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Godfrey Higgins



(Volume I [867 pages], Volume II [525 pages])




Page 1

I shall in this Chapter submit to my reader some observations relating to the ancient Sacæ of Tartary or North India. These observations will be of importance in the discussion of the Origin of Letters, which will be contained in a future Book; and also of the first importance in the two following Books, the object of which be to shew, that a real, not a poetical, age of gold—an age of learning, peace, and civilization—once existed; and that this was under the rule of a sacerdotal caste or order which governed the whole world, and which originated the feudal system. I shall also shew, that all the sacred numbers and cycles were intimately connected with, and indeed partly arose out of, a microcosmic theory, named by Plato in his Timæus, which was part of the secret doctrine of Genesis; and the whole of this I shall also shew was intimately connected with the feudal system. I fear the extracts from Georgius will be found by many of my readers tedious; but as proofs of my system, from an unwilling witness, they are of the first importance, and cannot be dispensed with.

We have seen (Vol. I. p. 153,) that one of the most common names of Buddha was Sacya (the name of the Lama of Tibet) and Saca, and Saca-sa. From this name of Buddha it was that the tribe who inhabited an extensive country east of the Caspian Sea and north of Tibet, were called Sacæ. (Vide Ptolemy.) This was the hive whose castes are yet found in the West, called Saxons, having, as Dr. Geddes says, the Hebrew language. They were the Belgic Suessones of Gaul; one of their capitals was Soissons : they were called Sausen by the Welsh, Sacon by the Scotch, and Sasenach or Saxsenach by the Irish. They are the people said by Herodotus to be the same as the Scythians.*

* Guérin de Rocher, Vol. I. p.152.

Page 2

Dr. Scheller maintains the whole of Europe to have been occupied by the Saxons before the arrival of the Celts.* But they were, in fact, both tribes of the same people. Scythians, Celts, Saxons, were successive castes or swarms from the same hive. If there were any difference, it was merely in the time of their arrival in the West. …

* Foreign Quart. Rev., July 1831, p.224.; and Vallancey Coll. Hib. Vol. V. pp. 12, 32, 49, 181, 182.

They were castes or swarms sent out in succession, from a great and excessively populous hive in Tartary or North India—the country of the thousand cities of Strabo. … They were the subjects of the only civilized nation on the earth. They took with them every where their manners, government, language, religion, and allegiance to their supreme head, as our colonies all retain their allegiance to the mother country. They at first nowhere found any of their own high caste, none in fact but such persons as we found in America—Aborigines, as we call them. They met with no resistance; but, by degrees, as the world became peopled with the successors of previous tribes of their own countrymen, and land scare, wars for possession began to arise. This I shall discuss, however, in my next Book.

The word Saca is the same as the Hebrew word %,: ske, imaginari, and scio, to contemplate,* and the Greek ginwscw—in short, mind, constantly confounded with wisdom. The root is ,: sk, whence came -,: skl, wisdom,** and our skill. Saca is sax; and sakl or skl, or skill or cunning or knowledge or scientia or wisdom, in any art, is X or Xaca, KL, which means the cal or wisdom of X; and KL is X=600, L=50, =650 : and the KL-di is the origin, in its most remote degree, of the Calidei or Chaldeans. I promised this explanation in Book IX. Chap. I. Sect. I; Callidè (wisely), cunning, king, incarnation of wisdom or cunning. …

* Parkhurst, p.733; vide Littleton's Dict. ** Parkhurst, p.734.

Page 3

In the time of the Pharaohs the Egyptians had a class of persons called Sages or wise men.*

* Abbé de Rocher, Vol. V. p.173.

Considering that Saca means Buddha the God of Wisdom, I cannot much doubt that the Irish Sagan, a priest, the Scandinavian Saga, the Hebrew 01. sgn, noble or great man, are all the same.

There is scarcely a corner of the globe where the doctrines of Wisdom may not, as a mythos, be found. My learned friend Eusèbe de Salverte* has clearly proved that, by the Sagas of the Scandinavians, the books of Wisdom are meant—the word Saga being the same as the French sagesse and the Latin sagax.

* Essai sur les noms, Vol. II. pp. 373, 375, 381, 385.

Page 4

Anciently all priests were physicians, and were called Hakim : (as physicians are yet called in the East) but this word always conveys with it a sacredness of character. This is all in keeping with their Gods—Odin, Woden, Thor; with the Budwas Trigeranos in Wales, and the Old Man Budda in Scotland; and these came with the first or the second tribe of Saxons to the north of Germany and to Britain.

Strabo says,* "ALL the tribes eastward of the Caspian Sea are called Scythic : the Daæ next to the sea, and the Sacæ more eastward : but every tribe has a particular name; all are nomadic." It is inattention to this which causes all our confusion. We have here the Clans of Scotland, and the Tribes of Bedoween Arabs. The Sacæ, pronounces in Sanscrit like our Sak-hæ,** have made in Asia irruptions similar to those of the Cimmerians : thus they possessed themselves of Bactria, and the district of Armenia, called after them Sacasena. This word, I believe, is only Sacas-ana, country of Sacas. I have no doubt that when nomade tribes were driven out of the lands which they loosely settled, they passed, like the Israelites from Egypt, through countries occupied by other tribes, in search of new habitations, till they could go no farther; then a desperate struggle took place for the possession of the extreme country : thus Saxons arrived in Germany and Britain, from countries the most remote.

*Lib. xi. ** Tod'd Hist. Raj. 59.



Page 5

Georgius says,* "Pho-tha Sinica voce dictus Budda." (This Pho-tha is evidently the Phtha or Thas of Egypt.**) …

* Georgius, Alph. Tib. p.745 ** p. 747.

Georgius,* without having the slightest suspicion of the nature of my theory, states his opinion that the Kam-deva is derived from, or is the same as, the .,( hkm or wisdom of the Chaldee. It is very certain that, if my theory be right, every deity resolves into the Sun; each one of their names, either directly or indirectly, ought to have the meaning of wisdom.** Kam !-5 pla, sapienta.

* Ibid. III. p.728. ** See also ibid. 750.

Page 7

It is said of Mani that he left a book of paintings. In one of the apocryphal Gospels Jesus is said to have been the son of a Dyer or a Painter, another of a Potter, in the four of a Carpenter, and in all of an Artificer. Georgius says, " … [one full paragraph written in Latin]."* Here we find Brahma and Buddha both having the meaning of the word Book. Here is confirmed what I have before said that Veda is Beda or Buddha. The book of the Manichæans was called the treasure, and being a Veda would be a treasure of Wisdom. Bacchus is called Liber, !," bka and ;&; tut, which in Chaldee mean Morus, the name of the Morea of Greece.** … It was probably thus designated because it had the same name as the God of Wisdom. Brahma is the same as Brahaspati, who is worshiped the same day as Suarasuoti, (Sara-iswati,) the Dea scientiarum; from this, Georgius says, he thinks the word Brahma came to mean Scientia. The truth is, wherever Scientia is found, Sapienta may be written.***

* Tib. Alph. ** Vall. Coll. Hib. Vol. IV. Part i. p.265. *** Georg. P.114.

Page 8

Brahma is said to have been the inventor of Hymns and Verses, and the Brahmins are not permitted to recite but only to sing the Vedas. …

Brahma carries a book as an emblem. This was because he was the first emanation or divine Wisdom, and the Wisdom contained in the Veda or Book of Wisdom came from him. Hence, in Greece, Bacchus or Brahme was called Liber.*

* Vide Georg. Alph. Tib. p.114.

Page 9

The Scala or ladder, formerly alluded to in Vol. I …, I believe signified a chain or ladder or transmigration, by which the soul climbed up to heaven,* and that Scala or Sacala is Xaca-clo, and came to mean a ladder, or the ladder of the Mount of Solyma, or Peace or Salvation, from the ladder of metamorphoses or regenerations. The system of regeneration is exactly that of a ladder. The dream of Jacob, with the seventy-two angels ascending and descending, the mysticism of which no one will deny, alludes to this : the Xaca-clo is the series of ten regenerations, which the Brahmins taught that every human being passed through. … In Vol. I. …, I represented the double trinity and the system of emanations to form a chain, the last link forming the first link of the second; and thus the whole system, beginning at the To On, formed a chain or a ladder from the highest to the lowest.

* Vide Georgius Alph. Tib. Ap. iii. p.678.

Page 10

The whole of what we have seen respecting Saca and the Saxons, must be considered as a preparation for an inquiry into a Pontifical government, (to be developed in a future book,) which was brought with the feudal system to England and Europe, long before the time of Cæsar. It will be found useful also in considering the origin of letters.




Page 10

… The existence of the mythos, which I shall now exhibit, in Egypt, easily accounts for and explains all these hitherto inexplicable remains of the Jewish and Christian mythos, on the ancient temples in Upper Egypt and in Nubia. As might be expected, the prejudices of education have operated on the learned German Heeren, to blind him to the Jewish and Christian mythos; but yet, in one instance, the truth involuntarily creeps out. He says, "Another field opens itself here for divines, if they would like to compare the religious notions of ancient Thebes with the descriptions given by the Jews of their sanctuaries, the tabernacle, the temple, and the sacred utensils.

"This is not the place for a comparison of this kind : but how many things described in the Scriptures do we find in these engravings ! the ark of the covenant (here carried in procession), the cherubim with their extended wings, the holy candlesticks, the shew bread, and many parts of the sacrifices ! In the architecture itself a certain similarity is instantly recognised, although among the Jews every thing was on a smaller scale."* In his maps the temples of Meroe, in several instances, appear built in the exact cross-form of our churches.

* Heeren, on Egypt, Vol. II. p.297.

After finding the Judæan mythos, the mythos which Eusebius asserts existed before Abraham, in North and South India, and in China, it would have been singular if it had not been found in Egypt. This singularity had been proved not to exist by the Abbé Guérin de Rocher, who has undertaken to shew, in his work called Histoire des Temps Fabuleux, that the history of Egypt, detailed by Herodotus, Diodorus, Suidas, Manetho, &c., is not a true history of Egypt, but a mere travesty of the history of the Jews; and however much I may differ from him, both generally and in many particulars, yet I think he has proved his case, so far as to shew, that the two were, in many instances, substantially the same, as they ought to be, if they were nothing but a repetition of the same mythos; but which they could not possibly be, and be at the same time both true histories of countries, as he justly observes. All this tends strongly to prove that Herodotus was really the father of history, the first real historian : all the works before his, being mere mythoses, founded on the traditionary, unwritten stories of each country, detailed by the priests for the purpose of religion, not of history.

Page 15

The Egyptian history is evidently a garbled, and, in many respects, a confused misrepresentation of the same history or mythos as that of the Jews; the Abbé attributes this misrepresentation to the ignorance of the Egyptians in the Jewish language, but who, on the contrary, must have been well acquainted with it, as appears from their names of men and places, which are almost all Hebrew. It is much more probably attributable to the ignorance of the four Greek authors, who evidently betray their ignorance in a variety of ways, and indeed confess it. But the fact that they are, at the bottom, the same mythoses or histories cannot be doubted. Here, then, we find the reason why the Jewish prophet, Isaiah xix. 18, says, that the true God should be adored, or was adored at five temples in the land of Egypt; and here we find the reason of the pictures of the Judæan mythos in Egypt in several of my groups of figures, and of the Judæan names of towns, mountains, and districts, which I have before pointed out, and here we find the meaning of the expression in the Apocalypse, the Lord crucified in Egypt.

… And here we have Herodotus searching for history in Egypt, deceived by a mythos, the same as a mythos in Syria : and, if it were not a mythos, what could induce the priests of Egypt to have given Herodotus a story in which Abraham, Sarah, and the other persons, in the Syrian history, were actors, as Egyptian history ? Why did they not give the history, or the greatest part of it, correctly, as we have it in Genesis, instead of travestying it ? … but we can have no difficulty in finding the remainder of the mythos of North and South India, in the death and resurrection of Orus and Osiris. The Abbé observes,* that the different histories are confused, but that certain of the kings are but repetitions of Moses; that is, reincarnations of the Saviour. They are merely renewed incarnations—of course as we have found them in India—all having a family likeness.**

* P. 138.

** In Egypt there was a Cashmouric district, that is, District of Cashmere.—Spineto's Lectures on Hieroglyphics, p.87.

Page 16

The Abbé de Rocher shews that several kings are copies of Abraham, several of Joseph, several of Moses, &c., and that Joseph was the Proteus of the Egyptians and Greeks. He observes that Joseph was called a saviour, and this, from the peculiarity of his story, would be of no consequence; but the Abbé artlessly observes, which is indeed of great consequence, that St. Jerom calls Joseph Redemptor Mundi—here evidently letting the secret of the mythos escape him. The Abbé was not aware of the consequence of shewing that Moses and Joseph are repeatedly described, by different persons, particularly the latter, as a saviour. He has no knowledge of the new incarnations. Both Moses and Joseph are appellative terms, made into proper names. This raises a probability that the same history was told to the people every 600 years; and if the art of writing were not known by them, it is not surprising that they should have believed it.

Page 17

Eutychius says,* that the first city built by Noah was Thebes, which he called Thamanim. This is strongly confirmatory of the theory of the Abbé de Rocher, and of my system, that the whole mythic history has been in Egypt : but, as we might expect, accommodated to its local and other circumstances.

* See Vol. I. p.755.

Speaking of the Egyptians, it is said by another learned Abbé, the Abbé Bazin,* that the words I am that I am, were on the front of the temple of Isis at Sais, and that the name esteemed the most sacred by the Egyptians was that which the Hebrews adopted, Y-HA-HO. He says, it is variously pronounced : but Clement of Alexandria, assures us, in his Stromatis, that all those who entered into the temple of Serapis, were obliged to wear on their persons, in a conspicuous situation, the name I-ha-ho, or I-ha-hou, which signifies the God eternal. From this, I think, we may fairly infer, that the Egyptians were of the same religion, in its fundamentals, as the Jews. An attentive consideration of the passage of the book of Esther, where the Persian idolaters are described as being put to death, will, I think, justify me in saying, that it affords grounds for the opinion, that they were the same. The book of Esther appears to have been part of the chronicles of the kings of Persia, adopted by the Jews into their canon, evidently to account for their feast of Purim.

* Translation from his Ms. by Henry Wood Gandell, printed for North, Paternoster Row, 1829, p.130.

Page 19

I think it expedient here to add some observations from another learned Abbé respecting the Grecian Bacchus. In Bacchus we evidently have Moses. Herodotus says he was an Egyptian, brought up in Arabia Felix. The Orphic verses relate that he was preserved from the waters, in a little box or chest, that he was called Misem in commemoration of this event; that he was instructed in all the secrets of the Gods; and that he had a rod, which he changed into a serpent at his pleasure; that he passed through the Red Sea dry-shod, as Hercules subsequently did, in his goblet, through the Straits of Abila and Calpe; and that when he went into India, he and his army enjoyed the light of the Sun during the night : moreover, it is said, that he touched with his magic rod the waters of the great rivers Orontes and Hydaspes; upon which those waters flowed back and left him a free passage. It is even said that he arrested the course of the sun and moon. He wrote his laws on two tables of stone. He was anciently represented with horns or rays on his head.*

* Abbé Bazin, by Wood Gandell, p.158. This ought to have come in another part of this work, but like many other passages it was not copied till the other parts were printed.

Page 20

The learned writer, in the Edinburgh Encyclopædia, whom I have several times before quoted, says,* "By the description above translated, (the passage of Clemens relating to hieroglyphics,) it plainly appears that the sacred character of the Egyptians was entirely different from the hieroglyphic : and by this consideration we are in good measure justified in supposing, as we have done all along, that the sacred letters of the Egyptians were actually the Chaldaic. The inscriptions on the obelisks, mentioned by Cassiodorus, so often quoted, were certainly engraved in the sacred character; and the character in which they were drawn was the above-mentioned. If the sacred letters were Chaldaic, the sacred language was probably the same."

* Art. Phil. S. 73.

It is a very remarkable circumstance that we should here find the old Hebrew or Chaldee language, for they were both the same, to be the oldest used in Egypt. … The fact was, I have no doubt, that the language was the ancient Coptic, which was Hebrew or Chaldee. I do not speak of the forms of the letters used, because these were changed by caprice every day; nor, indeed, of the written language; for it must have been a Masonic secret. I cannot doubt that 1000 years before the captivity, the Chaldee, the Hebrew, the Syriac, and the Coptic, were all the same language.

I beg my reader would now reconsider the circumstances, that we have found a repetition of the same mythos of Moses, &c., &c., in several countries; secondly, that the voyages of salvation or processions about the country, or Diesuls, as they are called in Britain, are found in most countries; and, thirdly, that it appears probable, from the practice of the Roman Church in scenically representing all the acts of the Saviour in the course of every year, that these processions or relations of the Mosaic history in the different countries, were originally nothing more than the scenical representation of the first mythos, which probably arose originally in Ayoudia, and in the process of time come to be believed by the people who performed them. The scenical representation arose before the knowledge of letters, and was invented in order to keep the scheme from being lost; and I think it not at all unlikely, that the whole vulgar mythos of an incarnated person was a parable, invented by the philosophers for the purpose of keeping their refined and beautiful doctrines, and their cycles and astronomy, from being lost. …

Page 21

… When Egypt was divided into small states, each would have its Saviour, its voyage of Salvation, or Die-sul, or holy procession, its Olympus, Meru, &c., and its mythos of an immaculate conception, crucifixion, resurrection, &c., &c. : but when it became united under one head, it would have, as we read, one for the whole country, which annually made a procession the whole length of the Nile.

I now request my reader, before we proceed to any other subject, to reflect well upon what we have found in the Abbé's work. Let him think upon the two cities of Thebes, or the ark from which pigeons were sent out, and from which all animals and men descended, &c. Let him remember Hercules three days in the Dag, and Jonas three days in the Fish. Let him remember Samson's likeness to Hercules. Let him remember Iphigenia and Jephthah's daughter, &c., &c., &c., and then let him account, if he can, for these things, in any other way than that which I have pointed out.




Page 21

I must now draw my reader's attention to perhaps the most curious of all the subjects hitherto discussed, and that is, the history of Mexico and Peru. It might be supposed that these, of all nations, were the least likely to afford any useful information respecting the system or mythos which I have been unveiling; but they are, in fact, rich in interesting circumstances, that have hitherto been totally inexplicable, but which are easily explained on the hypothesis, that there was, in very early times, an universal empire governed by a learned priesthood.

Page 22

Many months after the Anacalypsis had been in the press, Lord Kingsborough's magnificent work on Mexico made its appearance. This will account for the manner in which I have spoken of Mexican hieroglyphics in the first volume. My reader will readily believe me when I say it was with great pleasure I discovered in every part of that work circumstances which can only be accounted for on the theory laid down by me, and which therefore confirm it in a very remarkable manner. His Lordship's difficulties are very striking : the language of the Jews, their mythos, laws, customs, are every where apparent. This his Lordship accounts for by supposing that in ancient times colonies of Jews went to America from Alexandria. … The South Americans had not the knowledge of letters when the Spaniards arrived among them, nor did they know the use of iron. These facts are of themselves almost enough to prove, and really do prove, when combined with other circumstances, that the Jewish customs and doctrines could not have been carried to them from Alexandria, as above suggested, or by modern Christians, who would have instantly set them to digging their mountains;* but, on the contrary, these facts prove that the colonization must have taken place previously to the discovery of iron by the natives of the old world, long before Alexandria was built;** and this agrees very well with their ignorance of the use of the alphabet. The two facts exhibit the mythos in existence at a period extremely remote indeed. For, the identity of rites, such as circumcision, &c., found in India, Syria, Egypt, and South America, puts the great antiquity of the mythoses out of all doubt.

* Mexico is one of the few places where native iron is found, (see Vallancey's Coll. Hib. Vol. VI. p.422,) and it lies in masses on the sides of their mountains in the greatest abundance.

** According to the Arundelian marbles, iron was not found out till 188 years before the war of Troy. Ibid.

Page 23

… Lord Kingsborough says,* "But one solution offers itself from all the difficulties and mysteries which seem to be inseparable from the study of the ancient monuments, paintings, and mythology, of the Mexicans; and that is, the presence of the Jews in the new world." Had his Lordship said the Judaic mythos, he would have been right; for nothing can be more clear than that it is all substantially there, and most intimately mixed, actually amalgamated, he might have added, with the Christian.

* P. 82.

The similarity between the Jews, Christians, and South Americans, is sufficiently striking; but there is yet something to me still more so, which is, that several of the doctrines which I have advocated in this work, unknown to the vulgar Jews and Christians of this day, are to be found in Mexico. Their Triune God, their Creator, is called by the names Yao and Hom. …

The Father of the American Trinity is called Om-equeturiqui, ou bien Urago-Zoriso; le nom du Fils est Urus-ana, et l'Esprit se nomme Urupo.* Here the Om of North India, the Urus or Beeve, and the pi-ruh, that is, the ruh, are very distinct. These have evidently not come from modern Christianity, but from the ancient system in the most ancient times. Teutle is repeatedly said to mean Qeoj or God. Sahagun says the Mexicans had a God, the same as Bacchus, called Ometeuchtli. Here is clearly Bacchus by his name of OmaÕioj,** who was called THS=608, which was the name of Jesus Christ, called the desire of all nations—the Om-nu-al of Isaiah. Here, in the Teut, we have not only the Qeoj of the Greeks, but we have the Teut-ates of the British Druids, and the Thoth of Egypt, and the Buddha of India under his name Tat. But it is expressly said, in several other places, that the God was called Yao. How can any one doubt that here are the remains of an ancient system ? …

* Ibid. p.410. ** Ibid. Vol. VI. p.197.

It really seems impossible to read Lord Kingsborough's notes, in pp. 241 et seq., and not to see, that the mythos of a chosen people, and a God conducting them after long migrations to a promised land, (attributed by the Spanish monks to the contrivance of the Devil,) was common to Jews, Christians, and Mexicans. I think it seems clear, from p. 186, that Mexico or Mesi-co was the Hebrew (*:/ msih; then it would be the country of the Messiah : or it might equally be the country of the leader, whom we call Moses, of the people whom we have found in Western Syria, in South India, and Cashmere. His Lordship shews, that the word Mesitli or Mexico is "precisely the same as the Hebrew word (*:/ msih or %:/ mse or anointed," and that one of these Gods should sit on the right hand of the other, p. 82. In the next page he says, "the full accomplishment of the prophecy of a saviour in the person of Quecalcoatle has been acknowledged by the Jews in America." He says, p. 100, "The temptation of Quecalcoatle, the fast of forty days ordained by the Mexican ritual, the cup with which he was presented to drink, the reed on his altar, and called teotecpatl, or divine stone, which was likewise an object of adoration; all these circumstances, connected with many others relating to Quecalcoatle, which are here omitted, are very curious and mysterious !" But why are they omitted by his Lordship ? The pious monks accounted for all these things by the agency of the Devil, and burned all the hieroglyphic books containing them, whenever it was in their power.

Page 24

This migration of the Mexicans from the West,* is evidently exactly similar to the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. The going out with great noise and clamour is a part of the mythos. …

* Vide Lord Kingsborough, Vol. VI. p.237.

On the religion of the Hindoos the Cambridge Key says,* "The pristine religion of the Hindus was, I think, that of the most pure and ancient Catholic faith, and the religion of the enlightened few still continues such. They have worshiped a saviour, as the Redeemer of the world, for more that 4800 years. The religion of their forefathers they brought with them from the old world and established it in the new one. They believe implicitly in a Redeemer, whom they consider as the spirit that moved on the waters at the creation, the God that existed before all worlds." We shall find this the Mexican faith.

* Vol. II. p.72.

The God who led the Mexicans in their migration, was called Yao-teotle, God of Armies—Yao being said to mean army or victory—the very meaning given to it by the Jews; and, Sanscrit scholars tell me, also by the Indians.* Teo is said to be Qeo or Deo, and tle a mere termination; but, as I have stated in Vol. I. p. 221, the TTL is T=300, T=300, L=50; and TT is, in fact, the Tat or Buddha of India. Teotle is the same as ;-; tlt, and means 650, which, as emblem of the Trinitarian God, came to mean three. … Teotl is the Supreme and Invisible Being.** …

* P. 244. ** Miss Williams' Humboldt, p.83.

Page 25

Boturini says, "No Pagan nation refers primitive events to fixed dates like the Indians," meaning the Americans. "They recount to us the history of the creation of the world, of the deluge, of the confusion of tongues at the time of the tower of Babel, of the other epochs and ages of the world, and their ancestors' long travels in Asia, with the years precisely distinguished by their corresponding characters. They record, in the year of Seven Rabbits, the great eclipse which happened at the crucifixion of Christ our Lord; and the first Indians who were converted to Christianity, who, at that time, were perfectly well acquainted with their own chronology, and applied themselves with the utmost diligence to ours, have transmitted to us the information, that from the creation of the world to the happy nativity of Christ, five thousand, one hundred and ninety-nine years has elapsed, which is the opinion or computation of the LXX."*

* Lord Kingsborough's Mex. Vol. VI. p.176.

One of their periods is 4008 years B.C.,* another 4801. Their fourth age, the editor says, according to the Mexican symbols, lasted 5206 years, and the early Christian converts made it out 5199 years.** This was evidently the computation of 5200 years of Eusebius. The period of 4801 is the sum of the eight ages of the correct Neros, 8 x 600=4800. The Mexicans are said to be great astrologers.

* Ib. p.174. ** Ib. p.175.

The Mexicans believed that the millenium would commence at the end of some cycle of 52 years—4 x 13=52; and they concluded each of these periods with deep lamentations and terrors, and hailed with corresponding joy the moment when the new cycle had commenced, which shewed that they had a new 52 years' lease. This was exactly the same with the lamentations for the death of Osiris, Adonis, &c., and his resurrection from the tomb. The new cycle having commenced, the danger had past. At first, I doubt not, this was only every 600 years; afterward, with the increasing uncertainty of the ends of those periods, and also with the increase of superstition, the festival of Osiris, &c., came, for the sake of security, to be celebrated every year.

Page 26

… He (Humboldt) shews that they new-cleaned and furnished all their houses and temples, precisely as was done by the ancient Egyptians, and, he might have added, as is also done by the Romish church at every jubilee.* He shews that the Mexicans had convents of Monks precisely like the Tibetians and the Romish church. After this, Humboldt states, that M. La Place, from a careful examination, had come to the conclusion, that the Mexicans knew the length of the Tropical year more correctly than Hipparchus, and almost as correctly as Almamon;** and he shews, from various astronomical circumstances, that they must have had a close connexion with Eastern Asia and its cycles.

* Humboldt Res. Conc. Mexico, Ed. Miss Williams, Vol. I. pp. 226, 380, 382, 384.

** Ibid. p.392.

Page 27

Humboldt says, the Mexicans hold that, before the flood, which took place 4800 years after the creation1 of the world, the earth was inhabited by giants. One of them after the flood, called Xelhua or the architect, built an immense pyramidal tower which was to reach to heaven—but the God offended destroyed it with lightning. Here is a complete jumble of the ancient mythology : the 4800 are the eight cycles before Christ. The architect is the Megalistor or the name of God made into the giant, and is X-al-hua, the self-existent X. The tower is the exact model of the tower of Babel, as given in our old histories. After its destruction it was dedicated to Quetzalcoatl, the God of the Air. This is Saca, or Indra, whom we found crucified in Nepaul. (See Vol. I. p. 230.)2 The Mexicans chanted the word Hululaez, which belonged to no Mexican dialect, to the honour of the Gods.3 This is evidently the Allelujah of the Greeks and Hebrews, and the Ullaloo of the Irish.4

1 Niebuhr, Hist. Rome, Vol. I. p.92, Ed. Walter.

2 I think when my reader has seen a few of the following pages he will be convinced that there must here be a mistake of the translator, and that the words after the creation of the world ought to be before the Christian æra. The space 4800 is about the time of the eight cycles from the entrance of the Sun into Taurus, and when (as I shall shew in a future book) a flood probably took place.

3 Williams, Vol. I. p.96. 4 Ibid.

It is said that after the deluge sacrificing commenced. The person who answers to Noah entered the Ark with six others, and that soon after the deluge his descendants built the tower of Tulan Cholula, partly to see what was going on in heaven, and partly for fear of another deluge, but it was destroyed by thunder and lightning. The story of sending birds out of the ark, the confusion and dispersion of tribes, is the same in general character with that of the Bible. …

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In Volume XXI.* of the Classical Journal will be found some interesting remarks of Mr. Faber's on the close similarity between the pyramid on the mountain Cholula of the Mexicans, and the tower of Belus. That one is a copy of the other, or that they are both taken from some common mythos, cannot possibly de doubted. …

* Pp. 10, 11.

The Mexicans' large temple, placed on a conical hill, called Xochicalco, meant, as they say, house of flowers. This is Xaca and Calx, Calyx, which meant Rose.1 The hill was excavated into large caves,2 wonderful to behold, when it is considered (as it is there observed), that the Mexicans had no iron. An observation is made by M. Dupaix, that the Mexicans are now quite ignorant of the meaning of their proper names.3 In p. 71. it appears that the temple at Mexico is, in substance and fact, called the temple of Cihnathe, C being pronounced like S, and thus making the temple of Sin or Sion, which will be explained in the book on letters. Lord Kingsborough calls it Sinai or Sina.

1 Lord Kingsborough's Mex. Ant. p.430. 2 Ib. p.431. 3 Ib. p.432.

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Almost all persons who have written respecting the Mexicans, have observed the similarity of their language to that of the Hebrews. This and many other strange things the monks admit most unwillingly, and attribute to the devil. Las Casas said that the language of Saint Domingo was "corrupt Hebrew."* …

* Mex. Ant. Vol. VI.. p.283.

Las Casas wrote an account of the Mexicans, in which (we are told) he states his belief that they are descended from the Jews.* This account, by his desire, was never published. But why should he object to its being known that the Mexicans descended from the Jews ? The reason is very evident : it was because he saw it was ridiculous, and he did not believe it himself. This book is in the Academy of History at Madrid. It was examined a few years ago by the Government, but it was not thought proper to publish it.**

* Mex. Ant. Vol. VI.. p.7. ** Ibid.

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… I now learn that permission has been given to Lord Kingsborough to copy it. The secreting practice is found to answer no longer. …

David Malcombe, in his Essay on Ant. or Brit., says, " … But the Accusamilenses bring another reason of adoring the cross, and which seems nearer truth, to wit, That they had received by tradition from their forefathers, that formerly a man more glorious than the sun had passed through these countries and suffered on a cross."

The Rev. Dr. Hyde, speaking of the priests of Peru, takes occasion to say, "Nam populi simplicitas et sacerdotum astutia omni ævo omnique regione semper notabilis."* No wonder the University of Oxford refused to print any more of his manuscripts. He was speaking of a virgin of Peru, who was pregnant by the sun. The Reverend Doctors of Oxford did right not to publish his works while he lived, and to destroy his manuscripts when he died.** He ought to have been burnt himself—Omnique regione, indeed ! ! !

* Cap. iv. p.123. ** Vide Toland's Nazarenus, Chap. iv., and Bibliog. Brit.

Acosta says, that the Americans adored the sea, under the name Mammacocha. I believe this was the Marine Venus Mamma "!,3, cochab.*

* Lord Hebert, p.149.

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The Mexicans baptized their children, and the water which they used they called the water of regeneration.*

* Mex. Ant. Vol. VI. p.114.

The Mexican king danced before the God, and was consecrated and anointed by the high priest with holy unction. On one day of the year all the fires were put out, and lighted again from one sacred fire in the temple;1—the practice of the Druids. Lord Kingsborough2 shews, that the Messiah of the Jews is foretold to have an ugly or a marred countenance, and that the Mexican Quecalcoatle is said to have had the same. At the end of October they had a festival exactly answering to our All Saints and All Souls.3 They call it the festival of advocates, because each human being had an advocate to plead for him. Thus we have this festival throughout modern Europe, in Tibet, and in the ancient festival of the Druids' Saman in Ireland, and in Mexico. There is the story of the rebellious angels and the war in heaven.4 This is not from our Pentateuch.

1 Mex. Ant. Vol. VI. p.144. 2 Ib. p.167, note. 3 Ib. p.101. 4 Ib. p.401.

The Peruvians had a festival called the festival of Capacreyme, in the first month of their year, called Rayme.* Acosta supposes this was contrived by the Devil in imitation of the Passover. It may be observed, that all the acts of worship are directed avowedly to the Sun. The Mexicans sacrificed human victims, which Lord Kingsborough** has shewn was practised by the Jews, who were, according to his Lordship's account, horrible cannibals.

* Ib. p.305. ** Ib. p.328.

In the history of the Aztecks of Mexico, we find much respecting one Coxcox saved on a raft, in a great flood. Now when I consider that the Mexicans are so closely connected with North India, and that their accounts are all preserved by a mixture of hieroglyphics and unwritten tradition, I cannot help suspecting that this Coxcox ought to be Sasax or Saxas.

The Mexicans had a forty-days' fast in memory of one of their sacred persons who was tempted forty days on a mountain. He drinks through a reed. He is called the Morning Star, &c., &c. This must be the same person noticed before (p. 24) to have had a reed for an emblem. …

The inhabitants of Florida chaunt the word Hosanna in their religious service, and their priests were named Jouanas.*

* Ib. p.71.

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The Incas had a cross of very fine marble, or beautiful jasper, highly polished, of one piece, three-fourths of an ell in length, and three fingers in width and thickness. It was kept in a secret chamber of a palace, and held in great veneration. The Spaniards enriched this cross with gold and jewels, and placed it in the cathedral of Cusco.* Mexican temples are in the form of a cross, and face the four cardinal points.

* Vega, Book ii. Chap. iii.

Quecalcoatle is represented in the paintings of the Codex Borgianus nailed to the cross.* Sometimes even the two thieves are there crucified with him.**

* Mex. Ant. Vol. Vi. p.166. ** Ibid.

… And in one instance, where the figure is not merely outlined, the cross is red, the clothes coloured, and the face and hands quite black. If this was the Christianity of the German Nestorius, how came he to teach that the crucified Saviour was black ? The name of the God who was crucified was Queca-al-coatle. I suspect this was Saca, or Xaca, or Kaca—the Coatle (or God).* The mother of Quecalcoatle is called Sochi-quetzal; may this be the mother of Xaca ?** Sochi, or Suchi-quecal is both male and female.***

* Ib. p.173. ** Ib. p.175. *** Ib. p.176.

The Immaculate Conception is described.* This is also described in Torquemada's Indian Monarchy. The Mexican word Dios, meant God, and he was called ineffable.**

* Ib. p.65. ** Ib. p.68.

The Immaculate Conception is described in the Codex Vaticanus.* The Virgin Chimalman, also called Sochiquetzal or Suchiquecal, was the mother of Quecalcoatle. Sochiquetzal means the lifting up of Roses.

* Ib. pp. 175, 176.

The Mexican Eve is called Suchiquecal. A messenger from heaven announced to her that she should bear a son, who should bruise the serpent's head. He presents her with a rose. This was the commencement of an Age, which was called the Age of Roses. In India this is called the Age of the Lotus, the water rose. Upon this it may be observed, that if this had been a Papist forgery, the woman and not the seed of woman would have bruised the head. … Torquemada's Indian History was mutilated at Madrid before it was published.* Suchiquecal is called the Queen of Heaven. She conceived a son, without connexion with man, who is the God of the Air. This is the immaculate conception, and the God Indra, whom we found crucified and raised from the dead in Nepaul. The Mohamedans have a tradition that Christ was conceived by the smelling of a rose.** …

* Ant. of Mex. Vol. p.179.

** Ib. p.176. This was the water rose or Lotus. He was the Rose of Sharon, that is, he was the Rose of Ishurea, or the God of the country where the language is called that of Posh or Push—the flower.

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After shewing at great length that the Mexicans must have had their mythology from Asia, East of the Indus, Mr. Humboldt* observes, that he finds neither the Linga nor any of those figures with several heads and hands which characterize the paintings and figures of the Hindoos. But he distinctly admits that he finds the doctrine of repeated regenerations or cycles. Now this again seems to confirm my hypothesis, that they migrated from the old world so early as to be before these corruptions, early as the Linga was. And it has induced me to review the early history of Buddhism, and to make me suspect that, in its early works, the Linga is not to be found, and that it only came into use when the division between the followers of the Linga and Ioni began to arise, which caused the horrible civil and religious wars, noticed in my former volume, pp. 332, &c.

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The founder of the Peruvian nation was called Bochica, the son and the emblem of the Sun. He was high priest of Soga-Mozo (here we have the Saga).1 His wife was called Chia, (Chia is nothing but Eva corrupted,) Isis, or the Moon; he was described with three heads. Here, I think, are the Buddha and Trimurti of India. His priests were called Xeques and Zaques.2 (These are Xacas, or Sagas, or priests of Wisdom.) Humboldt says, "The form of Government given by Bochica to the inhabitants of Bogota is very remarkable, from its analogy with those of Japan and Thibet. The Incas of Peru united in their person the temporal and spiritual powers. The children of the sun were both priests and kings. … The Pontiffs or Lamas, the successors of Bochica, were considered as heirs of his virtue and sanctity. The people flocked in crowds to offer presents to the high priests, visiting those places which were consecrated by the miracles of Bochica."3

1 Humboldt's Res. Vol. II. p.108, ed. Miss Williams.

2 Ant. of Mex. Vol. VI. p.164; Lod Kingsborough calls him the Mithra of Bogota.

3 Humboldt's Res. Vol. II. p.109, ed. Miss Williams.

The Peruvians believed in one Supreme Being, the Creator of Heaven and Earth, called Virachocha and Pachacamack;1 who had revealed to them his religion.2 The Mexicans called their great God Yao INEFFABLE;3 and represented him by an Eye in a Triangle. The cross was every where adored.4 The Mexicans expected a Messiah.5 Their history of the flood is almost a close copy of that of Moses.6 Their baptism7 in the presence of witnesses is almost the same as that of the Jews and Persians, and in the same manner they named their children and offered them in the temple. They had the custom of sacrificing the first-born, the same as the Jews, till it was done away by Abraham or Moses. They had also the right of circumcision. (Refer to Vol. I. Book X. Chap. VI. Sect. 13, p. 724). Their temples were in the form of a cross, and faced the four cardinal points.8 Their language has many Greek and Hebrew words in it.9 They practised auricular confession.10 They have a sacred and select word like the Indian Om, which is never spoken; but what it is, I do not find mentioned.

1 Ant. of Mex. Vol. VI. p.365. 2 Ib. p.128. 3 Ibid. 4 P.141. 5 P.117.

6 Pp. 45, 47. 7 Pp. 67 and 115. 8 P.96. 9 Pp. 115, 116. 10 P.115.

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We every where meet with the Mexican divine names ending in tle, as Teotle, that is, Deo or God tle. It has been observed by Lord Kingsborough, as well as by almost all the Spanish authors, that the Mexican language is so full of Hebrew words as to be almost Hebrew. We have seen the God every where crucified and suspended from the Cross. We have found the sacred animal the Llama* or sheep. We have found the mythos of the crucified Saviour. We have found every thing at last to centre in the Sun. The word tle is confessed not to be understood by the Mexicans, nor by the Spaniards, who call it, for that reason, merely a termination. All these matters considered, I think it may be the same as the word %-. tle or !-. tla, the Hebrew name of the sign of the Zodiac, Agnus or Aries.** In Hebrew it means, when spelt with the tau, %-; tle, hanged or suspended. … I believe it meant crucified by hanging on a cross. It was originally Buddha, as noticed before in Sect. 3, p. 24. For the same reason that the word meaning 650 was applied to him, it was in succession applied to the God of wisdom, to the Lamb—his second emblem, and to the crucified God Cristna.

* Le Lama. ** Barret on the Zodiac, p.10.

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All the Mosaic history is to be found in China according to Mons. Paravey, in which he only repeats what was before pointed out by Bergeron, De Guines, &c. The Chinese historians relate that one of their ancient despots endeavoured to destroy their old records, but that a copy of their history, called the Chou-king, escaped. That book treats of the terrestrial paradise, its rivers, waters of immortality, its admirable trees, fall of the angels and of man, and the appearance at that moment of mercy; also of the sabbath, confusion of tongues, the manna in the Wilderness, the Trinity; and of the Holy One in the West, who was incomprehensible and one with the TIEN. It states that the world cannot know the Tien except by the Holy One, who only can offer a sacrifice acceptable to the CHANG-TI.* The nations are waiting for him like plants for a refreshing shower. The Tien is the Holy One invisible, and the Holy One is the Tien made visible and teaching men. All this was taught by Confucius five hundred and fifty years before Christ. Ancient inscriptions state the Jews to have come into China about the time of Confucius. This is probably the arrival of a colony or doctrine of a new incarnation going to them from the Western Ayoudia. The secret doctrine of the renewed incarnations seems, by being misunderstood, to have operated with them precisely as it did with their Indian and Tibetian neighbours, for they are of the Tibetian or Buddhists faith, into which all these doctrines dovetail perfectly. …

* In the Chang-ti, Ch is the I aspirated; ang is a, o, 3% co; Ti is Di, the whole, Di Iao.

There is scarcely a page of Lord Kingsborough's work which does not exhibit proofs of the anxiety of the Spanish government to suppress the information which I have just now detailed, and which does not also shew that it comes to us through the medium of the most unwilling of witnesses.1 Every contrivance which was possible was resorted to in order to prevent its arrival in Europe; and this accounts for the extraordinary and systematic opposition to the admission of strangers into New Spain. All people likely to be intelligent, such as physicians, persons suspected of heresy, &c., were prohibited from going thither. The reason assigned by the Spanish government was,2 that they were prevented from going that they might not create disputes and prevent conversions. The author of the notes to Lord Kingsborough's book3 says, that he believes that the Jews colonized America, and held it for one thousand years, and that they introduced (as it must have been along with their own) the Christian rites into the religion of the Mexicans, who had never heard of Christianity, to shew their hatred of Christianity, and to turn it into ridicule; and, that it was for this reason that they established the Christian doctrines along with those of the Jews,—such as the resurrection, ascension, &c. The passage is so extraordinary, that I think the writer must have meant it for a joke.

1 Antiq. Of Mex. Vol. VI. pp. 111. et seq. 2 Ib. p.268. 3 Ib. p.283.

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In Vol. VI. p. 79, the Mexican courts are shewn to have exactly the same number of judges as those of the Jews; that their sacred numbers were exactly the same; and that both nations kept fasts for exactly the same number of days. Lord Kingsborough says, "the common law of every state in Europe has been confessedly modelled after the Mosaic law."* This is a very important observation, and I think its truth will not be disputed; but I think there is no other way of accounting for it than to go to my primeval nation. The common law in most states is evidently older that Christianity. …

* Antiq. Of Mex. Vol. VI. pp.271, 272.

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Easter Island is situated in N. L. 27° 5 W. L. 109° 46 : it may be considered to be a part of America. The most remarkable curiosity in this island is a number of colossal statues. On the East side of the island were seen ruins of three platforms of stone-work, on each of which had stood four of these large statues; but they were all fallen down from two of them, and one from the third : they were broken or defaced by the fall. One was fifteen feet long and six feet broad over the shoulders : each statue had on its head a large cylindrical stone of a red colour, wrought perfectly round. Others measured nearly twenty-seven feet, and upwards of eight feet over the shoulders : and a still larger one was seen standing, the shade of which was sufficient to shelter all the party of Captain Cook, who reports this, from the sun. The workmanship is rude, but not bad, nor are the features of the face ill formed : the ears are long, according to the distortion practised in that island, and the bodies have hardly any thing of a human figure about them. How these islanders, wholly unacquainted with any mechanical power, could raise such stupendous figures, and afterwards place the large cylindrical stones upon their heads, is truly wonderful ! … The Encyclopædia Londinensis says, the names of the two statues left standing are Dago and Taurico. Here we have Dagon and Taurus. Surely nothing can be more curious than these statues. Who placed them here; and when were they set up ?

Every one must remember the accounts of the perfect horror with which the unhappy Mexicans viewed the first horses, which the Spaniards took over to their country. This I will now account for. It appears from Lord Kingsborough's book, &c., that they had all the mythos which has been so fully explained, of the old world—the immaculate conception, the crucifixion, the resurrection after three days, the expectation of the return of their crucified Saviour, &c,. &c. Every Indian inquirer knows that the last Avatar was always expected by the people of Java to come mounted on a white horse. Now, in several of the Mexican hieroglyphic pictures, though their owners knew nothing of the horse, an animal, which might be either a horse or an ass, is painted. In these same pictures, the other parts of the mythos, the crucifixion, &c., are described. From this it is evident, that although they were not able to convey the horse over the sea, yet they could convey every part of the mythos; the result of this was, that when the Spaniards arrived in flying machine, or machines propelled by the winds,—on the wings of the wind,—across the boundless ocean, or from heaven,—their commander mounted on the unknown animal, described in their ancient pictures to be that on which the promised God was to come;* and, carrying in his hand thunder and lightning, with which he destroyed his enemies at miles distant from him, he was believed to be the last Avatar. Lord Kingsborough gives a very interesting account of the effect which this superstition or belief had upon their conduct—taking away from most of them, from devotion, all wish to resist their God, mounted on his horse and surrounded by thunder and lightning—and from others, through fear, all power : thus giving to their cruel enemies an easy victory. I cannot conceive it possible to devise any thing more conclusive of the truth of my whole system than this. All this accounts for numbers of circumstances relating to the conduct of Montezuma and his people, which have hitherto been utterly unintelligible. And I think it seems evident, that if the miscreants from Spain had really understood their own case, they would have had nothing to do but to have quietly taken possession of the whole empire as its last Avatar and newly-arrived God.

* The effect which the death of the first horse had on the Mexicans had been though very extraordinary and unaccountable. It is now easily explained : by the destruction of the immortal, celestial animal they were in part undeceived.

Link to Volume II - Book II.