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Godfrey Higgins




Volume I [867 pages]
Volume II
[525 pages]




Page 386

It is scarcely necessary to remind any persons who has read the preceding part of this work, of the very extraordinary manner in which the Jews appear to have been, as it were, insulated amidst the surrounding nations. If we may believe the literal sense of the Bible, (for a short time, the Persians excepted,) they were always at secret enmity or open war with their neighbours, the Gentiles, or the idolaters, as, by way of reproach, they are generally called. By the Greeks, they were scarcely noticed; known they certainly were; but probably their doctrines were first made public by the translation of their Pentateuch, in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and its consequent publication, which was so abhorrent to the feelings of the Jews, that a solemn fast to atone for the sin was established annually throughout all the world, where there are any of the Jewish nation. … I believe that anciently the Pentateuch was kept strictly secret by the Jews, and would probably have been lost like similar works of different temples,—Diana, Eleusis, Delphi, &c.,—had it not been for the translation forced by Ptolemy. …

No doubt every division of the universal religion had its secret and sacred writings as well as the Jews, only they were never made public, and thus were lost. To the peculiar circumstance which caused Alexandria to be almost filled with Jews and Samaritans, and to the necessity which Ptolemy found of causing their books to be translated in order that he might know how to decide between them in their squabbles, and to a wish, perhaps, to govern them by their own laws, we are, probably, indebted for our knowledge of the books of the Old Testament. After they were once translated into Greek, there could be no longer any objects in concealing the originals.

Page 387

Of the reality of the translation there can be no doubt; but whether it was made from the copy of the Samaritans or from that of the Jews cannot be certainly known : …

Christians and Jews will find no difficulty in accounting for the insulated state or the singularity of the Jews, to which allusion was made in the last Section. They will say the Israelites were singular because they were the elect of God—God's chosen people. But philosophers will not be so easily satisfied, and perhaps they may reply, that this is an assumption made by the priests of almost every nation in its turn. A wish may also exist on their parts to discover the cause of this singularity combined with the general family likeness which, notwithstanding their peculiarity, may be perceived in their ceremonies and doctrines to those of the other nations. This wished-for cause I shall now proceed to shew may be found in the probable fact, that they were a tribe of Hindoo or Persian nomades or shepherds, for a wandering tribe they certainly were—one of the sects of the Hindoo religion after it divided into two, i.e. those of the Linga and Ioni, or Buddha and Cristna, or perhaps of the sect of the Linga after the separation, but before the reunion of the two. … Thus they were the followers of the God Ie-pati or Iaw, in opposition to the Goddess Parvati or Venus, Astarte or Asteroth, &c., they were the followers of the male Io, in opposition the female Io, of Syria; for the Io, as we have seen, was of both sexes. …

We are told that Terah, the father of Abraham, originally came from an Eastern country called Ur, of the Chaldees or Culdees, to dwell in a district of Mesopotamia. Some time after he had dwelt there, Abraham, or Abram, or Brahman, and his wife Sara or Sarai, or Sara-iswati, left their father's family and came into Canaan. If the letter A be changed, by metathesis, from the end of the word Brahma to the beginning, as is often practised in the oriental languages, we shall have correctly Abrahm; or the A might be only the emphatic Chaldee article, making I the Braham or Brahmin. The word Iswati, in the second name, is now said to be merely a term of honour, like Lady Sarah. The identity of Abraham and Sara with Brahma and Saraiswati was first pointed out by the Jesuit missionaries.

Page 389

… But Mr. Bryant* says, Sur, Sour, whence was formed Sufoj, signified the sun. It was the same as Sehor of Egypt, called Seifioj by the Greeks. The city of Ur in Chaldea was sometimes called Sur, and Syncellus says Abraham was born in the city Sur. Stephanus says Sur was common to many places. From this it seems that Abraham may have come from an oriental Sur or Suria.

* Anal. Vol. III. p.446.

… There was a district of India called Ur or Urii or Uriana on the Jumna, which we shall find was the place from which Abraham came.

Abraham and his family or clan probably left their country on account of what he truly considered the corruption of religion, viz. the reconciliation or the coalition which the Brahmin books say took place between the followers of the Linga and those of the Ioni. He seems to have been of the sect of the Linga alone. When he first came into Canaan, the natives with their Canaanitish king-priest Melchizedek, were of his religion—that of Brahma and Persia. When his tribe returned from Egypt under the command of Joshua or the Saviour, to which only they had been driven by famine, and where it is evident that they never were comfortable, they found the Canaanites with their Ionic cities (Iona at Antioch and Iona at Gaza) had become corrupted, they had fallen into the heresy of Babylon and the Culdees, the measure of their iniquity was full, and they conquered them. The Canaanites forfeited their dominions, and the Israelites seized them, and under the Saviour, the son of Nave, restored the temple of Melchizedek on Gerizim,* which was afterward removed by David and Soleimau or Solomon to Jerusalem.

* Har-Gerizim, probably, was so called after some sacred Mount in India. Ar, in the old language of Upper India as well as in Hebrew, is constantly applied to sacred mounts, indeed to all mounts—as Ar-Buddha. … Asiat. Res. Vol. IX. p.199.

Page 390

This shows us why the Israelites were a peculiar people in the midst of nations of enemies on every side—hating all nations except the Persians, who, in the time of Cyrus and Ahasuerus, were of their own religion, and who, without minding their domestic feud, restored their temples both on Gerizim and at Jerusalem. The Israelites exhibit several remarkable points of resemblance to the followers of Brahma and Cristna at this day. Their religions are mutually intermixed with many of the rites and ceremonies of their predecessors, the Buddhists. The first book of Genesis is Buddhist; the sacrifice of the Lamb at the vernal equinox or at the passover, is clearly the sacrifice of the Yajna, offered by the followers of Cristna and Brahma. This accounts for the hatred of Moses to the Bull, and his partiality to the Lamb. …

Page 391

Let me not be called a wicked atheist for seeing the likeness between Brahma and Abraham; for what says the Rev. and learned Joseph Hager, D.D. ?* "As the Indian alphabet are all syllabic, and every consonant without a vowel annexed is understood to have an A joined to it, there is no wonder if from Abraham was made Brahma; and thus we see other Persian words in the Sanscrit having an a annexed, as deva from div, appa from ab, deuta from deud," &c.** Dr. Hyde says, that Ibrahim or Abraham, by the Persians, is never called otherwise than Ibrahim or Abraham Zerdusht,*** that is evidently Zerdusht the Brahmin. All of this I think is confirmed by a fact which we learn from Damascenus, that Abraham first reigned at Damascus; and Alexander Polyhistor, who lived about ninety years before Christ, and Eupolemus, who lived about 250 years before Christ,**** say that he came and resided in Egypt at Heliopolis, that is Maturea, and there taught astrology, which he did not profess to have invented, but to have learnt from his ancestors, of course in the East. This is confirmed by Artapanus. It seems not unreasonable to suppose that by means of Abraham, Maturea acquired its Indian name,—the name of the birth-place of Cristna.

* Diss. Bab. Ins. Lond. 1801

** See Paolino's Amarasinha, p. 12; Syme's Embassy to Ava, ch. xiv.

*** Hyde de Rel. vet. Pers. Cap. ii. et. iii. **** Maurice, Anc. Hist. Vol. I. p.438.

… When Alexander says that the Heliopolitan priests made use of the astrology of Abraham, it is the same as to say of the astrology of the Brahmins.* And when the Greek Orpheus says, that God of old revealed himself to one Chaldæan only, I quite agree with Hornius,** that it is probable the person called Abraham is meant, whether he was really a person, or a sect, or a system.

* Gale, Vol. II. Book i. Ch. i § 9. ** Hist. Philos. Lib. ii. Cap. x.

Page 292

Plutarch and Josephus think, that the Phœnecian shepherds, said to be driven out of Egypt, were the Israelites; but what Bishop Cumberland has written upon Sanchoniathon's account, has nearly satisfied me, that these people must have been expelled more than three hundred years before.

… The tribe of Cristna had a name, … which is very remarkable. Captain Wilford says, "The Yadus, his own tribe and nation, were doomed to destruction for their sins, like the descendants of YAHUDA or YUDA, which is the true pronunciation of JUDA.* …" Mr. Maurice says, "The Yadavas were the most venerable emigrants from India; they were the blameless and pious Ethiopians,** whom Homer mentions, and calls the remotest of mankind. Part of them, say the old Hindu writers, remained in this country; and hence we read of two Ethiopian nations, the Western and the Oriental. Some of them lived far to the East; and they are the Yadavas who stayed in India, while others resided far to the West."*** The fact of art of the tribe yet remaining in existence, is one of the pieces of circumstantial evidence which I consider invaluable. It cannot be the produce of forgery, and couples very well with the two Sions, two Merus, &c., &c. It is on circumstances of this kind that I ground my system. They surpass all written evidence, for they cannot have been forged. This emigrating tribe of Yadu or Yuda, we shall find of the first importance, for they are no other than the Jews.

* It ought to be %9&%* or ieu-de, which means the holy Ieu.

** Hist. Hind. Vol. II. fol. 790. *** Asiat. Res. Vol. III.. p.368.

Porphyry, in his book called Peri Iqdaiwn, quoted by Eusebius,* makes Saturn to be called Israel. … that this same Saturn had a nymph …, an only son, …, whom, for this, they called Ieud, as he is so called to this day, by the Phœnicians. This only son, he adds, was sacrificed by his father. …

* Præpar. Evang. Lib. i. Cap. ix.

There is, I think, no difficulty in finding here the Iudai or tribe of Yuda of the Hindoos long before the Jews of Western Syria could have taken that name from one of the sons of Jacob, called Judah,—a name which cannot have been first derived from him, because it is clear that they had the epithet long before he was born—his grandfather Isaac having borne it.

Page 393

That we should find the name of Iudai of the sect, in the father of the twelve tribes, is not surprising, and accords well with what I have suggested. The word Jew is a mere Anglicism, and the word Yudi or Iudi in more correctly the Hindoo name, come from where it would. … It is most probable that it came from the tribe of Iudia, as the head of the tribe seems to have been known by that name, as I have before stated, many years before the son of Jacob was born, and who was probably so called after his ancestor. When Porphyry called Isaac by the epithet Ioud, he, perhaps, meant Isaac the Ioud-ite, or Isaac of the tribe of Ioud or Yuda.

Bochart, Gale, and many other of our learned men, think the Phœnicians derived their letters, learning, &c., from the Jews. This is easily explained. When the Israelitish tribe arrived in Canaan they found the natives professing their religion in all its first principles. It might be of the Indian religion before the division about the Linga and Yoni took place, or when it partook of both, or before the division had travelled so far westwards. However this might be, the name of Iona, borne by the towns of Gaza and Antioch, pretty well shews that it became, if not entirely, yet in a great measure, Ionian afterward. …

Page 394

Porphyry (lib. iv. adversus Christianos) says, "that Sanchoniathon and Moses gave the like account of persons and places; and that Sanchoniathon extracted his account, partly out of the annals of the cities, and partly out of the book reserved in the temple, which he received from Jerombalus,* priest of the God Jeuo, i.e. Jao, or Jehovah."** … All this shews that the fundamental doctrines of the tribe of Abraham and the Phœnicians were the same, though they themselves might be of different sects. The system established by Moses confirmed the line of separation between them. His great anxiety was to prevent his people from falling into the Tauric and Ionian heresy, the heresy of Babylon, of Iona, ancient Antioch, and of Iona of the Philistines of Gaza, his bitter enemies. To prevent them from relapsing into the worship of the Bull-headed Baal or Baaltis, and Bull-eyed Juno or Asteroth, the queen of heaven, he endeavoured to keep them to the religion professed by Melchizedek, to the worship of the Saviour or Messiah, typified by the Lamb of the Zodiac, in India, called the Saviour or Heir-Cristna; in short to the worship of the Male generative principle. We have seen that Yadu was said in India to be the father of Cristna.

* Jerombalus is probably Ieroj omfaloj.

** Gale, Court of Gent. Book iii. Ch. ii. §. I, Vol. II Book i. Ch. iii. § viii.

… As I have stated before the close similarity between paganism and Judaism is not only admitted by Mr. Faber, but is descanted on by him at great length; and, after shewing the absolute insufficiency of all theories yet promulgated to account for it, he says, "Judaism and Paganism sprang from a common source; hence their close resemblance, in many particulars, is nothing more than might have been reasonably anticipated."*

* Orig. Pag. Idol. Vol. I. p.106.

Page 395

… In the whole of the Jewish books I cannot discover a single passage indicative of a tendency to tolerate the worship of the Queen of Heaven. If ever any thing like an attempt was made, as in the case of Solomon, it was met with the bitterest intolerance on the part of the priests; witness their violence against him for his toleration of the Sidonians; not his adoption of their religion I believe, but only his toleration of it.

With respect to the adoration of the female generative principle, the Israelites and the neighbouring Gentiles seem to have been situated exactly like the Papists and the Protestants. The Israelites adored the Phallus or Linga, as is evident from the stone set up and anointed with oil by Jacob. But no where can an emblem of the female principle be discovered. … The Gentiles adored both; … The modern Romists adore the Ram, the Lamb of God, and also the Virgin, the mother of God, the Queen of Heaven, the Regina Stellarum : the Protestants adore the Lamb of God; but they, like the Israelites, can scarcely be found in any case to pay the least respect to the Queen of Heaven. At Antioch-ian-Iona, at Delphi, at Rome, both are adored; at Jerusalem and London, only one—the Lamb. The Ioni was and is detested in the last-named places. The fact cannot be denied. …

… But the worship of the Queen of heaven is reprobated many times by the prophets, particularly by Jeremiah, and that in the strongest terms. My reader must recollect that, according to the Hindoo history of religion, the first worship was paid to a double object, and that the worshipers were afterward divided into those who adored the male and those who adored the female principle.

Page 396

Learned Christian divines have found no small difficulty, in the fact just named, that in the Pentateuch there is not the least appearance of the doctrine of a future life, or of a place of punishment after death. The cause is to be found in the circumstance that the Jews secretly held the doctrine of the metempsychosis, and the perpetual renewal of worlds,—doctrines thought to be too sublime for vulgar comprehension. The doctrine of a hades, or hell, arose in times long after those of Moses, among the Persians, when the doctrine of two principles came to be formed, and the sublime Hindoo trimurti was forgotten. It is evident that the doctrine of a hell is quite inconsistent with the metempsychosis. … At first, when Christianity was unsettled, the transmigration of souls, and the millenium, or renewal of worlds, were received by the Christian fathers; but as the more modern doctrine of two principles, good and evil, gained ground, the other declined and was forgotten. … At first the Gnostic and Manichæan doctrines, which possessed much sublimity, were, with a very trifling exception, universal. At that time mankind retrograded rapidly; and as they became degraded, the degrading doctrines of the Greek and Latin sectaries prevailed, till the world was overrun with Thaumaturgists and Devil-drivers, and all the absurdities which Protestantism has unveiled.

The likeness between Abraham and Brahma, and between their wives and histories, was observed by Dr. Hyde. Indeed it is so marked, that to miss it is impossible. …

Drs. Hyde and Prideaux, perceiving the likeness between the Persians and Jews, supposed Zoroaster to have been of the Jewish religion.* They were certainly so far right, that the two nations were of the same religion. … Hyde, in his first chapter, shews that the ancient Persians had a sacred fire, precisely the same as the Jews, from which it did not differ in any respect, and that the reverence to, or adoration of, this fire was exactly the same as that of the Jews to theirs, from which, he says, the Persians copied it. … It is admitted that Abraham and Brahma are the same; therefore the Hindoos must have come from Abraham, or the Israelites from Brahma. Now, Christian reader, look to the Pentateuch, which you cannot dispute, and you will see the whole history of circumcision, and how and why it was first adopted by Abraham for all his descendants; and if the Brahmins had descended from him, they would certainly have had this rite; but in no part of India is this rite observed by the Brahmins. This at once proves that Abraham came from the Brahmins, if either came from the other.

* Maurice, Ind. Ant. Vol. II. p.123.

Sir W. Jones, in his translation of the Institutes of Menu, renders the word Brahmana in the sense of Priest. And the Jesuit Robert de Nobilibus, in what has been said to be his forged Vedas, calls the high-priest of the Jews and his associates Yúda-Brahmana.* That is, the words being in regimine, Brahmin of the holy Ie. … The expression of the Jesuit shews, that he considered the word Yúda, to be the same as the name of the tribe of Abraham.

* Asiat. Re. Vol. XIV. P.58.

M. Herbelot, Bibliot. Orient. article Behegir, calls Abraham "un Brahman de la secte, ou de l'ordre, de ceux que l'on appelle Gioghis (Yoygees)." From the word Yogees our word Jews may probably have come. …




Page 397

We have seen that the dove is, in a peculiar manner, the emblem of the Ioni. With this we find the Jews at almost perpetual war. The Assyrians are constantly described in the Jewish books by the term sword of the oppressor. In several places where we find this it ought to be rendered by the term the sword of the Dove.* This was the emblem, or crest, or coat of arms carried by the followers of the imaginary, or at least mystical, Semiranis, who was said to have been born at or near the Philistine Iona,—of the Semirama-isi of India, of whom I shall presently treat. See Col. Wilford's essay on Semiranis.** Persons may have different opinions as to the cause of the Dove, or Ca-pot-Eswari becoming the emblem of the female generative power, as also of the Holy spirit, the third person of the Trinity, but the fact cannot be disputed.

* Jer. xxv. 38, xlvi. 16; Hosea xi. 11; Zeph. iii. 1.

** Asiat. Res. Vol. IV. pp. 370, &c.

Page 398

The Chaldeans, or Chasdim, or Culdees, were priests of the Assyrians, and worshipers of the Dove or female generative power, whence they called their sacred isle of the West Iona or Columba, that is, the female dove, not the male or Columbus. …

The Rev. Dr. Claudius Buchanan, I believe a missionary, some years ago published Travels in India, in which he states, that he found no less than sixty-five settlements of BLACK Jews in different parts of the peninsula.* … These black Jews are remnants of the sect of the Iadus, who, Col. Wilford informs us, yet remain in Guzerat. I apprehend they were part of the sect of the Linga, who would not unite with, or divided from, the followers of the female principle, the Argha or Ioni, or from those of the double principle, and, on that account, were persecuted or expelled, and from them came the tribe of Abram or the Brahmin. … And this seems to rationally to account for the places in Syria being called by names of places in India. We know how almost all emigrants have given the names of the countries of their births, to their new habitations.

* Christ. Res. p.226, Ed. 1819.

Page 399

From the accounts given by Dr. Buchanan of the black tribes, some of them having Pentateuchs, and others not having them; and of those who have them, having obtained them from the white tribes, it seem probable that they are indebted for them solely to the white tribes. This will exactly agree, as might be expected, with my theory, if it should turn out to be true; because the apoicoj or going out of the tribe of Judi or Ioudi from India, in all probability, must have taken place before Moses lived, and before he partly wrote, and partly compiled or collected, the tracts into what we now call the Pentateuch. In all probability the first books of Genesis were brought from India with the tribe—with Abraham or the Brahmins.

Eusebius, in his Chronicon, says, that Ethiopians coming from the Indus or black river settles near Egypt. There seems to be nothing improbable in these Ethiopians being the tribe of the Jews—the tribe of Jacob or Israel. I think these Ethiopians did come under Jacob, and did settle in Goshen, and gave the names of Maturea and Avaris to the city in which they dwelt. Avari in Hebrew would be as often written *9"3 obri, or the city of the Hebrews or Foreigners.

Page 400

Megasthenes, who was sent to India by Seleucus Nicator, about three hundred years before Christ, and whose accounts from new inquiries are every day acquiring additional credit,* in a very remarkable manner confirms my hypothesis of the Jews' coming from India. He says, That they were an Indian tribe or sect called Kalani, and that their theology has a great resemblance to that of the Indians.**

* Vide Lempriere's Calss. Dict. ed. 1828.

** Volney's Researches, Anc. Hist. Vol. II. p.395.

Aristotle gave an account of the Jews that they came from the Indian philosophers, and that they were called by the Indians Calami, and by the Syrians Judæi.* I think few persons will doubt that the Calami here are the Calani of Megasthenes, one of the two being miscalled. We have seen a Calani in Ceylon, where we found a Zion, Adam's foot, Mount Ararat, and Columbo, &c., and In Gen. x. 10, and Amos. vi. 2, a Calneh or Calani is also named.

Gale* has observed, that the information of Megasthenes is confirmed by Clearchus, the Peripathetic. …

* Court of Gent. Vol. II. p.75.

Respecting Megasthenes, Col. Wilford says, "Megasthenes, a man of no ordinary abilities, who had spent the greatest part of his life in India, in a public character, and was well acquainted with the chronological systems of the Egyptians, Chaldeans and Jews,* made particular inquiries into their history, and declared, according to Clement of Alexandria, that the Hindoos and Jews were the only people who had a true idea of the creation of the world, and the beginning of things."** … And they have an obvious tendency to support my theory of the origin of the Jewish tribe.

* See Asiat. Res. Vol. V. p.290 ** Ibid. Vol. X. p.118.

Page 401

If I had desired to invent a piece of evidence in confirmation of what I have said respecting the emigration of the Israelitish tribe from India to Syria, I could not have had any thing better than the following passage from Col. Wilford. The Zohar Manassé, which the reader will find named, cannot, in this case, be disputed as evidence of the ancient, probably the secret or esoteric, opinion of the Jews. The seven earths one above another is a circumstance so totally inapplicable to Jerusalem, and so clearly Hindoo, that the identity of the two cannot de mistaken.

Wilford says, "Meru with its three peaks on the summit, and its seven steps, includes and encompasses really the whole world, according to the notions of the Hindoos and other nations, previously to their being acquainted with the globular shape of the earth. I mentioned in the first part that the Jews were acquainted with the seven stages, Zones or Dwipas of the Hindus : but I have since discovered a curious passage from the Zohar Manassé on the creation, as cited by Basnage in his history of the Jews.* 'There are,' says the author, 'seven earths, whereof one is higher than the other, for Judæa is situated upon the highest earth, and Jerusalem upon the highest mountain of Judæa.' This hill of God, so often mentioned in the Old Testament, the mount of the congregation where the mighty king sits in the sides of the north, according to Isaiah, and there is the city of our God. The Meru of the Hindus has the name of Sabka, or the congregation, and the Gods are seated upon it in the sides of the north. There is the holy city of Brahma-puri, where resides Brahma with his court, in the most pure and holy land of Ilavratta."** The Judæa or Ioud-ia and Jerusalem named above, are evidently compared to the North-pole and Mount Meru, which is thus called the place of Ioudi. We shall presently find that, with the Arabians, the Pole-star was called the star of Ioudi.

* Eng. Trans. p.247.

** Asiat. Res. Vol. X. p.128, Vol. VIII. 285; 2 Chron. iii. 1, Isaiah xiv. 13, Psalm xlviii. 2.

Page 402

"The Persians had a title, Soliman, equivalent to the Greek Aioloj, and implying universal cosmocrator, qu'ils ont cru posséder l'empire universel de toute la terre, and Thamurath aspired to this rank; but the divine Argeng, in whose gallery were the statues of seventy-two Solimans, contended with him for the supremacy. This Argeng was the head of the league of Afgeioi, and the number 72, is that of the kings subject to the king of kings."*

* See Herbelot in voce Soliman; Nimrod, Vol. III. p.12.

The history of Solomon bears a very mythological appearance, which is much confirmed by a passage in Strabo,* who asserts, that both Syria and Phœnicia had their names from India. He says, speaking of the irruption of the Greeks and Seleucidæ, into India, "These same Greeks subjugated the country as far as the territory of the Syri and Phanni." Casaubon supposed the Phannon of Strabo to mean Phoinicon, and so corrected it.** This shews that there were nations of these names in India, which could not be very far from the peninsula of Swarastrene or Syrastrene :*** or perhaps Rajahpoutana or Afghanistan.

* Vol. IV. ** Asiat. Soc. Vol. I. p.335. *** Ibid. 336.

The word Rajahpoutan, I think, is Rajah-pout-tana, or three words which mean the country of the royal Buddha—Pout being one of the names of Buddha. That Rajah is royal I shall shew by and by. Of Afghan I can make nothing; but in the travels of Ibn Batuta there is a place mentioned, near Delhi, called Afghanpoor.

Page 403

Mr. Franklin says, "Another striking instance is recorded by the very intelligent traveller (Wilson) regarding a representation of the fall of our first parents, sculptured in the magnificent temple of Ipsambul in Nubia. He says that a very exact representation of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden is to be seen in that cave, and that the serpent climbing the tree is especially delineated, and the whole subject of the tempting of our first parents most accurately exhibited."* How is the fact of the Mythos of the second book of Genesis being found in Nubia, probably a thousand miles above Heliopolis, to be accounted for, except that it came from Upper India with the first Buddhists or Gymnosophists ? There they were found by Clemens Alexandrinus, and there they found a Meru, now called Meroe. The same Mythos is found in India. Col. Tod says, "A drawing, brought by Colonel Coombs, from a sculptured column in a cave-temple in the South of India, represents the first pair at the foot of the ambrosial tree, and a serpent entwined among the heavy-laden boughs, presenting to them some of the fruit from his mouth. The tempter appears to be at that part of his discourse, when,

'……… his words, replete with guile,
Into her heart too easy entrance won :
Fixed on the fruit she gazed.'

"This is a curious subject to be engraved on an ancient Pagan temple : if Jain or Buddhist, the interest would be considerably enhanced."** … The same mythos, as the Romish Dr. Geddes calls Genesis, is at the bottom of the religions of Moses, India, and Egypt, with such small variations only as time and circumstance may be expected to produce. …

*On Buddhists and Jeynes, p.127, Note. ** Tod's Hist. Raj. P.581.

Page 404

Throughout all the ancient world the distinction between the followers of the Yoni and Linga may be seen. All nations seem to have been Ionians except the Jews and Persians; and, as the Jewish or male principle prevailed, the other declined.




Page 405

We will now examine the names of some of the states and cities in India, and in them I think we shall find conclusive proofs of the place where Judaism came from, and probably along with it the first written language.

In India, in very ancient times, there was a state of great power. Its capital was in lat. 26º 48' N., 82º 4' E., of prodigious extent, being one of the largest in Hindostan, anciently called Ayodhya or Oude. It was, and yet is, a place celebrated for its sanctity, to which Pilgrims resort from all parts of India. The Hindoo history states that it was the seat of power, of a great prince called Dasaratha, the father of Rama, and of Rama, the brother of Cristna. Dasaratha extended his conquests as far as Ceylon, which he subdued. … Ayodhia or Iyodhya is nothing but Judia, and Oude, Juda. Iyodhia is Iyo-di-ia—country of the sacred Iou, or Jud. …

I feel little doubt that the tribe of Iaoud was expelled from this kingdom, perhaps from Maturea, from which place they took their names. Every difficulty will be removed if we suppose that the religious wars of the sects of the Ioni and Linga were long, and had alternate success; and this perfectly agrees with the Hindoo histories, which represent the wars to have been long, and of this description. The cities above-named are situated a little Westward of Tibet. The tribe of Ioud or the Brahmin Abraham, was expelled from or left the Maturea of the kingdom of Oude in India, and, settling at Goshen, or the house of the Sun or Heliopolis in Egypt, gave it the name of the place which they had left in India, Maturea. …

… Thus we shall connect Maturea, Judah, and Abraham together, and, as I have suggested, the doctrines of Cristna or the Lamb.

Abraham came from Mesopotamia of the Chaldees.* This precisely answers to the situation of Mutra or Maturea on the Jumna. It is the country of the ancient kingdom of Oude between the two rivers Ganges and Indus, and is called Duab or Mesopotamia, as I have before stated. He probably came just before the change of the worship took place, from Taurus to Aries, from Buddha to Cristna.

Page 406

I beg my reader to refer to the Map which is taken partly from those of Bishop Heber and Col. Tod, and he will find the kingdom of Oude, anciently Ayodhia, in a district called Agra, in which is a city, called anciently Argha* or Agra. It was in ruins in the time of Akbar—and was rebuilt by him and called Akberabad.** He will also find a place called Daoud-nagur, that is Dud (9&9 dud) or David-nagur. Nagur means fort or walled town. There is also a district called Daod-potra, that is, town of the sons of David. Thus we have a city of David and country of the children or sons of David.

* Heber.

** A district of Jerusalem was called Acra : this must have been Arga, as it is not likely that this city should have a quarter called by a Greek name.

The river Chelum, or Jalum, or Jhylun, or Behut, or Jenaut* has on its West side the country of the Joudis, at the foot of the mountains of Joud. There is also a place or district in this country called Seba or Siba. There is also a tribe called Jajoohahs, which descended from the Joudis. Here are the Jews, descended from Judah. In the mountains of Solomon are found a tribe of people called Judoons,** (that is, Judæans,) and a place called Gosa, (that is, Gaza,) and a people called Jadrauns, and another called Jaujees (Jews).*** The mountains of Solomon, or Solimaun, have this name in the old books, though they are not commonly known at this time by it. These mountains are higher than the Andes. One of the mounts of the chain is called Suffaid Coh. The Sofees of Persia are called Suffrarees. In this country, also, is the city of Enoch, the Anuchta of Ptolemy.

* Rennell, p.98. ** Elphins, Vol. II. p.99. *** Ib.

Page 407

Col. Tod says,* the tradition of the Hindoos assert that India was first peopled or colonized by a race called Yadu, to which they trace the foundations of the most conspicuous of their ancient cities.** The Yadus are in the unpolished dialect pronounced Jadu or Jadoons. The Eusofzyes, or tribe of Joseph, is also called Jadoons, that is, Judæans.

* Trans. Royal Asiat. Soc. Vol. III. pp. 1, 141.

** For a sketch of this race see An. Rajastan, Vol. I. p.85.

… The notice of Rannæ, by Ptolemy, shews that the tribe was in existence before the dispersion of the Jews in the time of Vespasian. In the attempt to discover the truth in questions of this kind, it is very seldom that a proof of a fact can be obtained, but I think it is obtained respecting the RANNÆ of Oudipore. They were evidently here in the time of Ptolemy, and they are yet remaining. There can be no shadow of pretence to set up that they have been destroyed by the Mohamedans, and the city of Oude or Oudi-pore built by Mohamedans, and since that time a new tribe of Rannæ set up. The city of Gagasmera or Ajimere confirms this. The city of Oudepore is very large, and carries on the face of it marks of extreme antiquity. …

Page 408

In lat. 26, 31 N. long. 74, 28 E., is the city called Ajimere or Gazamere, the Gazamera of Ptolemy adjoining to a large lake. Here is Gaza, of Syria, and the old English word mere for a lake. …

Col. Tod explains the word Jerusalem to mean Mer-Jesul or Hill of Jessul. The double meaning of the word Mer arises from all these sacred mounts being imitative Merus. Thus they might be all called Mer. Meru, we must recollect, was a hill in a sea, or surrounded by an oceanus. …

Page 412

About lat. 27 N. and long. 71 E. on Col. Tod's map will be found the place called JESULMER. I learnt from the Colonel's work, that it is a place of very great antiquity, and in a peculiar manner sacred among the Buddhists. In one of the temples is a very large library, and in the centre of it, suspended by a chain of gold in a golden case, is a most sacred, holy manuscript, which is expressly forbidden to be read or even looked upon. It is believed that any person reading it would be instantly struck blind. … and now I beg my reader to transpose the letters of this word Jesulmer, and he will find they make Jeruselm. Take this by itself and the fact would be of little consequence, but couple it with all the other circumstances—with the names of the other towns which I have pointed out, and I defy the unprejudiced reader to divest his mind of a strong suspicion, that the Jerusalem of the West is the Jesulmer of the East, or vice versa.* Jesulmer changed into Jeruselm, is nothing but an example of the practice called Themeru or changing, of the tribe of Ioudi of writing words in the way called anagrammmatical.** …

* A little to the south of Jesulmer, about lat. 26, is a town called Iunah, the old name of Antioch.

** Ency. Britt. Voce Anagram.

Page 413

The meaning of Jeru-salem is the sacred ladder, .-. slm in Hebrew; !/-&. sulma in Chaldee. …

… And when I consider the form of Meru, step above step, the Madré Solyman of Persia, and the rendering of the word .-. slm in the LXX. by cl…max, and in the Vulgate by scala, and the same word .-. slm used for Jacob's ladder, seen at Bit-al or the house of God, on which seventy-two angels ascended and descended, I suspect that the Hiero, %9* ire means sacred, the sacred ladder, or the sacred mount. It is what the Greeks called Olympus. The Bit-al, Bethel, or house of God, which Jacob's place of the ladder was called, is not unlike the Tectum of the Solymi. We must also remember that Solomon, an incarnation of wisdom, is closely connected with the wisdom of the Buddhists. ...

But of all the temples of Solomon, I consider none of more importance than the Tact Solomon or Tecte Soleiman, which is found in Cashmere. "Mr. Forster was so much struck with the general appearance, garb, and manners, of the Cashmerians, as to think he had suddenly been transported among a nation of Jews."* The same idea was impressed upon the mind of Mons. Bernier, on his visiting that country. This Cashmerian temple of Solomon will be found of great consequence. Father Georgius, who was master of the Tibetian language, quotes the story of Anobret from Sanchoniathon, and shews that the Jeud of Sanchoniathon is the Jid of the Tibetians. Jid a Tibetanis Butta tributum. 9*%* ieid Jehid Isaaci epithetum est, Gen. xxii. 2; et Jid Tibetanorum idem ac Jehid Phœnicium et Egyptium.** Thus we have the mount or house or habitation of Solomon or Solyma in India, or the country of Ioud, or of Daud-poutri, or of the sons of David; in Persia, the Madré Solyma, and the same also in Palestine and in Asia Minor; and all, in some way or other, connected with the tribe of Ioudi. Can any one believe all this to be the effect of accident ? Solomon was a personification or incarnation of wisdom, and the Jews, of Asia Minor were a tribe or colony from India, of black Buddhists, at or about the same time with the Ioudi to Syria, under the Brahmin.

* Vol. II. p.21.

** Val. Col. Hib. Vol. V. p.314.



Page 414

Mr. Bryant* observes, that Strabo speaks of a city of the Solymi, in Mesopotamia, called Cabalis, which he explains, the city of the God Baal. It may have been a city of Bal, but that was not the reason for its name. It had its name Cbl or Gbl from the secret doctrine of tradition. It had the same name as the Gabal of Western Syria. Lucian, in his treatise De Deâ Syriâ, says expressly, this "Gabala was Byblos, that is, city of THE BOOK or Bible, famous for the worship of Adonis." In 1 Kings v. 18, the word .*-"1 Gblim, has been translated stone squarers or MASONS; but it means in-habitants of -"1 gbl, or Mount Gibel or Gebel. From this comes the Gabala or Cabala, or chain of traditions. It was** the Mountain of Tradition. It was Gabal changed into Cabal, like gml the name of the animal changed into that of the Camel, in the western countries. But Bal was Bala-rama, an incarnation of Buddha. Suppose Abraham or Ioud came from thence, and it was the Mesopotamia of Eastern or Western Syria, the Cabalis would be the city of the traditionary doctrine.

* Anal. Vol. I. p.106. ** Costa, p.49.

Mount Olympuses are found in many places. These, I apprehend, are the high places reprobated in scripture; but they were all known under different names, the same as the Merus of India, and the Tecte Soleimans. …

Salivahana was King of Pratishtana, called also Saileyadhara, or simply Saileyam in a derivative form.* An ancient treatise of authority says, that Salivahana would appear at Saileya-d'hara, or the city firmly seated on a rock, which compound alludes to the city of Sion, whose foundations are upon the holy hills; "the city of our God, even upon his holy hill." Saileyam would be a very appropriate name, for it is also, in a derivative form, from Saila, and is really the same with Saileya-dhara : and the whole is not improbably from the Arabic Dar-al-salem, or Dar-es-salem, the house of peace, and the name of the celestial Jerusalem, in allusion to the Hebrew name of the terrestrial one. The Sanscrit names of this city of the King of Saileyam or Salem imply its being a most holy place, and consecrated apart, and that it is firmly seated upon a stony hill.**

* Asiat. Res. Vol. X. p.44 **Ibid. Vol. X. pp. 45, 100.

Page 415

Not very far from the country where we find the Indian Tucte Soleyman, the country of Daud-poutri, the city and kingdom of Oude or Ioudi, &c., there is a mountainous district called Afghanistan, or country of the Afghauns, who consist of many millions of people. Their traditions tell them that they are descended from the Jews; that is, I should say, from the Ioudi of Oude; for they know nothing of their descent, except that they came into their present country from a tribe of Oudi or Jews.

In the traditions of the Afghauns, noticed by Elphinston,* the name Saul (from whom they say they are descended,) may be found, as also many circumstances similar to those in the Jewish history; …

* Hist. of Cabul, p.248.

The Turks, who conquered the Arabians or Saracens in modern times, have, in a great measure, adopted their language. When these pagans arrives from Tartary they found the countries which they over-ran chiefly occupied by two races of men,—the Christians and the Mahomedans. The mortifying fact has been concealed as much as possible, but the truth is, that the conquerors adopted the religion of the latter, not of the former. … why the Mohamedan, under the peculiar circumstances of the two, should gain the preference, there is yet another to be found in the language. It is reasonable to expect that (if I be right and that the Ioudi and Arabians were sectaries, from Afghanistan and Rajapoutana, which comprehend what was called the Indian Tartary or Indian Scythia) the languages of the Turks and Arabians should be nearly the same, and very different from the Greek, the prevailing language of the Christians. This was the fact, and it remains so to this day. The Arabic, the language of the Koran, is, in some measure, a learned language of the Turks, though they probably find no great difficulty in it, as "the Turkish contains ten Arabic or Persian words for on originally Scythian."* This agrees extremely well with what we might expect to find, if I be right in my theoty. …

* Rev. R. Chatfield's Hist. Hind. p.366.

Page 416

It is a singular and remarkable fact, that all the authors who have written respecting the Afghans, not only their personal likeness to the Jews, but also the close likeness which their language bears to the Chaldaic. Michaelis* says, "that the dialect of Jerusalem was East Aramean, or, as we call it, Chaldee. The Syriac New Testament is written in the same language, but in a different dialect." Now this language is called Peshito, … we see that the Peshito and the Chaldaic are the same. The language of the Afghans is called Pukto or Pushto; and it seems difficult to help believeing that these are the same languages. This is the language of the sacred books of the Christians of Malabar. …

* Marsh's Mic. Ch. vii. Sect. viii. p.41.

… The countries of the Afghans and of the Rajpouts are so intermingled, that it is impossible, with any precision, to separate them. But in addition to the above, it is a most important fact, that a large district on the Indus was called Arabia, and its inhabitants Arabi.

A very learned man, Mr. Cateret Web, has given it as his opinion, that the country about Bactria was, in primitive times, the seat of the arts, and that thence science was propagated to Persia, Assyria, India, and even to China. …

Page 417

Bactria* is the same as Bucharia, and Bochara, which Abulghazi Khan** says, means country of learned men, and was a place to which persons went from all quarters to acquire knowledge. It was a most beautiful country, abounding in the richest productions of the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms. Perhaps, upon the whole earth, a situation more proper for the birthplace of man could not have been selected.

* Bactr-ia or Boch-ara, the place of learned men, is the place of Bock or the Book.

** Hist. Turks and Tartars, Lond. P.108.

… I am of the opinion that the Afghans were driven out from the kingdom of Oude or Juda, (probably at the same time part of their sect came Westwards,) to the mountainous country where they are found, and from which their sectarian opponents could not expel them. Thus Jews or Ioudi are found in Afghanistan; but in Oude there are only towns formerly occupied by them.




Page 418

… the natives of Oude or Rajapoutana are Hindoos, of the religion of Cristna chiefly. But the Afghans are followers of Mohamed. … and I think there is nothing improbable in a tribe, (like a tribe of Gypsies,) as the Mahomedans say, having come from upper India or the Indian Tartary to Arabia, in the time of Mohamed, and having carried back his new doctrines to the Ioudi of Afghanistan, their ancestors.

I suppose that the tribe of Ioudi were driven out of Rajaputana when the religion of Cristna or Kanyia prevailed. In consequence of this we find the religion of Kanyia in this country; but it was not driven out of Afghanistan or the mountains, but remained there in the situation of the 65 tribes of black Jews without Pentateuchs, found by Dr. Buchanan, until the arrival of the Saracens, when they instantly accepted their religion, for which, in fact, they would be in a very peculiar manner prepared, by having the patriarchs' statues which were of old in the temple at Mecca. The country of Cristna has statues and remains of the same patriarchs, but they have not the least relation now to its religion; they are quite obsolete—only antiquarian curiosities.

Page 419

It has been thought that the story of the descent of the Afghans from Saul is true; among other reasons, because there was a tribe called Khyber in the East, and one, professing the Jewish religion, in Arabia, in the time of Mohamed. … If the Jewish history is to be received, the pious David murdered all Saul's children by the hands of the Gibeonites.* From Mr. Elphinston's account, the traditions of the Jews of Western Syria, and those of the Afghans of Cabul, appear, though now much varied, to have been derived from a common source.

* Elphinston, Hist. Cabul, Vol. II.

Ferisha accounts for the likeness between the Jews and Afghans by saying, that, "The Afghans were Copts ruled by Pharaoh, many of whom were converted to the laws and religion of Moses; but others who were stubborn in their worship to their Gods, fled towards Hindostan, and took possession of the country adjoining the Koh-i-Sooliman."* … In deriving the Afghans from the time of Moses, Ferishta admits their Jewish existence long before the time of Mohamed. … And it appears also that they were equally common with the Moguls, when they first marched to attack Delhi.

* Tod's Hist. Raj. p.241.

Page 420

Arabia means Western Country. If this name were given to the people of the tribe of Arabi who were situated on the Indus, by the Ioudi of Oude, they would be properly called Arabians, or Western people, .*"93 orbim; Arabi-ia country of the Arabi : but they had no pretensions to have this name given to them by the Jews or Greeks. … They were a tribe from the Indus, and brought with them in the mouths of the tribe of Israelites coming from Oude, the name of Western people which they had been accustomed to call them.

Not far from Oude, on the banks of a river called Gagra, by Colonel Wilford, are shewn the icons of Noah, Ayub (Job), and Shis or Sish (Seth). … The idea of the Mohamedans being the authors of these monuments is quite ridiculous, as they could never bear the idea of an image. …

Along with the similarity of language, of laws, of names of places and men, almost all travellers have noticed the similarity of personal character in these people to that of the Jews. The Mohamedans could not cause this. The Adim of India, which, in Sanscreet, means the first, is plainly the Adam of the first book of Genesis. The Nuh or Noah is Menu, who, after the flood, repeopled the renovated world; and the history of Noah and his family are precisely the same in the Sanscreet as in the Hebrew Bible.*

* Maur. Ind. Ant. Vol. VI. p.42.

Page 421

Beyond the limits of Judæa proper, beyond the Jordan, or the river of Adonis, as I shall presently prove its name to mean, was a country called the Decapolis, or country of the ten cities. This was in imitation of a similar arrangement and naming of the country beyond the kingdom of Oude or Juda proper, of India, called Deccan, which is Deccan-ia, and consisted of the country of to the South of the river Buddha, or 9%" ner-Buddha, or Ner-mada, river of the great God. By the author of the circumnavigation of the Erythræan Sea it is called Dachanos.*

* Hamil. Gaz. Deccan.

In lat. 28, 29, and long. 72, will be found an extensive country called Daoudpotra, which means Country of the sons of David. In it will be seen a town called Ahmed-poor—City of Ahmed, the name of Mohamed, and by which his followers say he was foretold. But this was an Arabian name of description before Mohamed was born, or he could not have been foretold by it. Besides, the fact of some person being foretold by it in the Prophet Haggai, shews it to be an ancient and sacred name.* This has a tendency to confirm the histories of the Brahmins, which say, that the Temple of Mecca was founded by a colony of Brahmins from India, and that it was a sacred place before the time of Mohamed, and that they were permitted to make pilgrimages to it several centuries after his time.** Its great celebrity as a sacred place long before the time of the prophet cannot be doubted.

* Vide my Apology for the Life of Mohamed.

** Asiat. Res. Vol. X. p.100.

Not far from the Indus, in Rennell's map, will be found a place in lat. 36, long. 67, called Dura-Yoosoof; also in lat. 32, long. 71, a place on the Indus called DERA-ISMAEL-Kahn. This is the native country of the Olive. Col. Wilford has observed that the name of Abdala is not derived from the Persian word Abdal, the servant of God; but from the name of an ancient tribe of Upper India,* before the time of Mohamed.

* Asiat. Res. Vol. IX. p. 206.

Col. Wilford says, that there are followers of Brahma in Arabia, at this time, who are supposed to be descendants of Hindoos. The greatest part of the old names of places in Arabia are either Sanscrit or Hindi; …

In the Old Testament we read anathemas in almost every page against high places. These were, I apprehend, imitative Merus. Nimrod has observed, that of this character were all the different Olympuses or sacred mounts of this and other names in Greece. There is none more striking than Pindus on its western side.

Page 423

… In short, in the Western as in the Eastern nations, the countries were divided into districts, each having its sacred mount, its trinity of towns, &c., &c. Sir William Drummond, by shewing that almost all the ancient Hebrew names of the Holy land had astronomical meanings, has shewn that it was like all the others. It had its high place at Gerizim in Samaria, and after the schism tool place in the time of the man we and his followers call Dud or David, another was set up at Jerusalem. …

No doubt a careful examination of the names in the Arabian peninsula would afford clear traces of the Indian ancestry. There is a town of Zeuj Agfeuj, or of Agra, as the author of the Universal History calls it;* or perhaps of the Arga, the Nysa, (in fact Mount Sinai,) the birth-place of Bacchus. And again, two cities in a southern direction called Arga and Badeo,** that is, Deo-bud. The river Yamana*** and its city, the same as the river Yamuna in India, with the tribe of the Saraceni or Saracens, evidently the same as the Suraseni of the Jumna. The mount Merwa, another Meru, Moriah, and Meroe;**** the names of Hagar and Ishmael, and many others.

* Vol. XVIII. pp. 345, 355. ** Ib. p.355

*** Yamuna, the name of the sacred river Jumna, means Daughter of the Sun. Asiat. Res. Vol. I. p.29; Sir W. Jones.

**** Ib. p.387.

If I understand Gale rightly, he and Vossius suppose that Mount Sinai was called Nyssa or Nysa. Vide Exod. xvii. 15, Jehovah Nissi.*

* Gale, Court. Gent. Vol. I. p.180.

Page 424

Saba with the Hindoos meant the host of heaven : it is also a most important word in the Bible, where it had the same meaning. It is the Sabaoth of our liturgies, which does not mean Lord God of men-killers, as our narrow-minded priests suppose; but Lord God of the heavenly bodies—of the countless millions of suns and worlds in orderly and perpetual motion. Various places are called after this word. As we have found Solomon in India, it is not surprising that we should find the Saba or Sheba of his Queen there. In Rennell's map it is called Shibi. It is in the kingdom of Cabul, just where we might expect to find it. … I can scarcely doubt that a colony of the same people with the Ioudi settled on the East side of the Red Sea, built Mecca and Jidde, Juda, (as the Brahmins say,) and crossed the sea to Ethiopia or Abyssinia. Hence we find the tradition among the Ethiopians that they are descended from the Ioudi. This accounts for the Israelitish names in Arabia, as we shall hereafter see more fully. The statues of the patriarchs were in the temple at Mecca when Mohamed commenced his reform. The dove was also worshiped along with them.* Against this Mohamed, in a very particular manner, made war. With the assistance of Ali he himself destroyed the dove, the emblem of the female generative power. Mecca has been said to have been founded by Ishmael, the son of the Handmaid or concubine Agar or Hagar. Thus we have a bastard to the Jews—Agar meaning Arga, and Ishmael Apostacy to the religion of the Dove, which was found in the Temple of Mecca or Isis.

* See Asiat. Res. Vol. IV. p.370.

Near the Indus is a river called Nile, one of the branches of which is called Choaspes and Cophes; this river is said to pass through an opening in the mountains, called Gopha. I think it probable that the Nile of Egypt was called Guptus, from the river Cophes or Gopha : and the Gupts or Copts from the same : and that they crossed from the neighbourhood of Mecca or Sheba or Saba to E-gupt-ia. They were, if I be right, correctly Ethiopians and Egyptians. The word Gupta in Sanscrit means Saviour. …

The explanation that the Guptus or Coptos was derived from the Cophrenes of India, is confirmed by the singular circumstance that the Nile, on flowing into the Delta of Egypt, is said to flow from the Cow's belly. The Ganges is said to flow from a sacred place, a gorge in the mountains called Cow's mouth—and the word Cophrenes, Mr. Rennell says, means Cow.* One of the river of the Punjab was called Nilad—this is evidently Nile-aub, river Nile. … On the Indian Nile above named, is a city called Ishmaelistan. We have just observed, that the city of Mecca is said by the Brahmins, on the authority of their old books, to have been built by a colony from India; and its inhabitants from the earliest era have had a tradition that it was built by Ishmael, the son of Agar. This town, in the Indian language, would be called ISHMAELISTAN.

* Mem. Map Hind. pp. 115, 120.



Page 425

My reader has probably not forgotten the proofs I have adduced, that the old Hebrew, the Samaritan, and the Arabian, are the same language. … In the account which Mr. Elphinston* has given of the divisions of the Afghans into tribes or clans, their similarity to the ancient tribes of the Jews and of Arabia, is very apparent. This system of tribes was formed long prior to the time of Mohamed. And it may here be observed, that the moment Mohamed or his califs conquered, the clans or tribes generally disappeared : … for some time after the conquests of Mohamed, the tribes of Arabia were all confounded beneath his victorious banner. This at once answers the idle pretences of the Afghans' founding their tribes, and naming their districts and towns, from modern Mohamedans. Their governors are called Mullik, evidently the Hebrew and Arabic word for King; and also Mushir, which is the corruption of the Arabic word Mosheer a Counsellor,** or perhaps Judge.

* Vol. I. p.256. ** Ibid. Vol. I. p.258.

The salutation of the Afghans is correctly Hebrew : Assalaum Alaikoom—Peace be with you.*

* Ibid. Vol. II. p.372.

The Afghan mode of government by tribes, bears a striking resemblance to that of the Israelites under the Judges. … The natives have a code of criminal law different from the Mohamedan, such as one would suppose to have prevailed before the institution of civil government.* …

* Ibid. Vol. I. p.265.

Mr. Maurice and Mr. Halhed have observed a very close similarity between many of the institutes of Menu and the Mosaic code, and that not consisting merely in precepts of morality, but in examples of artificial refinement, which could not be discovered by the principles of common sense, like many moral laws—for instance the law against Murder. Of this, the order to a brother to take the widow to raise up seed to his brother, is one out of a vast number of examples from which a judgment may be formed of the remainder, without occupying more of the reader's time.*

* Maurice, Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p.834.

Page 426

Major Rennell will not be suspected of writing to uphold my theory, and he expressly says, that the Rajpoots of Agimere, or inhabitants of Rajpootana, who possess a country equal to half of France, preserved their independence from the conquests of Mahmood, and still preserve it to the present time.* He is confirmed by Col. Tod.** This at once puts an end to the plea that the ancient towns, whose Judaite names have been noticed by Sir W. Jones, were built by the Mohamedans. Many of them are in ruins, and were probably reduced to this state when Mahmood of Ghazni swept across the country like a tornado, not creating towns, but every where when in his power destroying them; the ruins of which, having Jewish names, remain. … Calmet*** says … that the Tartars eat no swines' flesh, observe the Levitical law, which require that the brother shall marry the brother's widow if he die without children &c., &c; all customs now found among the nations of Central Asia, as we have seen.

* Preface to Mem. of Map. p. xlvii.

** See Trans. Asiat. Soc. Vol. II. p.270.

*** Dict. in VOCE TRA.

Page 427

My suspicion respecting the nature of the faith of the Mohamedans, and the effects of it, is strengthened by an observation of Col. Tod's, that when they destroyed the Idols of all the other religions, they left those of the Buddhists and Jains* untouched. This was because, in their secret religion, as I shall presently shew, they were followers of the doctrine of Wisdom or Buddha, and of the Linga. …

* Trans. Asiat. Soc. Vol. II. p.285.

We have in India, as already shewn, a mount of Solomon, a country of Juda, and another of the sons of David, and a Mount Moriah or Meru, and places and persons without number called Isis or Jesse.

Page 428

Col. Tod says, "With Mat’hura as a centre, and a radius of eighty miles, describe a circle : all within it is Vrij,* which was the seat of whatever was refined in Hinduism, and whose language, the Vrij-basha, was the purest dialect of India. Vrij is tantamount to the land of the Sura-seni, derived from Sur-sen, the ancestor of Cristna, whose capital, Surpuri (i.e. Sura or Syra-pore,) is about fifty miles South of Mat’hura on the Yamuna (Jumna) : the remains of this city the author had the pleasure of discovering."** The Yamana was sometimes called black, sometimes blue.*** The river was Yamuna; the country would be, as in Arabia, Yemen. A little before, the Colonel says, "The Yadu B’hatti or Shama B’hatti (the Ashani of Abul Fuzil) draw their pedigree from Cristna or Yadu-nat’h as do the Iha-riéjas of Kutch." Here the Hebrew and Greek God Ii, or I, or Jah, IE of Delphi, is apparent enough. Cristna or Yadu is the God Iaw—the du-ya. Wherever we find the words div or dev or du thus used, we almost always find it meant holy or deity.

* Of this country Jyadeva was a poet : this is evidently a mystic name.

** Trans. Asiat. Soc. Vol. II. p.286. *** Ibid, p.287, n.

Page 429

In p. 714, Col. Tod says, "This hierarch bore the title of divinity, or Nat’hji : his prænomen of Deo, or Deva, was almost a repetition of his title : and both together, Deonat’h, cannot be better rendered than by ‘Lord God.’" Deo-Nath-ji would be then, Lord God Jah or Self-existent Lord God. This Nath’ji was Cristna.* Nath is the Neith of Egypt, which meant Wisdom, and the Chinese name of God Tien, which read Hebraicè, is Neit.

* Tod, Hist. Raj. p.530.

Col. Tod* remarks, the annals of the Yadus of Jesulmer state, that the Yadus and Yutis,** whose resemblance, he says, is more than nominal, soon after the war of the Mahabharat,*** held dominion from Guzni to Samarkland; that the race of Ioude was still existing near the Indus in the emperor Baber's time, who describes them as occupying the mountains in the first Do-ab, the very place the annals of the Yadus state them to have occupied twelve centuries before Christ, and thence called Iadu or Yadu-ca-dang, the hills of Iadu or Yadu. The circumstance of Yadu being said to be the father of Cristna,**** seems to imply that the tribe of Yadu or Ioudi arose before Cristna, or before the Sun entered Aries. This exactly agrees with the way I have accounted for the Afghans being Mohamedans, in Chapter V.

* Trans. Asiat. Soc. Vol. II. p.295 ** That is, the Getæ, I suppose.

*** i.e. the battles of Cristna. **** Asiat. Res. Vol. III.

If I be right in my idea that the religion of the Jews came from India, it is natural to expect that we should find their famous God JEHOVAH among the Hindoos, and this is, indeed, the fact. But my reader must divest his mind of the barbarous corruption of the word Jehovah, and restore the God to his true name, %&%* Ieue %* Ie, as we call it Jah, and as it called in Sanscrit, that is, in meaning, the self-existent, but often denominated the God of victory. Among the Hindoo Gods there is scarcely one who has not a name which contains, in some way or other, the elements of the Ie, or God of the Jews. …

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This name IE, corrupted into ia, Iy, Iu, Yu, Ya, occurs unceasingly in the Hindoo names of Gods, and often in their sacred ceremonies, where they sing or chaunt IEYE. How can any thing be more convincing than the exclamation of this word IEYE, the meaning of which they may probably have lost ?

I suppose Col. Tod to be a believer in the actual human existence of Cristna : but I think the following passage will satisfy my reader who and what he was, as well as strongly support my theory respecting Buddha. "Chrishna, Heri,* Vishnu, or more familiarly Kaniya,** was of the celebrated tribe of Yadu, or Jadu, the founder of the fifty-six tribes who obtained the sovereignty of India, was descended from Yayat,*** the third son of a primeval man called Swayambhuma Manu,**** or MANU Lord of the earth, whose daughter Ella (Terra) was espoused by Buddha (Mercury), son of Chandra (the Moon), whence the Yadus are called Chandravansi or children of the moon. Buddha was therefore worshiped as the great ancestor (Pitriswara or father God) of the lunar race; and, previous to the Apotheosis of Crishna, was the common object of devotion with all the Yadu tribe. The principal shrine of Buddha was at Dwarica, where he yet receives adoration as Buddha Trivicrama (triple energy—the Hermes Triplex of the Egyptians)."***** The Indian Cristna, we find, is called Kaniya. He is the Apollo of India. This word is Kan-iya, and is the same as the word Cunnius, his name at Athens, and the IE the word in front of his temple at Delphi. Diodorus ays, Apollo's name was Kan.****** From this has come the word Khans of Tartary. The meaning of Kan-iya will be self-existent generating power. Cristna is commonly called Sham-nat’h. This is .: sm and the word Nath which means God. .: sm is the singular of 0*.: smin, planets, or disposers. From this may come Samanaut or Sumnaut. Col. Tod says, Cristna worshiped Buddha before his deification. This explains itself. Afterward the Colonel adds, in the cave of Gaya, is the inscription******** "Heri, who is Buddha." Heri is Cristna.

* The Saviour. ** Kayina the Colonel has before stated to be the same as the Greek Apollo.

*** Query, Japhet ? **** Also called Vaiva-swata Manu, "The man son of the sun."

***** Trans. Asiat. Soc. Vol. II. p.229. ****** Ibid. P.312. ******* Ibid. p.304.

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We have just observed that Cristna and Buddha were the same, but that Buddha was called Trivicrama or Triple Energy. This was the Hermes Trismegistus or Triptolemos—the Aleim or Trinity of the Jews, called IE, of Jah. "Cristna or Kaniya lived at the conclusion of the brazen age, which is calculated to have been about 1100 or 1200 years before Christ." Here I think proof enough is admitted to shew that this Apollo or Kaniya was no other than the son or successor of Buddha in one of his renewed incarnations, which of course could be no other than the Sun. … Every prince descends from some great God, that is, from the Sun; and all that can be made out for a certainty is, that the Sun was the first God, and the parent of the family. …

A singular and artless observation is made by Mr. Kæmpfer, in his History of Japan,* in his account of JUDIA, the capital of Siam : "The Gates and other avenues of the place are crowded with black, checquered figures, painted in the manner as they do with the images at the holy sepulchre at Jerusalem." This observation respecting these people of JUDIA is very striking. The name of the God worshiped here is Prah pudi Dsiau. But divide the last word thus, Ds-iau, and what have we ? Deus-Iau. He is called Siaka or Saka, the Irish Sacya. The God is an exact Buddha sitting, 120 feet high. The country swarms with monks. The Idol is also called Amida (Om-di), a name of Buddha. He is seen standing upright on the flower Tarate, or Faba-Egyptiaca, or Nymphæa Magna incarnata. He is believed to be the intercessor of departed souls. The High-priest lives in JUDIA, and his authority is such, that the king is obliged to bow to him. … Pra in the Baly or Bali, the sacred language of Judia or Odian, the capital of the kingdom of Sion, signifies the Sun and the great living God :** that is, the creator or former, giver of forms. From this has come Pra ja-pati, or the Lord of mankind, which means father, ja, creator.*** This Pra is evidently the Hebrew word !9" bra, to create or form, of the first verse of Genesis. …

* Vol. I. p.29. ** La Loubière, pp. 6,7. *** Asiat. Res. Vol. VIII. p.255.

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I beg my reader to look at the ruins of the ancient cities of India, Agra, Delhi, Oude, Mundore, &c., which have many of them been much larger than London, the last, for instance, 37 miles in circumference, built in the oldest style of architecture in the world, the Cyclopean, and I think he must at once see the absurdity of the little Jewish mountain tribe being the founders of such a mass of cities. We must also consider that we have almost all the places of India in Western Syria. Let us also consider how we have nests of Asiatic places in Greece, in several districts the Mounts, the Argoses, Tripolies, &c., and I think no one can help seeing that these circumstances are to be accounted for in no other way than by the supposition that there was in very ancient times one universal superstition, which was carried all over the world by emigrating tribes, and that they were originally from Upper India.

No one can deny that it is very extraordinary, and it is to me an unaccountable, circumstance, that Herodotus, writing the History of Babylon, of Egypt, and of Syria, and travelling across these countries, should have known nothing of the magnificent empire of King Solomon, or of the emigration of two millions of Jews from Egypt, and the destruction of the hosts of Pharaoh. How was this ignorance possible, if there be a word of truth in the Jewish histories ? Did Pythagoras and Plato never hear of the glories of Solomon ? Would not their followers have told Herodotus if they had known of them ? …

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He was (Solomon), probably, the prosperous king of a petty tribe, and had a mystic name given to him, though he oppressed his people, an ignorant, priest-ridden race, to erect a very fine palace and temple; and it is no way wonderful that when the energies of a whole tribe, though not a very great one, are directed for a great number of years to the raising and adorning of one building, that it should be very magnificent. The very same effect followed the same cause in the states of central India, whence the Jews had emigrated, as the prints of several of the temples in Col. Tod's history clearly prove. If any thing can be deduced from the style of the architecture, the Indian temples are of the same date with the temples at Pæstum : and as the most ancient and most important of the Hindoo emblems were found there by Col. Tod, it is probable that they were erected by the same race.




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The excessive hatred of the Jews to the adoration of the Queen of Heaven, Milcomb and Asteroth of the Sidonians, is visible every where in the Bible, as well as to that of the Bull Apis, under the names of Baal, Moloch, Thamas, &c., &c. though the hypothesis that the Jews were a branch of a sect which arose in the disputes of India about the Linga and Ioni may be new, when every thing is considered, I trust it will not be thought improbable. It seems rationally to account for circumstances which, as far as I am ware, have not been explained before, and to remove many difficulties. And I think when it is well understood and duly considered, it will be found to be in favour of Christian and Jewish religions, and not against them.

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"Major Orme* reckons eighty-four castes in India, each of which has a physiognomy peculiar to itself. The more civilized tribes," he says, "are more comely in their appearance. The noble order of the Brahmins are the fairest and the most comely. The mountaineers most resemble Negroes in their countenances and their hair. The natives of the hilly districts of Bengal and Bahar can hardly be distinguished by their features from the modern Ethiopians."** All this accords very well with my theory respecting the black Buddha. Probably at the time the black Jews divided from their countrymen, they were black—and, from being always few in number and low in rank, and breeding entirely in their own caste, they have kept their ancient sable complexion. It has been observed, that the figures in all the old caves of India have the appearance of Negroes.*** This tends to prove not only the extreme antiquity of these caves, but also the original Negro character of the natives.

* Indostan, Introd. ** Pritchard, Phys. Hist. p.392.

*** Hunter, in Archæologia, Vol. VII.; Dr. F. Buchanan, Asiat. Res. Vol. VI.

Dr. Pritchard has most clearly proved, as I have stated in Book V. Chap. XIII. Sect. 2, that the ancient Egyptians were Negroes. He observes that "the Greeks writers always mention the Egyptians as being black in their complexions. … Herodotus, who was well acquainted with the Egyptians, mentions the blackness of their complexions more than once. …*

* Pritchard, Phys. Hist. p.377.

For the truth of the theory which I have advanced—that the Jews did originally come from India, in addition to the circumstantial evidence, I have as good proof as it is possible for written records to afford. This I say roundly of the testimony of Megasthenes. He cannot be supposed to have had any prejudice against the Jews : his observations respecting their being an Indian tribe seems to have fallen from him merely as illustrative of the character of the Hindoos. The Hindoos were the object of the book, not the Jews. He had no interested motive to induce him to misrepresent or to deceive; and the priests cannot here set up even their hackneyed argument of hatred of the Jews to account for or obviate any thing which is unfavourable to them, as his assertion is merely confirmatory of Mose's narrative—that they came from the East, and is in praise of them or their system. The passage, which I have noticed before, where he observes that the Indians and the Jews were the only people who had any true idea of chronology and the nature of the creation of the world, is very striking, when coupled with what I have just laid before the reader. It all tends strongly to prove the close connexion between the Indians and the Jews.

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Another reason for the continuance of the dark complexion of the Jews, and their marked national character, is to be found in their ancient law, which forbade them from marrying out of their own tribe. This law was long anterior to Moses, and was only re-enacted by him. We have, perhaps, the first appearance of it, in the esoteric history of Jacob and Esau. … and he was excluded that his children might not inherit.* The same thing happened to Moses, who married an Ethiopian woman, as I have before pointed out, and therefore his children did not inherit; but the supreme power and the priesthood descended to the sons of Aaron, his nephews. …

* Vide Gen. xxvi. 34, 35.

The Jews, as a race, are very handsome; they take after their ancestor Cristna. Nothing is more easy than to distinguish a thorough-bred Jew or Jewess. And it is very greatly to the honour of the Jewish matrons that the family likeness or national peculiarity should have continued so long. …

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The result of all my inquiries comes to this : that about the time of the change of the Vernal Equinox from Taurus to Aries, several emigrations took place from the Mesopotamia of India to the West, in consequence of the great civil wars which then prevailed. One of these emigrations was of the tribe of Ioudi, who constituted the Jews, Arabians, and African Ethiopians. Another emigration about the same time, but probably a little earlier, was that of the sect of the Ionians. These, I think, also came from the Duab or Mesopotamia. Long after these succeeded the tribe of Tartars or Scythians, mentioned by Ezekiel, who came down between the Black and Caspian seas, and overran southern Asia. These probably came from the North of the Duab spoken of above. After a long series or years, the Arabian descendants returned, under the Mohamedan Califs, and reconquered India, crossing the Duab or Mesopotamia in their progress, and partly conquering it. Here they found the rudiments of their language, and the names of towns similar to those which their ancestors had carried to the West, and a mythology in great part similar to their own—the Judahs, Jacobs, Noahs, Shems, Japhets, &c., &c. … Again, after the lapse of another long series of years, the descendants of the North-eastern Tartars, spoken of above as having come down from the North of the Duab under the name of Scythians, advanced towards the West—and, under the name of Turks, conquered the Saracens or Arabians in Syria, Arabia, and Greece, and took Constantinople, and Mount Hæmus, which has retaken its old name of Balk-an and Chumla. These people brought with them a language radically the same as that of the Arabians, yet, as might well be expected after a separation of so many years, considerably changed; nevertheless not so much changed, but that, with very little difficulty, they understood the Arabians. The close similarity of the Turkish and Arabian languages is a striking proof of my whole theory. …




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I must now make a few observations respecting a certain person called Pandion; but whether there ever was such a person, or the stories told respecting him were mere mythoses, it is extremely difficult to determine. Mr. Maurice says, "But superior to both, in grandeur and wealth, in this southern division of India, soared the puissant sovereign, named Pandion, whose kingdom extended quite to the southern point of Comaria or Comarin, and who was probably of the ancient race of the renowned Pandus. … The residence of this monarch was at the city of Madura, and the extent of his power is evident from the whole of that district being denominated from him Pandi-Mandalam, literally the circle of Pandion. …."* But I beg to observe that Pan-di-Man-dalam means, the circle or district of the holy Pan, or the district sacred to the Catholic God.

* Maurice, Hist. Hind. Ch. vi.

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The temple of the Ionians of Asia Minor, built by the twelve tribes, at the place called Pan-Ionium, would mean, temple of the universal or catholic Ioni, or the Ioni-an Pan. The Indian palace of one of the great kings or Gods—Pandion, i.e. Pandu—was at Madoura, i.e. Mat’hura.* Here I think we have the female principle in Asia, and the male in India, at the birthplace of Cristna. Cunti or Prit’ha was the wife of Pandu, and mother of the Pandavas, and she was the daughter of Sura, king of the Surasenas. Sura, the most illustrious of the Yadus, was the father of Vasudeva.** Here id Pandu, the universal God, having for wife Cunti, the female generative power, &c. Can any one doubt the mythos here ? …

* Tod's Account, Trans. Asiat. Soc. Vol. I. p.326.

** Wilson's HIstory of Cashmir. P.97.

Pandion was king of Athens,* whose son, by the famous Medea, was called Medus, and became king of the Medes. Perseus was the cousin of Medus, and the nephew of Pandion.**

* Diod. Sic. Lib. iv. Cap. iii.

** A female Pan may be seen in the second volume of the Monumenta Vetusta.

When I consider all the circumstances detailed above respecting the Pans, I cannot help believing that, under the mythos, a doctrine or history of a sect is concealed. Cunti, the wife of Pandu (du or God, Pan), wife of the generative power, mother of the Pandavas or devas, daughter of Sura or Syra the Sun—Pandæa only daughter of Cristna or the Sun—Pandion, who had by Medea a son called Medus, the king of the Medes, who had a cousin, the famous Perseus—surely all this is very mythological—an historical parable !

I think Pandeism was system; … We have seen that though Cristna was said to have left many sons, he left his immense empire, which extended from the sources of the Indus to Cape Comorin, (for we find a Regio Pandionis near this point,) to his daughter Pandæa; but, from finding the icon of Buddha so constantly shaded with the nine Cobras, &c., I am induced to think that this Pandeism was a doctrine, which had been received both by Buddhists and Brahmins.

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The case, I apprehend, was this : in early times the Gods were known by their names of Bala, Rama, Cristna, &c. : by these holy names the princes, (as we know was the fact in later times,) were called, and the bards or family genealogists filled up the picture. Thus we have great numbers of princes who trace their pedigree from the same Gods. I think there can be no doubt that sects may be traced by their significant names. Thus we find Ionas every where. We have them in India, in Syria, in Asia Minor, in Thrace, in Britain. Can any one believe that this peculiar and significant name is found in all these places by accident ? Again : we have Pandions, Pan-dis, Pan-deas, Pandus, at Cape Comorin and Tanjore, in Upper India, in Asia Minor, and at Athens. … Every very ancient town has two or three names. Every ancient person of eminence has the same. He has one, which is his patronymic name, another his sacred, astrological, or lucky name; and he has generally a third given him from his supposed qualities or character. This added to the frauds of the genealogists, renders all history a riddle. …

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… The histories of Brahma, of Genesis, and of Troy, cannot properly be called frauds, because they were not originally held out as histories; but as covers for a secret system. But in later times they were mistaken for history, and lamentable have been the effects of the mistake. The history of Lazarus in the Gospel is not true, but it is not a fraud.

A few pages back, I said that the Jews were the latest emigrants from India, with one exception, of which I should presently treat. … The subject to which I alluded was that of the Gypsies. … It is now acknowledged by all, that they are of oriental origin. I have been told by two gentlemen who had returned from India, that they understood of the Gypsies when they spoke it, and that it was the Hindostannee. A strong circumstance of corroboration of this is given by a German called Grellman,* who has written the best account of them which I have seen, though mixed with much nonsense. Mr. Marsden has proved the language of the Gypsies to be mostly Hindostannee and Bengalee.**

* P. 171. Eng. Ed.

** Archæol. Vol. VII. p.252; Vall. Col. Hib. Vol. V. p.310.

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… Grellman states the Hindo languages to be ALL radically the same, which is what we might reasonably expect, …

Their complexion, like that of the Jews, proves the Gypsies also to be oriental. … I consider them to a tribe, like that of the Jews, from India. The difference in the fortunes of the two tribes is this : one continued together till it became strong enough to create jealousy, which caused its expulsion from Egypt, and it continued united, having fortunately a leader skilled, by accident, in all the learning of the Egyptians, who took command, and under whom it conquered and became a nation. The other was not so fortunate. It had no child accidentally adopted and educated by a princess, or other circumstances favouring it as they did the Jewish tribe; it has, therefore, continued miserable and dispersed. … That the Gypsies were a Buddhist tribe is proved, in part at least, by one singular remnant of the religion of Buddha, which they yet retain. It is contrary to their faith to kill animals to eat, but if they find them dead, they are permitted to eat them. … Like the Jews, they couple only in their tribe, and thus their national cast of countenance continues.

The Jews were originally believed to have a peculiar power of extinguishing fire: this is continued to the Gypsies.* The Jews were believed to eat children : this was formerly also believed of the Gypsies. The oldest accounts which we have of them, given by themselves, state them to be emigrants on account of religion.** If ever their history shall be sought into diligently by a philosopher, which has never yet been done, I think they will be found to be a tribe from Upper India—Afghans perhaps.*** …

* Grel. P.87. ** Ib. p.121.

*** for more information see Asiat. Res. Vol. VII. p.476.

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In the Morning Herald for the 16th or 17th of April 1827, is a paragraph stating, the Bible societies were giving Hebrew Bible to the natives Irish, as it was found that they were better understood than the English. This, in a very remarkable manner, supports what General Vallancey has maintained, but which has been much ridiculed by weak people, that Ireland was colonised by a tribe from the East, and particularly from Phœnicia. All this seems to confirm the very close connexion which there must have been in some former time, between Siam, Afghanistan, Western Syria, and Ireland. Indeed I cannot doubt that there has been really one grand empire, or one Universal, one Pandæan, or one Catholic religion, with one language, which has extended over the whole of the world; uniting or governing at the same time, Columbo in the island of Serrendive, and Columbo in the West of Scotland. This must have been Buddhist, whether it ever really existed as one empire, or was divided into different states. …


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