, in the most remote corners of the world, called by the names of the same planets, and in the same order, and these planets after the same Gods. The universality of this shews its extreme antiquity—that in all probability it must have been adopted before the human race became divided into nations. But the fact that all these Gods were identified with the Bull of the Zodiac in some way or other, proves that they must have been adopted later than the time when the sun, at the vernal equinox, entered Taurus by the true Zodiac, which would be about 4700 years before Christ. … This consideration seems to offer something like a boundary to our researches; something like a distant view of our journey's end, which I agree with pleasure; for I think we can find no traces of any thing before the Tauric worship commenced. And this brings our chronology to agree, as near as can be expected, with the various systems. The eight ages, about the time of Augustus, cannot be doubted. If these were 600 years each—4800, and we add a thousand before the Tauric worship commenced for mankind to arrive at their then state of civilization, we shall not be very much out of the way in our calculations.

Page 269

As I have formerly said, the fact of Buddha giving name to one of the days of the week, Wednesday, fixes him to the very earliest period of which we have any record or probable tradition. He is acknowledged to be the Sun or the Surya, with seven heads, of Siam and Japan and Ceylon; and to be the son of Maia. Thoth or Teutates and Hermes are allowed to be identical, and Hermes is allowed to be Mercury; and Mercury is the God to whom Wednesday is dedicated, and the mother of Mercury is Maia. Sir William Jones clearly proved that the first Buddha was Woden, Mercury, and Fo, … Mr. Faber says, "The Egyptian cosmogony, like the Phœnician, is professedly of the Buddhic school : for the fullest account which we have of it is contained in a book ascribed to Hermes or Thoth : but Hermes or Thoth is the same person as Taut, who is said to have drawn up the Phœnician system : and Taut again is the same as the Oriental Tat or Buddha."*

* Pag. Idol. Vol. I. p.228.

The Tau, T, is the emblem of Mercury, of Hermes. It is the crux ansata, and the crux Hermis. It was the last letter of the ancient alphabets, the end or boundary, whence it came to be used as a terminus to districts : but the crux Tau was also the emblem of the generative power, of eternal transmigrating life, and thus was used indiscriminately with the Phallus. It was, in fact, the phallus. The Tau is the Thoth, the Teut, the Teutates of the Druids;* and Teutates was Mercury, in the Sanscrit called God or Somona-cod-om; and in German God. In old German Mercury was called Got. …

* See Herod. Euterpe, LI. P.375.

Page 270

… The accounts of the present Brahmins can be little dependent on. Of the minor details of their mythology they are totally ignorant. After a careful consideration of the work of the father of history, I have no doubt that the generality of priests in his day where as ignorant as the Brahmins in ours. The priests, whenever they were ignorant of a fact, coined a fable, which the credulous Greek believed and recorded; and which the still more absurdly credulous modern Christians continue to believe. Witness, as one of many examples, the history of Jupiter and Europa,* believed by classical scholars to have been actually a king and queen, to have reigned, had children, &c., &c.

* Drum. Orig. Vol. III. p.82

I cannot help thinking that even the oldest of both the Greek and Roman writers, unless I except Homer, were absolutely and perfectly ignorant of the nature of their Gods—whence they came, and of what they consisted. That the people by degrees emerging from barbarism began to open their eyes, they found them. They received the Gods from their ancestors, who, having no writers, transmitted their superstitions, but not the histories of their Gods. Whether the initiated into the mysteries were any wiser seems very doubtful. But I think it is possible that the only secrets were, the admission of their own ignorance and the maintenance of the doctrine respecting the nature of God (of which I shall treat hereafter) and in substance of the unity of God. …

I shall be told I have a theory. This is very true : but how is it possible to make any sense out of the mass of confusion without one ? And are not facts sufficient collected to found a theory upon ? My theory has arisen from a close attention to the facts which transpire from the writings of a vast variety of authors, and is, I think, a theory which will be found to be established by them. I have not first adopted my theory, and then invented my facts to confirm it. The facts have come first, and the theory is the consequence. Whether they be sufficient to support my theory, is the only question. This must be left to the reader. I feel confident that I can explain every thing which appears inconsistent with the theory, unless it be a very few of the histories of the inferior Gods, which may very well be supposed to have been mistaken or mistated, by the Priests, whose ignorance or deceit is acknowledged.

Page 271

Protestant priests for some years past have endeavoured to shew that the Mosaic accounts are to be found in India and generally among the Gentiles. What good this can do them cannot understand. However, they have certainly succeeded. The labours of the learned Spencer have shewn that there is no rite or ceremony directed in the Pentateuch, of which there is not an exact copy in the rites of Paganism. The Rev. R. Faber has proved that the Mythoses, as the Romish Dr. Geddes properly calls them, of the creation and the flood have their exact counterparts among the wild mythologies of the followers of Buddha and Cristna; and the history of the serpent and tree of life have been lately discovered by Mr. Wilson to be most correctly described on the ruins of the magnificent temple of Ipsambul in Nubia.* So that it is now certain, that all the first three books of Genesis must have come from India : the temple at Ipsampul, as well as the famous Memnon, being the work of the ancient Buddhists—the latter proved most satisfactorily by Mr. Faber.

* Wilson's Travels; Franklin's Researches on the Jeynes, p.127.

Page 272

After what the reader has seen he will not be surprised that I should have been struck most forcibly by an observation which seems casually given by M. Denon in his account of the Temples in Upper Egypt. He does not appear to have been aware of its importance, or, indeed, in a theological point of view, that it had any importance at all. In* speaking of a very beautiful small temple of the ancient Egyptians at Philoe, he says, "I found within it some remains of a domestic scene, which seemed to be that of Joseph and Mary, and it suggested to me the subject of the flight into Egypt, in a style of the UTMOST TRUTH and interest."

* The English Trans. By Arthur Aikin, 1803, Vol. II. Chap. xiv. P.169.

Page 273

In fig. 9 of the 52nd plate of the Supplement to Montfaucon's Antiquité Expliquée, there is a representation of Abraham sacrificing Isaac : but Abraham has not a sword or a knife, but a thunderbolt, in his hand. Can any thing be more clear than the makers of these very ancient gems considered that the story of Abraham covered a mythos ? Vishnu or Cristna is often represented with thunder and lightning in his hand—as in the act of giving the benediction with three fingers, and as wearing a triple crown.




Page 273

The following example of an Eastern mythos, in the West, will be thought not only curious, but will be found, in a future page, to involve some important consequences.

Mr. Moore says, "Sonnerat notices two basso-relievos placed at the entrance of the choir of Bourdeaux Cathedral : one represents the ascension of our Saviour to heaven on an Eagle : the other his descent, where he is stopped by Cerberus at the gates of hell, and Pluto is seen at a distance armed with a trident. In Hindu pictures, VICHNU, who is identified with Krishna, is often seen mounted on the Eagle GARUDA, sometimes with as well as without his consort Lakshmi.* And were a Hindoo artist to handle the subject of Krishna's descent to hell, which I never saw, he would most likely introduce Cerbura, the infernal three-headed dog of their legends, and Yama, their Pluto, with a trisula, or trident : a farther presumption of early intercommunication between the Pagans of the Eastern and Western hemispheres."** An account is given by Arrian of a visit of Alexander the Great to the cave of Prometheus on the borders of India.

* Whence comes the name of Cristna's consort Lakshmi ? We will write it as it may be pronounced, and we shall have no farther trouble—L'Akmè. it is not surprising that Wisdom, %.,( hkme, should be the wife of Cristna, the incarnation of Vishnu, the second person or the Logos of the Indian trinity; but it is very curious, indeed, that we should find it here in Greek and modern French. If this stood alone, it might be taken for accident, but wit its concomitant circumstances, this cannot be admitted. I believe the Lamed of the Hebrews is often used as an emblematic article, as it is in the Arabic, Italian, and French. It is an abbreviation of the Arabic Al. Thus we find it in the word Aceldama—Ac place of, al the, dama blood.

** Pantheon, p.214.

Page 274

In addition to what Mr. Moore and M. sonnerat have said, I beg to observe that Bourdeaux, in whose cathedral this Garuda was discivered by them, is watered by the river Garumna, evidently the Latinised Garuda or the Frenchised Garonne. It is situated in the department of the Gironde. Messrs. Sonnerat and Moore seem to have overlooked the striking names of the river and the department. … The eagle Garuda, as appears from Moore's Pantheon, is intimately blended with the history of Cristna in a variety of ways : and, if I mistake not, forms in the three facts of the Garuda at Bourdeaux on the Garumna, in the Gironde—of Alexander's visit—and of its connexion with the Cristna of India and the Cristna of Europe—a chain of evidence in proof of the intimate connexion between the East and the West; and equally so of the existence of Cristna and his mythos in India long previous to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth; though perhaps not of Jesus of Bethlehem. …

Prometheus formed the first woman, for the formation of whom he stole fire from heaven, &c., &c. The word Prometheus is the Sanscrit word PRAMATHAH or PRAMATHAS, which comes from PRA-MAT'HA-ISA, which coalescing, according to the rules of Sanscrit grammar, form PRAMATHESA. Now, Bra is the Siamese Pra, creator or former; Matha is Mati, in the Bali language Mother, and esa is Isa or Iscah or Eve or Isis—the whole meaning, maker of mother Eve or Isis. It is no small confirmation of what I have said, that Prometheus, the name of the Greek God, is Sanscrit;* as is also Deucalion, his son. The latter is Deo-cala-yun or Deo-Cala-Yavana.

Page 273

Mr. Faber* says, "The close resemblance of the whole Levitical ceremonial to the ceremonial in use among the Gentiles has often been observed, and has differently been accounted for. This resemblance is so close and so perfect, that it is alike absurd to deny its existence, as to ascribe it to mere accident. The thing itself is an incontrovertible matter of fact : and it is a fact which might at first seem to be of so extraordinary a nature, that we are imperiously called on to account for it." Again he says,** "Spencer has shewn at full length, that there is scarcely a single outward ordinance of the Mosaical law, which does not minutely correspond with a parallel outward ordinance of Gentilism."

* Orig. Pag. Idol. Vol. III p.624. ** Ibid. p.629.

Mr. Maurice says,* "After all, we must own, with Calmet, that the temple of the great Jehovah had many decorations similar to those in the hallowed temples of Asia. He was served there, says the last cited author, with all the pomp and splendour of an Eastern monarch. He had his table, his perfumes, his throne, his bed-chamber, his offices, his singing-men and his singing-women."

* Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p.174.

Page 276

… But by and by I shall shew from what patriarchal religion these Mosaic rites were derived.*

* … The esoteric religion was a masonic mystery; I am under no tie, and I will explain to the world what it really was.

Page 277

The philosophy in question taught that matter itself was eternal, but that it was liable to endless changes and modifications; that over it a demiurgic INTELLIGENCE presided, who, when a world was produced out of chaos, manifested himself at the commencement of that world as the great universal father both of men and animals : that, during the existence of the world, every thing in it was undergoing a perpetual change : no real destruction of any substance taking place, but only a transmutation of it : that, at the end of a certain appointed great period, the world was destined to be reduced to its primeval material chaos : that the agent of its dissolution was a flood either of water or fire : that at this time all its inhabitants perished; and the great father, the Brahme-Mai, from whose soul the soul of every man was excerpted, (i.e. emanated,) and into whose soul the soul of every man must finally be resolved, was left in the solitary majesty of abstracted meditation : that, during the prevalence of the deluge and the reign of chaos, he floated upon the surface of the mighty deep, the being on which he reposed being represented by a ship, a lotus, an egg, the sea-serpent, the navicular leaf, or the lunar crescent : that the two generative powers of nature, the male and the female, were then reduced to their simplest principles, and were in a state of mystic conjunction brooding on the surface of the deep. The Brahme-Maia or Great Father was but mystically alone : for he comprehended within his own essence three filial emanations, and was himself conspicuous in eight distinct forms : that at the close of a divine year, the deluge abating, the Great Father awaked to the reforming of the world out of the chaotic mass; and that he appeared with his three emanations,* and his eight forms,** as he had appeared at the commencement of former worlds : that this new world was destined to run the same course as former worlds : that this alternation of destruction and reproduction, was eternal both retrospectively and prospectively : that to destroy was, consequently, nothing more than to create under a new form.*** This is the doctrine which Mr. Faber supposes was taught in the ancient mysteries, except my leaving out and altering some trifling parts forced in to suit it to his particular theory. But it will not be denied to be on the whole a sublime system. It has the merit, too, of being, when thus corrected, nearly the true system of the first sages of antiquity.

* Powers. The forming power, the preserving power, and the destroying power; attributes of omnipotence.

** The planetary substances having form, his Angels or Messengers, the 0*/: smin.

*** Orig. Pag. Idol. Vol. III. p.117.

Page 278

The following account of the Hebrew and Indian Trinities, according to Mr. Faber, is very striking :

… "We are taught on the one hand, that Brahma, Vishnou, and Siva, are essentially but a single person; and this single person in Brahm, who unites in himself the divided attributes of the three; and that the triplicated Brahm is materially the World, astronomically the Sun, and mystically the great hermaphrodite, who is equally the father and the mother of the universe. But we are told, on the other hand, that Menu-Swayambhuva is conjointly and individually Brahma, Vishnou, and Siva; that he had three sons, who sprang in a mortal shape from his body, and who named his three daughters; and that these three sons were severally Brahma, Vishnou, and Siva.

Page 279

"Such are the declarations of the Hindoo theologists; and the inference to be drawn them is abundantly obvious. Since Brahma, Vishnou, and Siva, are conjointly Menu-Swayambhuva; and since they are also conjointly the imagined supreme God Brahm; it is evident, that Brahm and Menu-Swayambhuva must really be the same person. And again, since Brahman, Vishnou, and Siva, are severally the three sons of Menu-Swayambhuva; and since they are also three supposed emanations from Brahm; it must plainly follow, that the famous triad of Hindoo theology, which some have incautiously deemed a corrupt imitation of the Trinity, is really composed of the three sons of a mere mortal, who, under the name of Menu, is described as the general ancestor of mankind. Brahm then at the head of the Indian triad, is Menu at the head of his three sons. But that by the first Menu we are to understand Adam is evident, both from the no less remarkable tradition that one of his three sons was murdered by his brother at a sacrifice. Hence it will follow that Brahm, at the head of the Indian triad, is Adam at the head of his three sons, Cain, Abel, and Seth."*

* Faber, Orig. Pag. Idol. Pp. 117, 118.

Again, Mr. Faber says, "Each Menu, however, with his triple offspring, is only the reappearance of a former Menu with his triple offspring; for, in every such manifestation at the commencement of each Manwantara, the Hindoo Trimurti or Triad becomes incarnate, by transmigrating from the human bodies occupied during a prior incarnation; Brahm or the unity appearing as the paternal Menu of a new age, while the triad of Brahma, Vishnou, and Siva, is exhibited in the persons of his three sons. The first Menu, therefore, with his three sons, must be viewed as reappearing in the characters of Menu-Satyavrata and his triple offspring—Sama, Cama, and Pra-Japati. But the ark-preserved Menu-Satyavrata and his three sons, are certainly Noah and his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet. Hence again it will follow, since Menu-Satyavrata is only a reappearance of Menu-Adima, and since the triplicated Menu-Adima is the same as the triplicated Brahm, that Brahm at the head of the Indian triad is likewise Noah at the head of his three sons."*

* Faber, Orig. Pag. Idol. p.119.

Notwithstanding the nonsense in the above extracts about Brahm being the world, &c., and the ingenious misrepresentation that Brahm is not the true God, enough transpires to shew that the mythoses of the Israelites and of the Brahmins are essentially the same. When this is added to the general character of the history, of the serpent, of the tree of knowledge, &c., &c., and to the proof which has been given by Sir W. Drummond, in his Œdipus Judaicus, that the names of the persons and places in Genesis have astronomical meanings, I think no one can hesitate to agree with the ANCIENT JEWS AND FATHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, that the whole is allegory. … How surprising that a man of learning and talent like Mr. Faber should succeed in persuading himself that the Platos and Ciceros of antiquity, were contemptible enough to adore three or four old women and a rotten ship !

Page 280

The similarity of the numbers, in the Mosaic history, with the numbers constantly recurring in the Hindoo systems, seems very striking. Here are Adam and his three sons, and Noah and his three sons, each class answering to Brahm and his three emanations—Brahma, Vishnou, and Siva. There are eight persons in the ark, answering to the sun and seven planetary bodies. But whether the histories of Adam and Noah and their families were taken from the metaphysical and profound theory of the hermaphroditic creator, preserver, and destroyer—the sun presiding over the planetary system; or, the recondite system was formed, and the sun and planets numbered after him and his family, I leave to every person to judge of as he thinks proper. …

The book of Genesis was considered by most, if not all, of the ancient Jewish philosophers and Christian fathers as an allegory. For persons using their understandings, to receive it in a literal sense, was impossible : and when, we find modern Christians so receiving it, we only find a proof that, with the mass of mankind, reason has nothing to do with religion, and that the power of education is so great, as in most cases to render the understanding useless. In the Jewish religion, as in all other religions, there was an esoteric and an exoteric meaning of its dogmas.

Page 281

… If the reader will consult the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, particularly Volume IV., he will find innumerable proofs that the Grecian histories, equally with the Mosaic and Hindoo mythologies, are most of them drawn from the same common fountain, in Upper India, about Balk, and Samarkand. The same universal system pervaded the whole, and, no doubt, had its origin in ancient Buddhism.

That the Mosaic ceremonies were the same as those of the Gentiles, has been proved by Spencer, Faber, and other learned divines, beyond dispute. This being the fact, it does not seem surprising that the doctrines of the two should also partake of the same character, when stripped of the corruptions which the priests and the infirmities of humanity have introduced into them. We see not only the same fundamental Trinity, but we see the same system of concealment under apparently absurd mythoses or allegorical representations,—absurd, indeed, to outward appearance, but probably, if perfectly understood, covering a system of wisdom and truth. …




Page 283

Every one knows the violent altercations which have taken place among learned Christians, almost from the beginning of Christianity, respecting the last eight verses of the first and the whole of the second chapter of Matthew—and the whole of the second, and all the first chapter, except the first four verses of Luke. Great numbers of men, of first-rate character for learning and talent, have declared them and proved them spurious, men who have shewn their sincerity by the resignation of rich livings rather than appear to tolerate them against their consciences.* Some interesting questions have naturally suggest themselves. What are those chapters ? Are they mere forgeries of the orthodox ? Why should the orthodox wish for an immaculate conception or a divine incarnation ? They would have been just as rich and powerful without these doctrines. I cannot think they were mere forgeries. They have no appearance of any such thing. Then what are they ?

* Amongst whom were Lindsey, Disney, Jebb, and Frend.

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… And I think if a person will pay but very little attention, he must see that the incarnation described in these chapters was but the counterpart or repetition of former incarnations, or extraordinary conceptions, such for instance as that of Isaac or Samuel, or Buddha, or Cristna, or Pythagoras—the arrival of the three Magi, with the gifts sacred to the God Sol, or Mithra—the episode of Anna or the year, and Phanuel, or Phan, our God—of John having the power of God Ieu (Elijah) &%*-! alieu. All this dovetails very well into the remainder of the Gentile history, and proves these chapters to have a secret meaning, and to refer to the prophecies alluded to above. It all tends to prove the truth, a truth of which I have no doubt, that an identical secret system pervaded the whole world; singular as it may appear, in its universal extension, perhaps, unknown to the world. We have most unquestionably the same prophecy in Ireland, in Greece, in Persia, in Judæa, in Italy, and in India. But we have no reason to believe that any nation had merely copied the prophecy of the other nations. … I should set it down as part of the secret mysteries, without any difficulty; but I cannot help believing that the mysteries, the real meaning of the Gods, &c., was actually lost. …

I must now once more bring back the attention of my reader to the curly-headed, flat-faced, thick-lipped, black-skinned Buddha, almost forgotten. … This Negro God cannot have been the only Negro East of the Indus, without some cause. On this subject credible history is silent. Let us try if we can form a theory.

… Now I suppose, that man was originally a Negro, and that he improved as years advanced and he travelled Westwards, gradually changing, from the jet black of India, through all the intermediate shades of Syria, Italy, France, to the fair white and red of the maid of Holland and Britain. On the burning sands and under the scorching sun of Africa, he would probably stand still, if he did not retrograde. But the latter is most likely to have happened; and, accordingly, we find him an unimproved Negro, mean in understanding, black in colour. …In the rich soils of India, unfit for pasturage or hunting, but well calculated for the operations of agriculture, distinctions of rich and poor would much sooner arise than among the nomade or wandering tribes; and as soon as a class became rich, the natural propensity would operate in causing the most handsome of the males, which would be the rich, those who were well fed and lived without labour, to couple with the most handsome of the females. This cause, in long periods of time, constantly acting, produced a great improvement in the human form. The scorching climate kept man black; but, by degrees, the curly hair, flat face, and thick lips, yielded to the improved appearance of the present race.

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When the Equinoctial Sun entered Taurus, he found man in India, like the first Buddha, a Negro; when he entered Aries, he found him black, it is true, but with the aquiline nose and long hair of the handsome Cristna. The God of wood, of stone, of gold, stood still : the man in the space of 2160 years, perhaps of peace and prosperity, had materially improved. Not so the curly-haired man of Africa. Every thing tended to the improvement of the former, every thing to stop the improvement of the latter. In the African Ethiopia he remains a curly-headed black. In Egypt he formerly was so; as the Memnon, Sphinxes, &c., prove. But in Egypt, where he became rich and civilized, and where good farinaceous food was grown, the same effects, in a great measure, took place as in India : and if he be not quite black, the mixture of white Europeans, and, comparatively speaking, white Turks, will account for the difference. It has been observed, that the figures in the old caves of India are representations of a very different race from the present inhabitants; that, although the figures possess a graceful elegance of form, yet a remarkable difference may be observed in the countenance, which is broad and full : the nose flat : the lips, particularly the under lip, remarkably thick, and the whole very unlike the present natives of Hindostan.*

* Maur. Ant. Hind. Vol. II. p.376.

The opinion which I have given, is supported by the ingenious Dr. Pritchard, in his Researches into the Physical History of Man, p. 41. He says, "The perception of beauty is the chief principle, in every country, which directs men in their marriages. It is very obvious that this peculiarity in the constitution of man, must have considerable effects on the physical character of the race, and that it must act as a constant principle of improvement." … Again, "The noble families of modern Persia were originally descended from a tribe of ugly and bald-headed Mongoles. They have constantly selected for their harams the most beautiful females of Circassia. The race has been thus greatly ameliorated, and is said now to exhibit fine and comely persons."

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Dr. Pritchard* has observed, that the Brahmins are, as might be expected, the finest formed race in India. He has also shewn, in a very satisfactory manner,** that the ancient Egyptians, the masters of Thebes, were Negroes—or, that they were black, with curly heads.

* P. 390. ** Sect. v. p.376.

Col. Wilford says, "It cannot reasonably be doubted that a race of Negroes had formerly pre-eminence in India."* These were the inhabitants of India in the time of the curly-headed Buddha, who was succeeded, after 2160 years, by the long-haired Cristna—one an incarnation of the solar God in Taurus, the other in Aries.

* Asiat. Res. Vol. III.

Thus I account for the Negro Buddha, and for the handsome, though black, Cristna.*

* It is remarkable that the Abyssinian or Ethiopian has always continued the Indian Sanscrit custom of writing his letters from left to right, in the syllabic form retaining the vowels. This appears to have been a remnant of the first Buddhism of India. Much will be said upon this subject by and by, and the reason of the change in the custom of other nations shewn.

The shocking state of degradation into which the religion of the Brahmins has sunk, gives a plausible appearance of truth to the rantings of our Missionaries; but, nevertheless, the religion of Brahma is no more idolatrous than the religion of the Romish Church. Abul Fazil, a Mahometan author, in the Ayeen Akbery, states, that the opinion that the Hindoos are Polytheists has no foundation in truth, but that they are worshipers of God, and only one God. They maintain (with all enlightened followers of the Romish Church), that images are only representations of the great Being, to which they turn whilst at prayer, in order to prevent their thoughts from wandering. They hold that "the Being of beings is the only God, eternal, and every where present, who comprises every thing; there is no God but HE."* …

* Crawford's Researches, Vol. I pp.200-220.

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The following is the most celebrated verse of the Vedas, called the Gayatri : "Let us adore the supremacy of the divine Sun, the Godhead who illuminates all, from whom all proceed, to whom all must return, whom we invoke to direct our understanding aright in our progress toward his holy seat."* On this Sir William Jones says, "The many panegyrics on the Gayatri, the Mother, as it is called, of the Vedas, prove the author to have adored, not the visible sun, but that divine and incomparably greater light which illuminates all, delights all, from which all proceed, to which all must return, and which alone can irradiate (not our visual organs merely, but our souls and) our intellects. These may be considered as the words of the most venerable text in the Indian Scripture."** The words in italics mark the words of the Veda text.

* Moore, Panth. p.410 ** Ibid.

If we are to believe our priests, at the same time that nothing can be more pure than our religion, or more charitable than themselves, nothing can be more horrible than the religion of practices of the wicked Heathens. Yet it is worthy of observation, that we curse sinners on Ash Wednesday, and our enemies whenever we are at war : but when the Athenians in a moment of fury ordered the priestess to curse Alcibiades for having insulted the mysteries, she REFUSED—saying, she was the priestess of prayers, not of curses.* The passage in Martianus Capella, cited in Chap. II. Sect. 8, shews that the Pagans were no more Idolators than the modern Romans.

* Plutarch, apud Payne Knight on Sym. S. lvii. N.

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The oldest and wisest of the Grecian philosophers taught the very best parts of the Christian morality, many hundred years before Jesus was born. Pythagoras said, that the best way for a man to revenge himself of his enemies was to make them friends : and Socrates, whose character has been vindicated from reproach by Dean Prideaux,* says in the Crito, that it is not permitted to a man who has received an injury to return it by doing another. An able defence of Socrates may be found in the Travels of Mr. Buckingham to India, published in 1829.

* Vide Moyle's Works, Vol. II. p.77.

The liberal and benign doctrine of the followers of Brahma, in its original purity, can never be too much praised, and must fill every one with admiration. No doubt in succeeding ages its corrupt and mercenary priests engrafted into it, as we see daily to take place in all religions, and wherever priests are concerned, doctrines and practices utterly repugnant to the mild spirits of its founders. Those founders maintained that all religion come from God, and that all modes of adoring him, when springing from an upright heart, are acceptable to him. Their enlightened followers still affirm that "the Deity is present with the Mahometan in the mosque counting his beads, and equally in the temple at the adoration of the idols; the intimate Musselman and the friend of the Hindoo; the companion of the Christian, and the confidant of the Jew." They are of opinion that he has many times appeared and been incarnate in the flesh, not only in this world, but in others, for the salvation of his creatures; and that both Christians and Hindoos adore the same God, under different forms.*

* Maurice, Hist. Ind. 4to. Vol. II. p.301; see Anathema, 1 Cor. xvi. 22 !!!

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There is in the Geeta, (p. 81,) a sentiment which is peculiar to the religion of Brahma, and which (at least if the happiness of mankind in this world is to be considered as one object or end of religion) places it above all others. Happy, indeed, would it have been for the world had the Mahomedan and Christian religions contained this most admirable and benevolent doctrine. The Deity speaks—"They, who serve even other Gods with a firm belief, in doing so, involuntarily worship me. I am he who partaketh of all worship, and I am their reward."* How admirable is this sentiment ! How superior to the Jewish doctrine of a jealous God, improperly adopted by Christians ! and how true ! True, at least, if benevolence, justice, and mercy, are the attributes of the Creator. For the peace and happiness of mankind in this world, it may safely be affirmed that, in all the Jewish, Christian, and Mahomedan religions, there is no dogma of half so much importance, or which has been of the twentieth part of the utility, as this would have been, had it been taught in those religions. Yet there is a very fine and nearly similar sentiment in the Koran :

"If God had pleased, he surely had made you one people : but he hath thought it fit to give you different laws, that he might try you in that which he hath given you respectively. Therefore strive to excel each other in good works; unto God shall ye return, and then will he declare unto you that concerning which ye have disagreed."** How supperior is this to the faith without woks of our modern and fashionable fanatics !***

* Maurice, Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p.1052.

** Koran, Ch. v. p.131.

*** On the subject of the Koran, the Apology for the Life and Character of Mohamed, by the author of this work, may be consulted.

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If the work which is now presented to the world be executed with any tolerable degree of talent, no doubt the author will be honoured like M. Volney with the abuse of the priests. It will be said that he has violated the truth of history; that he hates the religion of Jesus, &c., &c. That he has violated the truth of history intentionally he utterly denies. He equally denies that he hates the religion of Jesus. He does hate the hypocrisy of its priests, and the intolerance of their, not its, principles—as, on the contrary, he loves the liberality and tolerating spirit of the ancient, uncorrupted religion of the Buddhist or Brahmin; which teaches that God is equally Father of the devout and sincere Chinese, Brahmin, Christian, and Deist; which contains no creed inculcating that except a man believe this or that he cannot be saved; a creed whose tendency is to fill the world with war and bloodshed, and to sacrifice, indeed, the best interests of society to those of a corrupt and pernicious order or corporation.


Link to Volume I - Book VI.