Godfrey Higgins




Volume I [867 pages]
Volume II
[525 pages]




Page 291

I now propose to fulfil the promise which I gave in my last book—to make some observations on the flood or floods which have taken place upon our globe. To treat this subject fully would require a volume. I must confine myself to one or two observations, upon a few well-known facts.—I suppose it will not be denied that the history of the flood is an integral part of the Mosaic system; that whether it be allegory or a literal history, the whole book or collection of books called Genesis must go together, and be considered on the same principle : if the first and second tracts be allegory, so likewise must the third.

In almost every part of the world the fossil remains of animals are found,—animals which the researches of Mons. Cuvier have proved must have been deposited at long intervals of time, between which depositions great floods or catastrophes may have taken place.* … The creation of the world in six successive days and nights, and the creation of man before the floods which embedded the animals in the strata above alluded to, are assertions, the falsity of which, if taken to the letter, is as well proved as the nature of the case will admit. Therefore the doctrine of allegory must now be revived—the doctrine of the ancient Jews, and the earliest and most learned fathers of the Christian Church—a doctrine lost in the darkness and debasement of intellect during the middle ages. It is said that the proof of the allegorical signification is only negative proof; but it is a very peculiar kind of negative proof; for the fossil elephant is found—but in the same strata the positive absence of the remains of man is palpable. The history of Noah and the Deluge being the same in India and Western Syria,** whatever may be the meaning of the one must be the meaning of the other.

* Vide Celtic Druids.

** In a future page I shall shew that there were two Syrias.

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The history of Genesis conceals, under its allegory, the most profound knowledge of natural philosophy, and the general information of the world, as proved by the most learned researches of Mons. Cuvier and other Geologists : and this has a strong tendency to support the opinion of the great Bailly, that a profoundly learned race of people existed previous to the formation of any of our systems. In this investigation we must recollect, that M. Cuvier's doctrines are not founded on what are called theories, but on experimental philosophy.

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That several floods have taken place cannot be doubted; ocular demonstration as well as tradition prove this. Like what has been called early history, the fact was seized on by the priests, and made subservient to the secret religion which every where prevailed. Thus we have a story in India, or Eastern, Syria, Mesopotamia or Chaldea, of the germ or seed of all nature preserved in a ship fastened to the mount of Nau-band-a, or the ship-banded or cabled mount;* in Western** Syria or Mesopotamia or Chaldea, the story of the ark of Noah and his eight sailors. But because the fact was thus converted into a parable, and used for the purpose of preserving a mythos, and the same mythos in both countries, it does not therefore follow that there was not a flood.

* See B. V. Chap. V. Sect. 2.

** There were two countries of each of these names.

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… The text [Genesis] does not say, that the surface of the whole globe was covered. The word v$!% e-arz does not necessarily include the whole surface of the globe : … It may mean nothing more than the surface of the old land, and have nothing to do with the Americas, for it often means countries as well as the earth.*

* Gen. x. 5, 20, ii. 11, 12; Deut. vi. 1, 3, 10; Psa. Cvi. 27, cv. 44, et al.

Now, if we consider the history of the flood in this point of view, there is nothing improbable in the destruction having been so great over the world as to have left only a very few persons of one or two nations (the Indians and Chinese perhaps) in such a state as to retain possession of their books and records—whence they might be called the inhabitants of the city of Sephora, that is, the city of letters; Sephor, in Hebrew, meaning a letter, or a cipher or figure of notation. No person has ever pretended to find this city, but it has been thought to be Babylon. At all events, I think I have shewn that when the prejudices of philosophers against the nonsense of devoteeism, and the prejudice of devotees for nonsense, are disposed of, and the text fairly understood and explained, there is nothing implied in the flood of Noah impossible or incredible, or that may not rationally be accounted for from natural causes. …

When the first of the great convulsions spoken of above had ceased, I suppose that the world was left with the Mediterranean a great lake, overflowing a head or bank at the straits of Gibraltar; covering with water the Delta, or Lower Egypt, if it then existed, the Poutine Marshes of Italy, and many islands and shores of the Mediterranean now dry. The Aral, the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Asoph or Maietis or Mætis, and the Euxine, were probably one sea, or a series of lakes, exactly like the series of lakes in North America, flowing over the head at Niagara. After a long course of years, the breaking down of the banks which held up these eastern or higher lakes might cause very great local floods, probably those alluded to by Plato,—might cause first the low lands on the banks of the Mediterranean to be flooded, and, at last, by breaking through the barrier at Gibraltar, cause them to be again left dry. All this is within the bounds of possibility, and probability too, if what the traveller Pallas says be true, that the appearance of the surface of the countries between the Aral, the Caspian, and the Sea of Asoph, shews that they have formerly all been connected. In all this we have nothing more than natural effects succeeding to natural causes.*

* From the relations of Pallas and other travellers in the neighbourhood of the Caspian, there are distinct traces of the Aral, the Caspian, the Mæotis or Sea of Asoph, the Euxine, all having been once connected. Quarterly Review, No. LXXXVI. P.447.

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… But the reasons which I have given to prove that man has been created since the universal flood, which buried the last race of fossilized animals, seem to be satisfactory; therefore, the flood of which I now speak must have been of later date, and this later flood is what the priests of all religions have exaggerated into a universal deluge, burying the highest of our present mountains fifteen cubits deep. This flood may have taken place in the period of from about two to three thousand years before Christ. At this time the celebrated city of the great Bali, or Maha-Balipore, near Sadrass, in India, may have been destroyed. Of this city the Cambridge Key* says, "The stately palaces, august temples, and stupendous edifices, of this once magnificent city, are universally believed by every Hindoo, whether learned or unlearned, to have been destroyed by 'a genearl deluge brought upon the earth by the immediate mandate of the Supreme God.' They still shew the chasm in the rock, that forms one of the largest choultrys; and the divided sculpture but too plainly shews that nothing less than a convulsion of nature could have rent so large a mass of solid stone, leaving the divided sculpture on each side the chasm,—evidently denoting that it was carved before the convulsion took place. This is a truth too apparent to be denied."

* Vol. I. p.313.

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The account given by this gentleman is, in general, confirmed by William Chambers, Esq., in the first volume of Asiatic Transactions.*

* P. 152, Ed. 8vo.

We are told by Plato, that before the race of people who occupied Greece in his time lived, a previous race had been destroyed by a great flood. Now, I think it may be possible to find a probable cause for this effect : but I will previously make a few observations on the Pyramid and Delta of Egypt, from which I think we may, in our search, gain some assistance.

I shall, in the first place, give an extract from the work of a learned priest of the name of Gab, of the Romish Church, which contains a statement of several curious and unobserved facts. "… But if this deposite of sand is not the effect of the winds, by what agency came it here ? Not by any extraordinary overflowing of the Nile, from which a sediment might be left : for it is known, that river never rose to near the height of that plain of rock, nor are there any kind of shell-fish in the Nile : whereas shells and petrified oysters are found in the sands about the Pyramids.

"And it must be allowed, when this Pyramid of Giza was built, there were no such depths either of sands or of earth upon the rock, as in the time of Herodotus, from the absurdities that would follow such a supposition : since the builders must first have dug out their depth of sand equal in extent of twelve English acres : and when their work was completed, must be argued to have filled in, against the declining sides, to the level of the former surface, and thus have buried a considerable part of their own work.

"From these positions, it evidently appears, this Pyramid must have been erected by the Antediluvians before the universal deluge, called Noah's flood, and the description given of it in Holy Writ will account in a satisfactory manner for the lodgment of sand on the surface of that extensive rock.

"It is natural to conclude the heavier particles of sand, when the waters became tranquil, would sink first, and the lighter particles, of course, both on account of their texture as well as their more exposed situation, would easily pulverize, and be sooner conveyed by the winds to distant places, than the ponderous, compressed layers, intermixed with shells and portions of loam, which more immediately covered the sides of the Pyramid nearer the rock. Of course the reduction of this consolidated mass has been by slow degrees, and its dispersion by the winds so imperceptible as to defeat observation."*

* Gab's Finis Pyramidis.

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In addition to the argument of Mr. Gab, upon the excavation to acquire a foundation for the Pyramids, it may be asked, If they were built on the rock before it was covered with sand from the desert, how came the ROCK itself not to be covered ? Did the winds only begin to blow sand when the Pyramid began to be built ? During the thousands of years before, was no sand blown ? This appears to me to form a very strong argument in favour of Mr. Gab's hypothesis, though it seems to have been overlooked by him.

Ancient Giza was, I think, the sea-port before the Nile changed its bed; and the change was probably effected by the inundation of which I shall speak, which at the same time buried the Pyramids in sand, changed the bed of the river, and, in great part, if not entirely, formed the Delta. The flood which, I shall shew, flowed up Egypt, probably covered a considerable part of Lybia, and carried thither shells similar to those found at the foot of the great Pyramid, and on the surface of the sand around the temple of Seva or Jupiter Ammon,* to which it is not impossible the flood extended. …

* Vide Rennel, ib. pp. 238, 257.

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If we suppose that the strait of Gibraltar was originally closed like the Isthmus of Suez, and that the water flowed over the neck of land, we may readily conceive how Lower Egypt, the Isthmus of Suez, the Pontine Marshes, and many islands, would be left dry, on its breaking down the neck into the Atlantic. Whether the opening increased gradually for a great number of years after its first disruption, or it happened at once, it will readily account for the Pharos of Alexandria having once stood a considerable distance from the land, and for the city of Hadria and the sea-port of Padua, in Italy, being left far inland, where they are now found.

Page 301

We learn from Plato, and other Greek authors, that, in a very remote æra, a large island in the Atlantic ocean was swallowed up by the sea, and with it numerous nations, at one moment, drowned. This history does not seem improbable, and will, if admitted, account for many coincidences between the natives of the old and new worlds.

Of the size of this Atlantis we know really nothing. It may have been three times as large as Australia, for any thing which we know to the contrary. …

The first convulsion of which I have spoken is that which made Britain an island, and threw up Mount Blanc and Chimborazo. After that convulsion another might have been caused by the sinking of Atlantis. This may have been caused by that which occasioned the destruction of Maha-bali-pore. Another great change in all the islands and shores of the Mediterranean may have taken place when the opening was made at the straits of Gibraltar, and another great change may have taken place when the lakes Aral, Asoph, and Euxine, broke their banks, by which the flood described by Plato may have been first effected, and the Delta of Egypt, and the shores of Italy left dry, after it had escaped at the straits. All those different catastrophes probably happened. Of their order, except with respect to the first, I give no opinion.

Page 302

I have lately discovered a geological fact of nature which bears strongly upon this subject. There in Yorkshire, near the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Trent, within the angle which they make before they unite and form the river Humber, a tract of alluvial country of great riches and fertility, which has formerly been covered with oak and fir timber, the lower parts of which yet remain in the ground fixed as they grew. … This country is now defended from the tides by banks maintained at a very great expense; but the fact to which I have alluded is this—the tides now rise at least six feet above the surface of the soil where the remains of these trees are yet found. …

From this it is quite certain that a great change must have taken place in the relative levels of the land and ocean, because these trees could never have grown in a soil where they were daily flooded with salt water. What I have stated with respect to the tides and the remains of the trees which I have seen, are facts which cannot be disputed, and I think they shew that a very great but unsuspected change has taken place, or is taking place, in the relative situations of the land and the sea. Every thing tends to shew, that the surface of the Mediterranean sea, with respect to its shores, has been lowered. The facts stated respecting the trees in Yorkshire PROVE that the Atlantic, with relation to the land of Britain, has been raised, or vice versa, the land lowered. …

… For more information on subjects connected with the series of lakes, or the inland seas of Asia, the reader may consult, among the ancients, Strabo, Lib. i.; Pliny, Hist. Nat. Lib. ii. Cap. 90; and Diodorus Siculus : among the moderns, Pallas, Reise, durch Siberien, Book v.; Klaproth's Survey of the Country North of Caucasus; Mons. Choiseul Gouffier, Mémoire de Institut. Royal de France, 1815; Dr. Clarke's Travels; and Muller's Univers. Hist. Trans. Vol. I. p.33.




Page 303

In the two following chapters I shall repeat, with some important additions, or shall collect into one view, what has been said in a variety of places in the foregoing work, respecting the Queen of Heaven, the Virgin Mary, and her son Iaw; to which I shall also add some observations respecting the famous God Bacchus.

In very ancient as well as modern times, the worship of a female, supposed to be a virgin, with an infant in her arms, has prevailed. This worship has not been confined to one particular place or country, but has spread to nearly every part of the habitable world. In all Romish countries to this day, the Virgin, with the infant Jesus Christ in her arms, is the favourite object of adoration; and it is, as it has been observed before, a decisive proof that the Christ, the good shepherd, the Saviour of the Romish church of Italy, is the same as the person of the same name in India; that he is, like him, described to be black, to be an Ethiopian. But though they were both black, I think they had both the name of Crish, or Christ, or Crhjoj, from a word in a very ancient language, (the parent both of the Greek and the Sanscrit,) having the meaning of Benignus, of which I shall say more hereafter. We will now try to find out who the celebrated virgin, the mother of this person, was.

The Virgin Mary, in most countries where the Roman faith prevails, is called the Queen of Heaven : this is the very epithet given by the ancients to the mother of Bacchus, who was said to be a virgin. …

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Thus we see that the Rev. and learned Gentleman, Dr. Stukeley, has clearly made out, that the story of Mary, the queen of heaven, the mother of *#$! (Adni) Adonis, or the Lord, as our book always renders this word, with her translation to heaven, &c., was an old story long before Jesus of Nazareth was born. After this, Stukeley observes, that Ariadne, the queen of heaven, has upon her head a crown of twelve stars. This is the case of the queen of heaven in almost every church on the continent.

In the service or liturgy of the Carmelites, which I bought in Dublin at the Carmelite monastery, the Virgin is called STELLA MARIS; that is, in fact, the star of the sea—"Leucothea"—Venus rising from the sea.

All monks were Carmelites till the fifth century.* After that time, from different religious motives, new orders branched off from the old one, and became attached to new superstitions : but the Carmelites always remained, and yet remain, attached in a peculiar manner to the Virgin Mary, the Regina Stellarum.** The Carmelites were the original monks, Nazwraioi, translated from Meru and Tibet to Mount Carmel, or the mount of the garden of God, or of the sun, at the foot of Lebanon, or of the mountain of the moon. They were the original monks of Maia or Maria; the others were all offsets from the parent tree, or perhaps they were a species of heretics who arose from the original monkish religious system. This accounts for the Carmelites being, in a peculiar manner, attached to the adoration of the Virgin.

* Priestley, Hist. Cor. Vol. II. p.403

** I am of the opinion that a certain class of persons, initiated into the higher mysteries of the ancients, were what are called Carmelites Therapeutæ and Esseniens, or that they constituted a part of, or were formed out of, these sects, and were what we now call Freemasons. They were also called Chaldæi and Mathematici. I think that the rite of circumcision was originally instituted for the characteristic mark of the fraternity or society. Abraham brought circumcision from Urr of the Chaldees. …

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Isidore of Seville says, that the meaning of the word Mary is, One who begins to illuminate—Maria illuminatrix. He gives to this virgin, as her mother, a person called Anna, an allegorical name, by which the Romans meant the annual revolution of the sun, which they personified, and for whom they had a festival, under the name of Anna Perenna, at the beginning of the year.* The Hindoos have the same person as a Goddess under the name of Anna, or Unnu Poorna.** Poorna is evidently Perenna, or Porana. There is extant, in Jones on the Canon, a gospel history called that of James or of Mary, in which her mother is called Anna, of whom I shall say more presently.

* Dupuis, Vol. III. p.47, 4to. A very learned dissertation of the Anna of the Romans, with much very curious information, may be found in Nimrod, Vol. III. p.47. See also Taylor's Calmet, Vol. IV. p.68. For the history of Anna, the mother of Mary, and of Joachim, that is %* ie, .,( hkm, Jah the wise, Jones on the Canon, Vol. II. p.145, may be consulted.

** Vide Ward's India.

Dr. Pritchard says, "The beneficient form of Bhavani, termed Devi or Anna Purna, is doubtless. As Sir W. Jones remarked, the Anna Perenna of the Romans." Again, "Anna Purna is, however, also the counterpart of the Egyptian Isis. She is figured as bent by the weight of her full breasts, and reminds us of the statues of Isis Multimammia." Again, "Bhavani is invoked by the name of Ma, as was Demeter among the Greeks by that of Maia."* In the passages where the Hebrew word .*9/ mrim of the Old Testament is translated by the Vulgate, it is rendered Maria, and the LXX. render it Mariam. All this clearly proves that they are the same name.**

* Anal. Egypt. Mythos. p.280.

** Exod. xv. 20.

… In the fourth century there existed a sect of Christians called Collyridrians, who made offerings of cakes to the Virgin Mary as a Goddess and Queen of Heaven.*

* Jortin, Eccles. Rem. Vol. I. 332.

The Collyridians are said, by Mr. Sayle.* to have come from Arabia. They worshiped the Virgin Mary for God, offering her a sort of twisted cake called collyris, whence the sect had its name. This notion of the divinity of the Virgin Mary was also believed by some persons at the Council of Nice, who said there were two Gods besides the Father, viz. Christ and the Virgin Mary; and they were thence named Mariamites.** …

* Prem. Dis. To Koran, Sect. ii. p.45.

** Vide Beausobre, Hist. Manich., Vol. I. p.532.

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It is very evident that the idea of Mary being the mother of God, and also God himself, in some way or other, arose from the Maia of India, the spouse of Brahme. Maia was the female generative power, and, as such, the Deity, and the mother of Buddha, or Divine Wisdom or the Logos. Thus she was the mother of Iao or of IHS or of Jesus, and still a part of the Deity. She was also the (&$ ruh, and thus it was that this word was feminine in the Hebrew or the Buddhist book of Genesis.

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In many churches as well as in many places in the streets of Mayence on the Rhine, the Virgin is seen having the child on one arm, and a branch of lilies, the lotus, in the hand of the other arm, standing with one foot upon the head of the serpent, which has a sprig of an apple-tree with an apple on it in its mouth, and its tail twisted about a globe partly enveloped in clouds; therefore evidently a celestial globe. Her other foot is placed in the inside of a crescent. Her head is surrounded with a glory of stars. Can any one doubt that this is the Regina Stellarum of the sphere ? The branch of the apple-tree in the mouth of the serpent with the Virgin's foot upon its head, shews pretty clearly who this Virgin of the sphere was—Ipsa conteret caput tuum. The circumstance of the Virgin almost always having the lotus or lily, the sacred plant both of Egypt and India, in her hand (or an angel has it and presents it to her) is very striking. It is found, Sir R. Ker Porter observes,* "in Egypt, Palestine, Persia, India, all over the East, and was of old in the tabernacle and temple of the Israelites. It is also represented in all pictures of the salutation of Gabriel to the Virgin Mary; and, in fact, has been held in mysterious veneration by people of all nations and times."

* Travels in Persia, VI. p.628, 4to.

The worship of the black Virgin and Child probably come form the East. The white one is the Goddess Nurtia or Nortia of the Etruscans. …

There can be no doubt, that the Virgin of the sphere, who treads on the head of the serpent, is the Virgin of the first book of Genesis. This is all explained by Mons. Dupuis.* In some of the spheres we see the Virgin with the lotus or lily, in others with ears of ripe corn in her hand. I apprehend the Virgin with the ripe corn was the Virgin of Taurus : and that the birth-place of this mythos will be found in a latitude where corn will be ripe in August or the beginning of September, and this will fix it to a latitude very far from Lower India or Upper Egypt; to about that latitude where May, or the month of Maia, the mother of the God Buddha, would be the leading spring month, in which all nature would be in its most beautiful attire, and this would be at least as high as latitude 45, or North of Samarkand.

* Tome III. p.90, and his plate, No.19. In this plate is described the whole horoscope of the birth of Jesus, &c.

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The Virgin having generally the lotus, but sometimes an ear of wheat in her hand, arose from a very profound and mysterious doctrine—connected with the pollen of plants—of which I shall treat hereafter, as already intimated.

The signs of the Zodiac are not any of them remarkable for being connected with objects of an Indian nature. The twenty-eight Hindoo mansions and the asterisms are almost all named after objects peculiarly Hindoo. This raises a strong presumption against the solar Zodiac being of Hindoo invention. If the solar Zodiac had been of Hindoo or African growth, the elephant and camel would have been found there.*

* Maur. Ant. Hind. Vol. VII. p.604.

… All the arguments of Mr. Maurice against Egypt being the birthplace of the Zodiacal signs apply with equal force against India. They must, in fact, have all come from a latitude far higher than Egypt, India, or even Chaldæa. Samarkand is the lowest that can be admitted. …

We have seen, I think, that it is beyond the possibility of doubt that Buddha and Mercury, sons of Maia, were the same person. This receives a very remarkable confirmation from the fact, that Mercury was always called by the Gentiles the Logos—"The word that in the beginning was God, and that also was a God."* But this Logos we have also shewn to be the Divine Wisdom, and he was, according to the Pagan Amelius, the Creator. He says, "And this plainly was the Logoj by whom all things were made,** he being himself eternal, as Heraclitus would say : and by JOVE the same whom the barbarian affirms to have been in the place and dignity of a principal, and to be with God, and to be God, by whom all things were made, and in whom every thing that was made has its life and being : who, descending into body, and putting on flesh, took the appearance of a man, though even then gave proof of the majesty of his nature : nay, after his dissolution, he was deified again." If this do not prove the identity of Buddha and the Romish Jesus nothing can do it.

* R. Taylor, Dieg. Pp. 183-185. ** Ibid

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The MERCURY of Egypt, Teut-tat, is the same as the Gothic Thiod-tat, or query, Thiod-ad ?* Here we come, perhaps, at the origin of Qeoj. Jayadeva describes Buddha as bathing in blood, or sacrificing his life to wash away the offences of mankind, and thereby to make them partakers of the kingdom of heaven. On this the author of the Cambridge Key** says, "Can a Christian doubt that this Buddha was the type of the Saviour of the world ?" This Buddha the Cantab. supposes to have been Enoch.

* Hermes Scythicus, Origin of Greeks, p.131; Univers. Hist. Vol. VI. p.33.

**Vol. I. p.118.

The circumstance of Maria being called Mania is worthy of observation. In the old language, without vowels, MN means moon. Is this one of the reasons why Mary is always represented with a moon in some way or other—generally standing on it ? If Maria be the same as Maia, and is the female generative power, we see why she is always connected with the moon. This Mary is found in the kingdom of Sion or Siam in the city of Judia.* The mother of the gods was called Ma in the Phrygian dialect.** In the Hebrew and Arabic languages we have the word Maria !*$/ mria. Which means a female beeve, and also a wild dove.*** …

* La Loubière, pp. 6, 7.

** Sir William Jones, Asiat. Res. Vol. III. p.14 4to.

*** Vide Bochart' Opera, Vol. II. p.283.

Wen is acknowledged to belong to the Celtic terms for a woman, from which the Latin Venus is derived.* Then Alma Venus might mean the mother, the mother Venus, the Deity-mother woman, or the female great Deity. This Alma means virgin, because the mother Goddess, though a mother, was always held to be a virgin. From these abstruse, misunderstood doctrines, might arise the idea of some of the Christian heretics, that Jesus was taken from the side of his mother.

* Whiter, Etymol. Univ. p.757; Davies on the Druids, p.445.

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In the fourth plate of the first volume of Montfaucon's Antiquity Explained may be seen several exemplars of the Mother of the Gods. She is called Cybele, and she is on the same monument often joined with Atys. But her most remarkable name is that of Suria. She is loaded in some figures with paps, and on the base of one statue* is the word Suriæ. On another, Mater Deor. Mater Suriæ. This figure is sitting, and is crowned with a mitre of the Romish church, and in appearance is altogether the very picture of the Pope, when seated in his chair, giving his benediction; with the exception that he has not the caduceus, the sistrum, and the emblematic animals with which she is covered. She is evidently the same as Diana or the Multimammia, many figures of which may be seen in Montfaucon's 46th plate. But the most remarkable figure is in plate 47, where the text describes her as black, but with long hair, therefore not a Negress. … I have seen many of them in Rome, but it has happened that all which I recollect to have seen have had white drapery,—although the face, hands, and feet, were black. I suspect that this Syrian goddess, or Dea Suriæ, or Syriæ, is of a far more eastern origin; that she is closely connected with the Buddhists Syria; that she is a native of Syra-stra, or Syra-strene. In Fig. 11 of the thirthieth plate to the Supplement to Montfaucon's Antiquity Explained, is a tablet on which are described three females. It was found at Metz. The inscription is, In honorem Domús Divinæ DIS MAIRABUS Vicani Vivi Pacis : In honour of the divine house, to the Goddess Mairæ, they of the street of peace. Montfaucon thinks them deities of the country. These are the three Marys of the Christians, before Christ was born; of course one of them must have been the Gallic Virgo paritura. … All the three women who attended Jesus at his death were called Marys,—Mary, the mother of Jesus, Mary, the mother of James, and Mary Salome.** …

* Fig. 3.

** Calmet, Dict. in voce Salome.

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No person who has considered well the character of the temples on India and Egypt, can help being convinced of the identity of their character, and of their being the production of the same race of people; and this race evidently Ethiopian. The Sphinxes have all Ethiopian faces. The bust of Memnon in the British Museum is evidently Ethiopian. The worship of the Mother and Child is seen in all parts of the Egyptian religion. It prevails every where. It is the worship of Isis and the infant Orus or Osiris. It is the religious rite which was so often prohibited at Rome, but which prevailed in spite of all opposition, as we find from the remaining ruins of its temples. It was perhaps from this country, Egypt, that the worship of the black virgin and child came into Italy, where it still prevails. It was the worship of the mother of the God Iaw, the Saviour; Bacchus in Greece, Adonis in Syria, Cristna in India; coming into Italy through the medium of the two Ethiopias, she was as the Ethiopians were, black, and such she still remains.

Dr. Shuckford* has the following curious passage : "We have several representations in the draughts of the same learned antiquary (Montfaucon), which are said to be Isis, holding or giving suck to the boy Orus; but it shouls be remarked, that Orus was not represented by the figure of a new-born child : for Plutarch tells us, that a new-born child was the Egyptian picture of the sun's rising."** Plutarch and Montfaucon were both right. Orus was the sun, and the infant child was the picture of the sun, in his infancy or birth, immediately after the winter solstice—when he began to increase. Orus, I repeat, is nothing but the Hebrew word 9&! aur, lux, light—the very light so often spoken of by St. John, in the first chapter of his gospel. Plutarch*** says, that Osiris means a benevolent and beneficent power, as does likewise his other name OMPHIS. In a former book I have taken much pains to discover the meaning of Omphi. After all, is it any thing but the OM, with the Coptic emphatic article Pi ?

* Con. Book viii. p.311.

** Lib. de iside et Osiride, p.355.

*** De Iside et Osiride, Sect. xlii. Squire.

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There is no more reason for calling Isis the moon, than the earth. She was called by all the following names : Minerva, Venus, Juno, Porserpina, Ceres, Diana, Rhea seu Tellus, Pessinuncia, Rhamnusia, Bellona, Hecate, Luna, Polymorphus Dæmon.* But most of these have been shewn to be in fact all one—the Sun. Isis, therefore, can be nothing but the sun, or the being whose residence was the sun. This being we have seen was both masculine and feminine : I therefore conclude that Isis was no other than the first cause in its feminine character, an Osiris was the first cause of the masculine. …

* Kircher, Œd. Egypt. Tom. I. p.188.

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… The generative principle is considered to have existed before light, and to be the mother of both gods and men, as the generative source of all things. In this character she is the black Venus of Orpheus,* and the black Maia or Maria of Italy, the Regina Cœli, Regina Stellarum, &c. …

* Orph. Hymn. Lxxxiii. 5, ii. 1, 2; Faber, Pag. Idol. Vol. III p.49.

M. Dupuis says, the celestial sign of the Virgin and Child was in existence several thousand years before the birth of Christ. The constellation of the celestial Virgin by its ascension above the horizon presided at the birth of the God Sol, or light, and seemed to produce him from her side. Here is the origin of Jesus born from the side of his mother. The Magi, as well as the priests of Egypt, celebrated the birth of the God Sol, or Light, or Day, incarnate in the womb of a virgin, which had produced him without ceasing to be a virgin, and without connexion with man. This was he of whom all the prophets and mystagogues prophesied, saying, "A virgin shall conceive, and bear a son" (and his name shall be Om-nu-al, Om our God). … This is the same virgin of the constellation whom, Eratosthenes says, the learned of Alexandria call Ceres or Isis, who opened the year and presided at the birth of the god Day. It was in honour of this same virgin, (from whom the sun emanated, and by whom the god Day or Light was nursed,) that, at Sais, the famous feast of lights was celebrated, and from which our Candlemas, or our feast of the lights of the purification, was taken. Ceres was always called the Holy Virgin.*

* Dupuis, Vol. III. pp. 40, &c., 4to.

The Christians have a feast called the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. In one of the ancient Gospel histories an account is given of the assumption of Mary into heaven, in memory of which event this feast was kept. On this feast M. Dupuis says, "About the eighth month, when the sun is in his greatest strength, and enters into the eighth sign, the celestial virgin appears to be absorbed in his fires, and she disappears in the midst of the rays and glory of her son." … The Christians place here the assumption, or reunion of the Virgin and her Son. This used to be called the feast of the passage of the Virgin. … As the Christians celebrated the decease or assumption of the celestial virgin into heaven, called by them the Virgin Mary, so also they did her impregnation or annunciation; that is, the information communicated to her that she would become pregnant by the holy ghost. …

Page 314

… Pelloutier,* as noticed before, has observed, that more than a hundred years before the Christian æra, in the territory of Chartres, among the Gauls, honours were paid to the virgin (VIRGINI PARITUÆ) who was about to give birth to the God of Light. That was really the Buddhist worship, I have no doubt. The Virgin was the beautiful Maya, the mother of Buddha—the Budwas found in Wales, as noticed in my Celtic Druids.**

* Hist. des Celtes, liv. v. p.15; Dupuis, Vol. III. p.51.

** Ch. v. sect. viii. and xxxvii.

Page 315

Mr. Faber says, Jesus was not called originally Jesus Christ, but Jescua Hammassiah. Jescua is the same as Joshua and Jesus, and means Saviour; and Ham is evidently the Om of India, (the Ammon,) and Messiah is the anointed. It will then be, The saviour Om the anointed; precisely as Isaiah had literally foretold : or, reading in the Hebrew mode, The anointed Om the Saviour. This was the name of Jesus of Bethlehem. The name of Jesus also was JESUS BEN PANTHER. Jesus was a very common name with the Jews. Stukeley observes, that the patronymic of Jesus Christ was Panther; and that Panther were the nurses and bringers up of Bacchus; and adds, "'Tis remarkable that Panther was the sirname of Joseph's family, our Lord's foster-father. Thus the Midrashkobeleth, or gloss, upon Ecclesiastes : 'It happened that a serpent bit R. Eleasar ben Damash, and James, a man of the village Secania, came to heal him in the name of Jesus ben Panther.' This is likewise in the book called Abodazara, where the comment upon it says, This James was disciple of Jesus the Nazarene."

Page 316

Here, in this accidental notice of Jesus, by these two Jewish works, is a direct and unexceptionable proof of his existence; it is unexceptionable, because if it be not the evidence of unwilling witnesses, it is the evidence of disinterested ones. On this I shall have occasion to say more hereafter. … Here the reader sees that the pious Dr. Stukeley has proved, as might be expected, that the mother of Bacchus is the same person as the mother of Jesus, viz. Mary. And as the persons who brought up Jesus were called Panthers, the name of an animal, so Bacchus was brought up by the same kind of animal, a panther. When the reader reflects that the whole Christian doctrine is founded, as the Roman Church admits, on tradition, he will have no difficulty in accounting for the similarity of the systems. The circumstance of Joseph's family name being supposed to be Panther, is remarkably confirmed by Epiphanius,* who says, that Joseph was the brother of Cleophas, the son of James, sirnamed Panther. Thus we have the fact both from Jewish and Christian authorities.** It is very clear that Bacchus's Panther must have been copied from that of Jesus or IHS, or that of Jesus from Bacchus's. I leave the matter with my reader.

* Hæres. 78, Antidic. S. vii.

** See Jones on the Canon, Vol. II. p.137.

The worship of the Virgin was in no sense applicable to Mary the wife of Joseph. If this worship had been originally derived from her, or instituted in her honour, she would not have been called a virgin as a distinguishing mark of honour; for she was no more a virgin than any other woman who had a large family : for such a family, after the birth of Jesus, it cannot be denied that, according to the Gospel accounts, she had. Therefore why, more than any other woman, should she be called a virgin ? The truth is, that the worship of the virgin and child, which we find in all Romish countries, was nothing more than a remnant of the worship of Isis and the God Horus—the Virgin of the celestial sphere, to whom the epithet virgin, though a mother, was without absurdity applied.




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Diodurus Siculus acknowledges that some historians maintained that Bacchus never appeared on earth in a human shape.* …

* Lib. iii. p.137.

Plutarch* says, Phylarchus taught that Bacchus first brought into Egypt from India the worship of Apis and Osiris. Eusebius has stated that Bacchus came to Egypt from the Indus. In the temples of Diana a festival of Bacchus was celebrated, called Sacaæ.** Of this Saca I shall treat at large hereafter. Bacchus had generally the horns of a bull, though often hidden beneath a crown of ivy and grapes.*** The Pope is always accompanied by one or two fans made of feathers. The Buddhist priests of Ceylon always have the same,—as Mr. Robinson says, the mystic fan of Bacchus. Bacchus and Hercules were both Saviours, they were both put to death, and rose again the third day, at our time of Easter, or the vernal equinox : so were Osiris and Adonis.

* De Iside et Oriside.

** Strabo, Geog. Lib. xi.; Pausan., Lib. iii. cap. xvi.; Hoffman, voc Anaitis; Jameson, herm. Scyth. P.136.

*** See Spence, Polymetis, p.129, folio ed.

Page 319

Bacchus and Osiris are the same person, and that person has been shewn to be the sun; and they were both black. But Bacchus is also the Baghis of India, as Sir W. Jones has shewn. Baghi-stan in Persia was the town of Bacchus. Bacchus was called Dionusos or Dionissus : this is simply Dios-nusos, or the God of the city spoken of by Arrian, on the confines of India—Nysa, the capital of Nysea. He is also the Dios Nysa, a city of Arabia, and Nysa, on the top of a mountain in Greece. He is also Seeva, one of the three persons of the Hindoo Trinity. But Seeva is called Om.* Plutarch witnesses that Osiris and Isis were Bacchus and Ceres, and there can be no doubt that they were the Eswara and Isa of India. He is found in the Old Testament under the name IEUE Nissi *.1 %&%* which, translated from the Greek, would be Dios Nyssos or Dionusos, a name of Bacchus.** Indeed, being the Sun, he is naturally enough found every where.

* Malcolm's India, p.272.

** Stukeley, Paleog. Sac. No. 1 p.10.

He was also Deo-Naush, or Deva-Nahusha, and Ram or Rama-Deva. …

Strabo says, "It is for this reason that they give to this God (Bacchus) the name MhrotfaFhj, Merotraphes." This means one nourished in Meru, the propriety of which is evident enough to us, since we have acquired the Indian learning. …

Page 320

According to Herodotus,* Bacchus was called Iacchus, in the mysteries. …

Page 321

… We have seen that Mount Meru was a type or symbol of the Linga or Ioni. …

We have seen above that Bacchus was identified with Mount Meru, the residence of Brahm, where he held his court in the sides of the North. But the reader will not forget that Bacchus was called Broumios. This was the Bruma of the Etruscans. In Ovid's Fasti, Janus anounces that he is the same with Bruma, and that the year began of old with Bruma, and not with the Spring, because Bruma had the first honour. Bruma meant also the winter or the north. All the ancients looked to the north for the seat of the Deity, and I believe in all nations the letters B. R. and P R. conveyed the idea of Former or Creator. Ovid says,

Bacchumque vocant, Bromiumque, Dyœumque
Ignigenam, Satumque iterum, solumque Bimatrem.

Ovid's Met. Lib. iv.

Here I beg my reader to observe that Bacchus is both Igni-genam and Bi-matrem. The ignigenam I suppose I need not explain. The poetical expression of Bi-matrem, which I suppose means twice born, alludes to Bacchus in his character or Menu or Noah, and to the mythological fact of his having lived in two worlds, or the life of Noah having continued into the fourth cycle. Noah or Menu lived in two cycles—in the third, and in part in the fourth. He lived also in two worlds—before the flood, and after the flood; in two ages—in the Cali yug, and in the age before it. He lived when the sun at the equinox was in two constellations—in Taurus and in Aries : so that on many accounts he might be called twice born, as Bacchus was, according to Ovid.

Diodorus Siculus also reports that, according to some authors, he was twice born. Here the renewed incarnation creeps out, as well as the striking similitude to Noah. Bacchus is said, like Noah, to have planted the vine, to have made wine, and to have been the victim of its inebriating quality. M. D'Ancarville* shews that the name of Brouma given to Bacchus was Brama, and that Diodorus calls this name indigenous (egcwrion dialecton). He also shews, in the most satisfactory manner, that Bacchus was brought from India; that the object of his religion was God the Creator of all things, the generative power of which was represented under the form of the Bull.**

* P. 98. ** Ibid. p.127

Page 322

Bacchus was called ETOI. This is the IETW, IA W, IAOT, or Yahouh, the same as the IE on the temple of the Delphian Apollo.* Bacchus was also called a Bull, and a Son of God.




Page 323

I will now submit to my reader some observations, on the origin of the word Jesus, and the opinions of different learned men both on the word itself, and on various points connected with it. …

In the ancient books of the Jews we constantly find mention made of the god Jehovah, who ought to be called JAH, or IEUE. This God answered to the person whom the Hindoos designate by the name of Cristna, the second person in their trinity, or their God the saviour or preserver; and was he whom the Persians designated by the name Mithra, the second person in their trinity, and also their preserver or saviour; and was he whom the Romish Christians designate by the name of Jesus, also the second person in their trinity, and their saviour and preserver. He is called by the Jews the Lord of Hosts, God of Sabaoth : which means God of the stars and constellations. This name with the Greeks, Romans, and Gentiles in general, was understood and meant to designate both the Supreme Being and the Sun, Dominus Sol, the Lord of heaven and the heavenly host.

The God Iaw, %&%* ieue, IHS, Jehovah, was the son of the celestial virgin, which she carries in her arms; the $!& aur, Horus, Lux, of the Egyptians;* the Lux of St. John. It is from this infant that Jesus took his origin; or at least it is from the ceremonies and worship of this infant, that his religion came to be corrupted into what we have it. … From the traditionary stories of this god Iao, which feigned annually to be born at the winter solstice, and to be put to death and raised to life on the third day at the vernal equinox, the Romish searchers after the evangelion or gospel, made out their Jesus. The total destruction of every thing at Jerusalem and in Judæa,—buildings, records, every thing—prevented them from coming to any absolute certainty respecting the person who, they were told by tradition, had come to preach the gospel of peace, to be their saviour, in fulfilment of the prophecy which their sect of Israelites found in their writings, and who had been put to death by the Jews. From all these circumstances he came to have applied to him the monogram of IHS, the name of IHSouj, and to him at last all the legendary stories related of the god Iao were attributed. Jesus was commonly called Christ.

* See Plate 19 of Dupuis, the Celestial Sphere.

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Diodorus Siculus says, that Moses pretended to receive his laws from the God called IAW. This shews that the Greeks considered the name of the Jewish God to be, not Jehovah, but, as I have stated it, &%* ieu, or Ieo. …

Chiffet, speaking of Iao in his treatise on coins, says, that except the Christians no other sect or religion has given this name to the divinity. This is unquestionably a very great mistake. M. Beausobre says,* "Supposing that to be true, it does not follow that these figures belonged to the Basilidians; they might be from some I know not what Gnostic sect, which pretended that Iao is the name of an angel. One must allow that it is that of Jehovah, which the ancients have written and pronounced sometimes Jaho,** sometimes Jevo,*** and sometimes Iaou.**** But it is necessary also to allow, that Iao is one of the names that the Pagans give to the sun. I have noticed the oracle of Apollo at Claros, in which Pluto, Jupiter, the sun, and Iao, divide the seasons amongst them. These four divinities are at bottom the same. …that is to say, Jupiter, Pluto, the Sun, and Bacchus are the same. …'I declare to you that IAO is the greatest of the Gods.' It would be doing too much honour to the Demon, if one believed that the god called Iao is the Jehovah of Scripture, or the true God. This is no other than the sun. …"

* Beaus. Hist. Manich. Vol. II. liv. iv. chap. iv. p.59.

** Euseb. Dem. Ev. Lib. iv. p.129.

*** Euseb. Præp. Evan. Lib. i. x.

**** Clem. Alex. Strom. Lib. v. p.562.

Page 325

"I doubt not but it is the great name of Jehovah, which they learnt among the Jews : and that Evòhe Sabòhe is the Jehovah Sabaoth, Lord of Hosts, in the Scripture; whence Bacchus was called Sabazius likewise. Diodorus Siculus says expressly, the Jews call God Iao; and the learned universally agree that is Jehovah. Evòhe is but another awkward way of pronouncing it."*

Stukeley, Pal. Sac. No. 1 p.21.

In innumerable places in Italy very old paintings may be seen of Christ in various situations, labelled with the words in the middle of the painting, Deo Soli. These words it is evident have two meanings—To God alone, and To the God Sol. In most cases of them there are seen the attributes of the latter, such as the glory, &c. The former sense is in no way applicable to Christ, because as one person of the Trinity he cannot be called solus. These pictures, with their two meanings, shew an example like the first verse of Genesis, one for the priests, and one for the people—the esoteric and the exoteric religion.

Page 327

… The pious Dr. Parkhurst, as we have just seen in his Hebrew Lexicon, proves, from the authority of Diodorus Siculus, Varro, St. Augustin, &c., that the Iao, Jehovah, or my %&%* ieue, or %* ie of the Jews, was the Jove of the Latins and Etruscans. In the next page, and in p. 160, under the word --% ell, he allows that this %* ie was the name of Apollo, over the door of the Temple of Delphi. He then admits that this %&%* ieue Jehovah is Jesus Christ in the following sentences : "It would be almost endless to quote all the passages of scripture wherein the name %&%* (ieue) is applied to Christ : let those, therefore, who own the scriptures as the rule of faith, and yet doubt his essential deity, only compare in the original scriptures (the passages too numerous to insert), and I think they cannot miss of a scriptural demonstration that Jesus is Jehovah." But we have seen it is admitted that Jehovah is Jove, Apollo, Sol, whence it follows that Jesus is Jove, &c.

Page 328

The three letters I H S, from the very earliest age of the Romish Christians, have been adopted for the insignia of their religion. We now very commonly see them embroidered in golden letters upon the velvet pulpit cloths of the churches in England, and the clergy say they mean Jesus Hominum Salvator. But it is very remarkable, as I have observed in B. v. Ch. ii. S. 8, that these three letters, in the Greek language, are the insignia of Bacchus or the Sun, and stand for the mystical number 608, which is sacred to him; a pretty striking proof of the identity of the two. …

Page 329

The followers of Iao, %&%* ieue, constantly sung the word Hallelujah in his praise. This they did in the temple of Solomon, in the temple of Delphi, and they still continue the same hallelujahs in the temple at Rome. Dr. Parkhurst says, ".*-&-% elulim praises,* %*-&-% (elluie) Praise ye Jah— Eng. Marg. Hallelujah : and so the LXX. Throughout, leaving it untranslated, Allhl8Ža. It occurs very frequently at the beginning and end of Psalms. And from this solemn form of praise to God, which, no doubt, was far prior to the time of David, the ancient Greeks plainly had their similar acclamation Eleleu Ih (eleleu ie), with which they both began and ended their Pæans or Hymns in honour of Apollo, i.e. The Light."**

* Lev. xix. 24.

** Parkhurst's Lexicon, voc. --%, p.160, ed. 7.

Jesus in the gospels is always called Lord, or in the Greek Kufioj. This is the word by which the Hellenistic Jews, in translating Hebrew into Greek LXX, constantly rendered the word %&%* ieue. The word Kufioj is derived from the word Kurw, to be, exist, subsist;* and is a very excellent word to use for the Hebrew word %* ie, which has precisely the same meaning. But this word %* ie, as it has been observed, was the name given to Apollo or the sun at Delphi, who is always called Kufioj, and the day dedicated to him cufiach, dies dominica, or the Lord's-day. From some, or from a combination, of these circumstances, Jesus took the name of Lord, the etymological meaning of which will be explained hereafter. …

* Parkhurst's Lexicon, voc. %&%, p.155, ed. 7.

… "None dare to enter the temple of Serapis, who did not bear on his breast or forehead the name Jao or J-ha-ho, a name almost equivalent in sound to that of the Hebrew Jehovah, and probably of identical import; and no name was uttered in Egypt with more reverence than this of Iao. In the hymn which the hierophant or guardian of the sanctuary sang to the initiated, this was the first explanation given of the nature of the Deity : He is one, and by himself, and to him alone do all things owe their existence." Translation from the German of Schiller.*

* Monthy Repository, Vol. XX. Pp. 198, 199.

Page 330

Shuckford says, "The name Jehovah was, I believe, known to be the name of the Supreme God, in the early ages, in all nations." Again, "Ficinus remarked, that all the several nations of the world had a name for the Supreme Deity, consisting of four letters only.* This I think was true at first in a different sense from that which Ficinus took it : for I question not but they used the very same word, until the languages of different nations came to have a more entire disagreement than the confusion at Babel at first caused."**

* The Hebrew word for the God of Abraham consisted merely of vowels, but we have put three consonants into our translation of it, Jehovah.

** Book ix. pp. 388, 391.

It is thus proved by fair deduction and logical reasoning on unquestionable authority, that the God %&%* IEUE Jehovah, %* IE or Jah of the Jews, the God EI, the Apollo of Delphos, The Deus, the Jupiter, Jovis, Jovispiter of the Latins, the god Mithra of the Persians, and all the gods of the Heathens, are identically the same person or being; not merely derivatives from one another, but that they are, with only such trifling apparent differences as may reasonably be expected to arise from the lapse of many ages, and from the inevitable uncertainty of names translated without any definite rule out of one language into another, one and the same; and this same being, the sun, or shekinah of the self-existent Being. In short, that Jehovah was the sun; for if Jehovah was Iao, and Iao was the sun, Jehovah must be the sun. Dr. Parkhurst admits that Jesus was Jehovah; but if Jesus was Jehovah, and Jehovah the sun, it follows that Jesus, that is, the Romish Jesus, but not the Jesus of Nazareth, must be the sun. …

Page 331

… It cannot be said that these doctrines are merely a chimera, an invention of the author's own imagination; almost every assertion which he has made is supported by the authority of some one or other of learned Christian divines who have studied the subject most carefully. Jesus being mistaken, by the founders of the Roman church, for the god Sol or the sun may be expected to be found in their religion. In the following part of this work it will be shewn that that which may be expected to be found, is really found; and that most of the rites and doctrines of modern Christianity are nothing more than the rites and doctrines of the old religion, collected by devotees of very weak and mean understandings, and applied either to the real, or to an imaginary personage. Which of these two is the truth, it will be the final object of this work to determine.


Link to Volume I - Book VII.