Godfrey Higgins




Volume I [867 pages]
Volume II
[525 pages]




Page 555

In all our speculations we must never forget, that the whole Mythos, of which I have been treating, was not known, but in great part lost, by the ancient Greeks and Romans, in their day, and also by the Brahmins when the modern Europeans arrived in India. The only difference between them and us is, that they really believed the mythos, little as it was known to them, to be true, and thus made every thing bend and fit to it, as far as was in their power. We have been equally ignorant, but have endeavoured to disguise to ourselves the reality—the existence of it; …

… There never has been a religion invented de novo. In fact, before I finish I shall prove that, in the civilized world, there never was but one religion. What we have called different religions, because we did not understand them, were but modifications of one religion. All these considerations we must bear in mind, in our future speculations.

Page 556

… En passant, I may observe, that if there be a secret religion, all the objections of Mons. Voltaire and other philosophers to such passages as that relating to the side of Adam, which never have been removed, are at once answered, and the religion relieved from a mighty mass of obloquy. For though it may be very wrong to have a secret and a public religion, this does not make it foolish or absurd.

I am firmly persuaded that in the following books of this work the foundation at least, indeed the principal part, of the esoteric doctrines of the Christians, Jews, and Gentiles, will be unfolded, and at last justice will be done to the Pythagorasses, Platos, Philos, Clemenses, and Ammoniuses of antiquity; and, however false my philosophical or religious reader may think their doctrines, he will no longer think them base or contemptible.

In the affairs of religion, the world has always been in one respect the same as it is now. From the most remote period there has been the esoteric religion, of which I have just spoken, the existence of which the vulgar rabble of low priests have denied, but which has always been well known and admitted by a select number, who wore the mitre. This was anciently observed by a few philosophers, who occasionally shewed some knowledge of it, and endeavoured to explain its nature to the people. For this endeavour they were persecuted. They would never have been persecuted merely for discovering the secret; they were in reality persecuted for making their discovery known. In like manner in modern times, a Romish bishop will not refuse absolution even to an Atheist, but then he must keep his opinion secret. He is punished for telling—not for knowing, believing, or disbelieving. This knowledge applies chiefly to the Romish and Greek priests; the Protestant bigots, the Luthers, Calvins, and Knoxes, never knew any thing of the philosophy of Christianity; there were in reality insane with fanaticism.

Page 557

I think my reader will have begun to form a pretty correct idea of the nature of the Christian esoteric religion. I think he must see that Jesus, at the least the Romish Jesus, was believed to be no other than a renewed incarnation of divine wisdom, of the Logos, called, in India, Buddha, or Saca, a revival or rather a continuation of an old system. In this book I shall discuss several detached points which will clear up this matter, if there be any remaining doubt, and proceed further to unveil the esoteric doctrine of Isis, and of ETERNAL Rome.

In my fifth Book I traced the history of the Avatars and Cycles in India and Judæa up to the ninth, the time of the birth of Jesus. … If my theory be right, I ought to find traces of the ninth Avatar in a late day; and as, in all the other earlier Avatars, we have seen a certain similarity take place in the mythoses of the East and West, so ought we to find the same in the ninth. … In fact, the theory of the system was, that every thing should be renewed at the end of certain periods, and that a new incarnation should take place. .. In the ninth Avatar, we shall find this proved still more clearly, and in a very remarkable manner.

Page 558

After we have discussed the ninth Avatar in the East and in the West, the next object of this book will be the tenth and last and perhaps the most important of all.

If my reader have attended closely to the argument, he will have perceived that there were always two classes of Avatars running at the same time : and yet, though two they were but one. This was because the Avatars were identical with the cycles, and the two cycles united formed a third. These were the ten presiding Geniuses of the Neroses, and the ten presiding Geniuses of the signs of the Zodiac—and the Neroses and signs, ended at the same moment, after a period of 21,600 years; or, if larger cycles be taken, 43,200 years, or 432,000 years. I suspect that the Vulgar were taught to expect a new divine person every six hundred years, and a millenium every 6000; but that the higher classes were taught to look to the year of Brahm 432,000 years, or, perhaps, to 4, 320,000 years.

One more observation I must make on the renewed incarnations, which took place previous to the Christian æra before I proceed.

A singular admission is made by the learned Nimrod* in the following words : "The legend of the birth of that bloody Cyrus, (he of the Gorgon's head,) concerning whom the Babylonians informed Herodotus, is, though a strange and complicated one, precisely the same as that of Romulus, and they are but one man." In another place** he says, speaking of a certain Habides, "In other particulars the reader will perceive the adventures of Perseus, Cyrus, Quirinus, Hercules, Buzyges, and Triptolemus." Here we see the renewal of the incarnation just spoken of, in the fact of identity in the history of most of the ancient hero Gods, which have been fully demonstrated by Creuzer in his second book. The case was, that all the hero Gods were incarnations—Genii of cycles, either several of the same cycle in different countries at the same time, or successive cycles—for the same series of adventures was supposed to recur again and again. This accounts for the striking similitudes in all their histories.

* Vol. I. p.122. ** Ibid. p.218.

The ancients of the West had not only the renewed cycle of 600 years, but they had also that of 6000,—at the end of which, ignorant devotees, who did not understand it, supposed that what was called the millenium, for 1000 years previous to the renewal of the world, would come. This proves the truth of the foregoing calculations. It completes the Hindoo system. In India, two systems may be perceived; one of the philosophers—merely the renewal of cycles; the other of divines, at the end of the 6000 years, expecting a day of judgment and a millenium. The latter is a branch grafted on the former, by weakness and credulity.

If my theory be well-founded, two kinds of Avatars ought to be exhibited about the time of Christ. We have found an Avatar in the form of the celestial Taurus, and also one in the form of the celestial Agnus or Aries, and we ought to find, in course, a third in the form of the succeeding Zodiacal sign, the celestial Pisces, the FISHES. This will be the next principal object of this book. … In the course of this book I shall very often return to the secret religion which in the early ages of Christianity was held in the Roman conclave, and is probably yet held there.

Page 559

… In fact, we shall see that the modern Roman religion was only a reformed ancient Roman religion. This is not said with the least wish to insult the followers of the Romish Church, though no doubt it will offend, because it is unveiling what the church wishes to conceal. …

It is very certain that the earliest Christians, of whom we have any account, depending on the reported words of Jesus, that the final end and millenium should come before the people present at his speech should die, continued to entertain the expectation of it as long as possible; and, in the same way, I have no doubt that the Popes entertained the hope, at the end of 600 years, as long as possible, supposing when the end did not come that their calculations were wrong a few months or years, or that they had calculated by a wrong year; and at the last, when their hopes were quite extinguished, they concluded that another period was to pass away before its arrival.*

* For proofs that the end of the world was prophesied of in the Gospels, &c., see Matt. xxiii. 36, xxiv. 34, xxviii. 20; Mark xiii. 30; Luke xxi. 8, 9, 32; John v. 25; Philip. iv. 5; 1 Thess. iv. 15-17; 1 Tim. vi. 14; James v. 8; 1 Pet. iv. 7; Rev. xxii. 12, 20—and many other places, where last time, latter days, and end of the world, are named. So clear is this that such Christian writers as have any regard to decency have been obliged to allow, that the apostles in these matters were mistaken. … Vide Baron. Tom. I. p.656, Edit. Rom. Spondan. Epit. An. 57, S. 54; Mill's Prolog. To the New Test. p.146, col. 2, apud Chishul's Sermon on Proph. When it was found that the end did not come almost immediately on the death of Jesus Christ, some of the latter Epistles were evidently written to account for and explain away the mistake which had taken place, probably arising from the doubtful meaning of the words Genea, Aiain, Pafesia, and Teloj.

Soon after the time of Christ this astrological superstition prevailed, both among Christians and Gentiles. Nero was thought to be, or pretended to be, a divine person, and to open a new cycle. Again the same thing was thought of Pope Gregory the Great, and again of a Saracen called Hakim Bemrillah.* …I have called it astrological superstition, and so, in reality, it was; but astrology was so connected with religion that it was impossible to separate them. This superstition prevailed very much in the early ages of Christianity, but has been kept out of sight as much as possible by the priests in later ages. It was never the policy of the popes to instruct the people in the mystery—in that which the ancients kept concealed—even if they knew it. The popes wished for a gross religion for the people, such as, in their opinion, suited them—a refined one for the episcopal palace; their Jesus was an incarnation of divine wisdom, of Iao, of THS. He was the ninth incarnation; and in the gospel history of St. John, he is made to promise another, and a last, i.e. a tenth. See John xiv. 16, 17, 26.

* Nimrod, Vol. III. p.493.

Page 560

The charge against Socrates of Atheism long appeared to me quite incomprehensible, but the cause was this : he held one unmade, self-existent Deity, but denied the generated or created Gods, the produce of the first Deity. Onatus, the Pythagorean, declared that they who asserted one only God and not many understood not what the majesty of the divine transcendency consisted in, namely in ruling over other Gods. And Plotinus conceived, that the Supreme God was most of all glorified not by being contracted into one, but by having multitudes of Gods derived from him and dependent on him.* This, most clearly, is nothing but the doctrine of the Christians, in which the word angels is used for Gods. Every step which I take serves to convince me of the truth of what Ammonius Saccas taught, that the Gentile and Christian doctrines were identical, and that the quarrels of their professors were logomachy.

* Cudworth. Bk. i Ch. iv. p.544.

A very singular circumstance may be observed in the conduct of the Romish missionaries in the oriental nations. Where they find the doctrine of the renovating Avatars or incarnations already understood, and where of course concealment of their own doctrine is of no use, they avow and proclaim it, and announce themselves as messengers of Buddha, Cristna, &c., and that Jesus was only a renewed incarnation of the Divine mind. To the Brahmins who already know it they unveil the mystery. This enrages the Protestant missionaries to the highest degree. They accuse the Papists of the basest motives, never having the slightest suspicion of the truth. Some of the Jesuits actually turned,* or pretended to turn, or to be Brahmins, and preached the union of Papism and Brahmanism; maintaining that the religions of the city of R~ma in the East, and of RÇma in the West, were the same, with the single exception that the head of the religion was then existing in the West; and that the Avatars were continued for ever by succession in the Popes. …

* For instance, Robertus de Nobilibus.

Among the ancients there seems to have been a very general idea, that the arrival of the great person who was expected to come would be announced by a star. The births of Abraham, Moses, Cæsar, &c., &c., were all foretold by a star.* Calmet says, "I wish we could ascertain the ideas annexed to the rising of the star said to occur at the birth of Abraham."

* Vide Calmet, Hist. Bible, Vol. I. add. art. Abraham.

Page 561

The author of the Supplement to Calmet says, "I wish we could trace enough to ascertain the ideas annexed in that country to the 'rising of the star,' said to occur at the birth of Abraham : perhaps it might explain the prophecy of Balaam,* or might elucidate the ready apprehension of the Eastern magi, who, when they, in the East, saw a certain star rise in a certain manner, and in a certain portion, &c., of the heavens, inferred that a remarkable child was born : indeed, no less than the lineal King of Judea : and they journeyed many miles to visit him. How came the rising of a star thus connected in idea with the birth of a child ? Was the idea ancient ? And what might be its origin ? This alludes to the birth of Abraham having been expected, and reported to Nimrod, as the Easterns say, by the Magi at his court. The same is said in respect to the King of Egypt at the birth of Moses : we read also of a king, who dreamed that immense splendour from the pregnant womb of his daughter illumined his kingdom. The classic reader will recollect instances of other stars connected with great men : as the star Venus with Julius Cæsar, and his family, Augustus, &c., in Ovid and Virgil."** Here we see this gentleman as near to the discovery of the mythos as possible. I have no doubt that if we had the full histories of the Herculeses and Bacchuses, we should find them all said to have stars at their births, like Moses, Christ, &c. As the conceptions were immaculate, the gestation ten months, that father of the child a holy spirit or other supernatural being, so they were all announced by a star. I flatter myself I shall convince my reader, that this story of the star was no fiction, but only a mythological or allegorical method of representing the conjunction of the sun and moon, and the conclusion of the cycle, at the end of every six hundred years, and the periodical restoration of some star or planet to its old place, or to its periodical rising in a place relative to the sun and moon, at the end of time. Thus, whenever that star arrived at its proper place, they knew that a new cycle commenced—a new saviour would be born; and for every Avatar, a star was said to have appeared. It was the astrological expectation of an incarnation on the renewal of every cycle : and the irregularities of the planetary motions, the precession of the equinoxes, and the neglect of making the necessary intercalations, rendered the times of the arrival of the periods and of the consequent incarnation doubtful. … The changes in the heavens they could regularly foretell, but it was not thus with the Messiahs or the incarnations; so that they scarcely ever exactly agree with the beginning of the cycle. Thus the astrologers foretold some one before he came, but who he would be they could not foretell. …

* Numb. xxiv. 17. ** Taylor's Sup. to Calmet, Dict. in voce Abraham.

Page 562

When all the circumstances relating to Pythagoras, and to his doctrines, both in moral and natural philosophy, are considered, nothing can be more striking than the exact conformity of the latter to the received opinions of the moderns; and of the former to the moral doctrines of Jesus Christ. Had the moral doctrines of Pythagoras been adopted by the Western nations, in his day, there can be no doubt that the same good effects and improvement would have followed, which we know from experience followed the adoption of the same doctrines when taught by his successor Jesus Christ. In both cases, as usual, the philosophers were persecuted by the priests : in the case of Jesus they are said to have succeeded in crucifying him. In the case of Pythagoras, it is said, they succeeded in burning him and suppressing his doctrines. …

Of the learned ancients of the West, Pythagoras was assuredly the greatest; and as he was some ages in advance of his ignorant countrymen, he was laughed at and persecuted. Some persons without any good reason have doubted his existence. The superiority of his doctrines to those of his contemporaries, affords to me a convincing proof that he actually lived. The beauty of his morals, the novelty but truth of his astronomy and geometry, all which he professed to bring from the East, are of so superior a nature to those of his Western contemporaries, that it is really not credible that they should have created an imaginary being, to whom they could attribute these obnoxious, unheard-of doctrines : for instance, the 47th proposition of Euclid, the elliptic orbits of the comets. These considerations prove his existence, and the state of Eastern learning in his day, for it was only among the Brahmins of India that he could have learnt them. …

Page 563

In Herodotus there is an account of a certain Zalmoxis, a Scythian. Mr. Upham, in his History, has observed,* that the story of this person evidently shews, that Buddhism was the religion of the inhabitants of the banks of the Ister previous to the time of Herodotus, and thence he infers that Buddhism was the religion of the Celtic tribes. Now it is a very remarkable thing that Pythagoras was called Zalmoxis. In all this there is evidently some mystery concealed. Assuredly the particulars told of Zalmoxis have every appearance of being oriental.

* Hist. Buddhism, p.27.

We have seen in a former book, that Virgil in his poem alluded to certain prophecies of females called Sibyls. I think it necessary now to make my reader a little more acquainted with those persons. By the expression the Sibyls was generally meant a collection of books, written partly in very early and partly in later times by female prophetesses bearing that name. In the earliest time of Christianity they were considered by the fathers of the church as of the very first importance, in fact, of such very great importance, that the Christian religion might be considered to be almost founded upon them, and by most of the early fathers their genuineness was not only never disputed, but it was expressly admitted. They are now despised. The reason for this it will not be difficult to discover. I shall make a careful inquiry into the genuineness of these books, in the course of which we shall see various proofs as to who was the ninth Avatar in the West; after which I shall proceed to point him out in the East.

Page 565

Among all nations of the Western parts of the world, the prophetesses called Sibyls were anciently known. There were eight of them who were celebrated in a very peculiar manner, and a work is extant in eight books,* which purport to contain their prophecies. … The Protestant churches deny them altogether, as Romish forgeries. These Sibyls were held in the highest esteem by the ancient Gentiles. And it appears from the unquestionable text of Virgil, that they did certainly foretell a future Saviour, or something very like it. We find, on examination of the present copy of them, that they actually foretell in an acrostic the person called Jesus Christ by name. The most early fathers of the Greek and Roman churches plead them as genuine, authentic, and unanswerable proofs of the truth of their religion, against the Gentile philosophers, who, in reply, say, that they have been interpolated by the Christians. …

* Published by Gallæus.

Page 566

Many authors, as well as Dr. Hyde, have endeavoured in vain to ascertain the meaning of the word Sibyl. Vallancey has observed, that in the Old Irish the word means cycle; and he goes on to say, that as the Sibyls were beloved of Apollo, he supposes the cycle must have been that of the sun. Here I believe we have the truth. There was supposed to be a prophetess of each Sibyl or Cycle. We have the prophecies of eight. There was one for each cycle as it passed. At the time of Christ one was to come. …

The location of these Sibyls around the Casa Santa at Loretto clearly proves, that the Roman church privately maintained the mythological character of the Virgin Mary, and her close connexion with these celebrated ladies. It is absurd to suppose that they were placed in this very remarkable place by accident, or in ignorance. Then why should they be connected with the Virgin ?

The Apostolic Constitutions quote the Sibylline oracles, and say, "When all things shall be reduced to dust and ashes, and the immortal God, who kindled the fire, shall have quenched it, God shall form those bones and ashes into man again, and shall place mortal men as they were before : and then shall be the judgment, wherein God shall do justice." Here is, I think, in this very early work (for early it certainly was) an admission of the doctrine of a renewal of worlds.

Josephus quotes the Sibylline oracles concerning the tower at Babylon.

The earliest undisputed Christian writer, of whom any entire work remains, is Justin, and he pointedly says, that the Cumæan Sibyl prophesied the advent of Christ in express words.* Justin's first Apology was published not later than about A.D. 160. If the Sibyls were then forged, they shew how early the Christians began these practices. Justin tells the Greeks that they may find the true religion in the ancient Babylonian Sibyl, who came to Cuma and there gave her oracles, which Plato admired as divine. Clemens Romanus also quotes the Sibyls in his Epistle to the Corinthians.** They are also quoted by Theophilus Antiochenus, Athenagoras, Firmianus, Lactantius, Eusebius, St. Augustine, &c.

* Floyer's Sibyls, p.225. ** Ibid. p.329.

… Clemens Alexandrinus also quotes Heraclitus as an authority that the Sibyls were inspired by God. St. Austin says the Sibyls, Orpheus, and Homer, all spoke truly of God and of his Son.*

* Sir John Floyer on the Sibyls, p. ix.

There are several works extant, purporting to be the writings of Peter, Paul, and other early Christians, in which the Sibylline oracles are quoted as authorities in support of the Christian religion. These writings, for instance the preaching of Peter, are quoted as the works of the persons whose names they bear, by Clemens Alexandrinus, and, in fact, are as well supported in point of genuineness as the orthodox gospel histories themselves, though rejected by modern Christians.* Jeremiah Jones has laid down some rules of criticism by which he pretends to try the genuineness of ancient works. These rules or canons are false, to a ridiculous degree.

* Vide Jones on Can. Pt. II. Ch. XXXIII. XXXIV., Vol. I. pp. 348-350

Page 567

Dr. Lardner admits that the old fathers call the Sibyls prophetesses in the strictest sense of the word.* The Sibyls were known as prophetesses to Plato, to Aristotle, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Plutarch, Pausanias, Cicero, Varro, Virgil, Ovid, Tacitus, Juvenal, and Pliny. Under all the circumstances it is absolutely impossible to deny that certain written prophecies did anciently exist; and the only question will be, whether we have the real originals, and if the originals, whether uncorrupted or not. It is evident that in the time of Plato they must, at least part of them, have been written; and the question arises, what can they have foretold ? I think I am entitled to answer, The same as Isaiah, as Enoch, as Zoroaster, as the Vedas, as the Irish Druid from Bocchara, and the Sibyls of Virgil—a renewed cycle, with its hero or divine incarnation, its presiding genius; but this I think will appear more clearly presently.

* Cred. Hist. Gosp. Bk. i Ch. xxii.

It seems that by the word age or generation different things were meant by different persons, from which confusion has arisen. But the Sibyls all agree that there were to be what are called ten generations or ages of the world in all; but the Erythræan Sibyl is the only one who correctly states them to begin with Adam. Erythra was the name of a town in Ionia and also of the oriental ocean, as least as far as Ceylon or Taprobana. In a former book I have shewn, how the Jews and other nations expected the six millenaries : here is a clear admission of the ten periods which could be nothing but the Neroses, or periods of 600 years, as in 6000 there are ten six hundreds.

… The Sibyls differ in their accounts in many respects from our present Bible, though evidently alluding to the same facts. This is a proof that they were not copied from it. …

Page 568

There is unquestionably great difficulty respecting the name of Christ and the Christians. At first they certainly went by a great variety of names, and among others, by a very extraordinary one, namely Pisciculi or little fishes. … The name Christ may be fairly derived from the word Cristna, and the traits of similarity in the lives of Cristna and Jesus, which have been pointed out, will probably compel the reader to believe, that the black God of Italy was called in some way or other from the black God of India, or both from some common source, and not from the anointing of a man who never was anointed. We will now try to find how this arose.

The first unquestionably genuine heathen evidence we have respecting the name of Jesus Christ and the Christians, is found in Suetonius.* Here he is cited by the name Chrestus, not Christus. Suetonius, if he speak of the Christians, and that he does so speak I conceive no impartial person can doubt, must be allowed to be, in this case, a perfectly competent and unimpeachable witness, according to every principle of fair reasoning. The following are his words :

Judæos, impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantes Roma expulit.

Tacitus speaks of these same persons, but calls them Christians, and their master Christus. This, on first view of it, seems probably a corruption, because one of the two must be a corruption, and who in later times could ever think of corrupting Suetonius into the Chrestus from Christus ?

* In Vita Claud. Cap. xxv.

Lactantius ascribes the name of Chrestus to the ignorance of the Greeks,* … Here is a most clear admission of an unimpeachable witness in this case, that the Greeks were accustomed, solent, to call Christ by the name of Chrestus, and not Christus.

* Ben David's refutation of the book called "Not Paul, but Jesus," pp. 277, 278.

Again Justin Martyr says,* "For we are indicted by the name of Christians, but crhjoj now is a word for kind or good; and such a word cannot surely be a just foundation for hatred."* It is impossible not to see that here the word Crijianoi or Christians is a corruption, and that it ought to be Cfhjianoi or Chrestians. Without this emendation the passage is nonsense, as every Greek scholar must see. … Certainly Justin would not have called them Cfhjianoi if Crhjoj had not been the common name by which Christ was known; and when, in other places, he calls him Crijoj, this being in opposition or contradiction to the former, one of the passages must have been corrupted. …

* Lib. iv. Cap. vii. Sect. iv.

Page 570

Bingham* says, the Christians were not called Christians, i.e. Christiani, till the time of St. Ambrose. I suppose this was because they were called Chrestians.

* Book i. Chap. i. p.7.

Lucian, in a book called Philopatris, makes a person called Triephon answer the question, whether the affairs of the Christians were recorded in heaven; "All nations are there recorded, since Chrestus exists even among the Gentiles :" … Thus it is perfectly clear that they were called Chrestians by the Gentiles, as well as by Justin Martyr, the first of the Christians in his day.

But the following evidence is conclusive upon the subject : Dr. Jones observes that this word in found in Rom. xvi. 18. He says, "And in truth the composition of it is crhstoj logia, i.e. logia pefi tq crhstq, oracles concerning Chrestus, that is, oracles which certain impostors in the church at Rome propagated concerning Christ, Crijoj being changed by them into Crhjoj, THE USUAL NAME GIVEN HIM BY THE GNOSTICS, AND EVEN BY UNBELIEVERS."* Here I think enough is admitted by Dr. Jones to shew pretty clearly that his original name was Crhjoj, and that the i was not changed into the h, but the h into the i.

* Ben David, pp. 278, 279.

Page 572

The heart may be seen in great numbers of the Christian monuments in the Vatican palace at Rome. The Roman Church has an office for the bleeding heart. As an emblem scarcely any thing is more common. But the way in which it is connected with the Romish Christian sepulchral monuments, and with those of the Heathens, shews a close connexion between them. The heart, being the emblem of the passion or sensation of affection of one person to another, came very naturally to be the emblem of divine love. At first it may be thought that a figure of this kind is a trifling circumstance and not worth notice. I dare say it will be so considered, by persons who spend their lives in idle attemps to supply a Lacuna or two in a Greek play; but, trifling as it may appear, I will compel the sceptic to belief, in the opinion I myself entertain. Here we have the heart upon an ancient Grecian monument before Christ, and connected with the word Crhjoj, and the name of Cupid or divine love Hrwj. We have it on an Indian monument of Bal-ii an incarnation of Vishnu crucified in the heavens, and we have it on vast numbers of modern Christian monuments in the Vatican at Rome. I defy any one to doubt the close connexion of the three. Circumstances of this kind are better than any written evidence whatever. This heart is often represented in Romish Churches with darts or spears stuck in it. Images of Christ are often seen with a spear thrust into the side. The image of Bal-ii has also a hole or wound in the side, and is described by an epithet which might be rendered in English side-wounded.

Page 573

The Latin name of Christiani* was first given to the followers of Jesus at Antioch, probably as a term of reproach; which is the reason, though they were perhaps not often insulted with it, why the Christian fathers in the earliest time never use it. And I believe it was not adopted till the doctrine of Paul was grafted into the gospel of Jesus, by the Roman or Popish Christians; and then, for the first time, along with the Christ crucified of Paul, came the Latin word Christus.

* Acts xi. 26.

For all these reasons collectively, I conclude that the original name by which Christians were called was, followers of Crhjoj or Cfhjianoi. I need not waste more words upon this point, for the fact cannot be disputed that they were thus called both by Christian fathers and Gentiles. But it is a point of very great importance.

No doubt I shall be asked the reason why this discovery which I have made of the ancient name of Christ has never been made before. To which I reply, Look to the decrees of Emperors, Popes, and Councils, almost innumerable, for the destruction of the writings of those persons who were likely to state or name the fact in ancient times, and you will see the reason. Had we the large and learned work of Porphyry or the works of Ammonius Saccas, no doubt we should have this and many other points cleared up.* … For the cause of truth it is a most fortunate circumstance that the priests in transcribing the works of Justin Martyr have overlooked the passage which the reader has seen. …

* Vide Lardner's Works, Vol. IV. xvii. p.111, 4to.

The word Crhjoj among the Gentiles, did not only mean benignus, mitis, but it also meant, when applied to a person, a being superior to man, of a benevolent nature; precisely a divine incarnation. Hrwj had the same meaning—a demigod. The result of the whole is, it is clearly proved that the Papal Christians changed the first name of Jesus from that of Chrestus to that of Christus, with the Latin termination. In a future page I shall produce some very curious circumstances which will trace this Chrestos, foretold by the Sibyls, to India.

I will now retrun to the consideration of the Acrostic of the Sibyls.

Page 574

It is perfectly clear that in the time of Cicero there was an acrostic in the book. If that which is there at this time be not it, pray where is it ? If the Christians had forged this acrostic after the time of Justin, they would have contrived to insert Crijoj and not Creijoj.

But I shall now produce in this case, I think, an unimpeachable witness, that the present acrostic was that in the Sibyl in the time of Cicero; for Eusebius affirms, that Cicero quoted these very verses which contain the acrostic, and which he says was in the Erythræan Sibyl. If the father of ecclesiastical history may be credited, the fact of the existence of our present acrostic in the time of Cicero cannot be doubted.*

* Vide Floyer's Sibyl, Pref. p. xx.

Justin says, "that the Sibyl not only expressly and clearly foretells the future coming of our Saviour Jesus Christ, but also all things that should be done by him."* This was in the early part of the second century, and it exactly answers to our present Sibyls. It is very evident that, supposing the name of Jesus Christ to have been unknown as a man's name, which it might be in the time of Cicero, the poem might pass generally without the meaning of the acrostic being discovered, or without its being perceived that the letters formed and acrostic, except by the initiated.

The acrostic suited both the Heathens and the Christians. … That the Christians should have corrupted the oracles is very likely, and even in some degree the verses which formed the acrostic—but still keeping the acrostic. Indeed, after the observation in Justin, that all the things that had happened to Jesus were in the Sibyl, was noticed, I have no doubt that if there were any thing in the Gospels which was not in the Sibyl, the Christians would put it there. There is undoubted evidence that our Gospel histories underwent repeated revisions. Those who would revise the Gospels, would not scruple to revise the Sibyls.

… Under all these circumstances, I cannot doubt that the acrostic which we have, was actually the acrostic referred to by Cicero, and that it meant IHS CRHSTOS the benignant Genius or new incarnation of Bacchus, or Buddha, or Divine Wisdom, the Protogonos of God, or QEOT TIOS SWTHR. Although Cicero, in the passage I have quoted, does not give us the words of the acrostic, it is evident that it referred to some great person—but still it gave only a mystical name of him. In short, there is not the least evidence against either the genuineness of the book or of the passage.

How the Sibyls originally came to Rome it is difficult to say, for, to the story of their purchase, by Tarquin, I suppose no one now attends : but after they were burnt, in the time of Sylla, others were procured from Erythræa by ambassadors sent for the purpose, a fact which shews that they were well known to exist. … It is very certain that, though known to exist, they were not thrown open to the public, and I think it seems probable, that they were not published till the Christians got possession of them, and for, their purposes, published them, though they were quoted to support the tyranny of Augustus, and the attempted tyranny of others before him.

It is very certain that Scipio and Sylla both founded their claims to power upon the prophecy in the Sibyls—that an illustrious person or a saviour would come on the opening of some unknown, but speedily-expected, new age. This is confirmed by Virgil, and he is allowed to be named in an acrostic by Cicero. … Almost every particular in the life of Christ as detailed in our Gospels, is to be found in the Sibyls, so that it can scarcely be doubted that the Sibyls were copied from the Gospel histories, or the Gospel histories from them. It is also very certain that there was an Erythræan Sibyl before the time of Christ, whatever it might contain. Where this Erythræa was, we shall presently try to discover.

Page 576

The following passage of Dupuis shews that the Erythræan Sibyl might easily write the acrostic …

"But the Virgin of the constellations, Isis, the mother of Orus, is really this famous Virgin mother of the God of light, as we have shewn in another part of this work, to which we refer the reader. We content ourselves here with saying, that the celestial virgin, of which the heaven offers us the picture at the equinox of the spring, with the celestial ark and the serpent, was effectually represented in all the ancient spheres with all the characters of that of the Apocalypse, that is to say, as a female newly laid in, and holding in her arms a young infant, which she suckles, and which has all the characters of Christ. …" "The Arabian Alboazar or Abulmazar goes farther. This is, according to him, he whom some persons call Jesus and others Christ, as we have seen in our chapter on the Christian religion, where we have reported this passage."*

* Tome III. p.46.

One finds here, as in the Apocalypse, an infant newly born, placed on an elevated throne, and in the arms of a female lately delivered, who nurses him. And this infant is the Jesus, the Christ, the God who ought, as the child of the Apocalypse, to reign over the world. Can more marks or similarity be expected ? This is the young infant, the image of the sun born at the winter solstice, at midnight, the 24th of December, of which the Persians celebrated the birth, as may be seen in the ancient calendars, which fix it to the same day—Natalis Solis invicti—and of which the effigy was placed by them in the first degrees of the sign which, by its ascension at midnight on the 24th of December, fixed the epoch of this birth. This was as the horoscope of the God Light, who commenced his career with the year, and who ought, in the spring, under the sign of the Lamb, to make the day triumph over the night, and to repair the mischief done to nature by the winter.*

* Dupuis, Sur tous les Cultes, Vol. III. p.251, ed. 4to.

Page 577

That the work called the Apocalypse of St. John just referred to, is of very great antiquity is clearly proved by the fact that it makes the year only 360 days long—the same length that it is made in the third book of Genesis …

… Good God ! if all the authorities which I have produced, not only of learned moderns but of learned ancients, the chief persons of the religions, joined to the clear words of Jesus in the Gospels, will not prove that a mystery was concealed, what can be expected to do it ? And surely, if there were such mystery, I have a right to endeavour to find it out : and I am certain that in great part, at least, I have found it out.

Page 578

In the time of Origen the manuscript of the oracles must have been in the temple under the statue of the God, and in the keeping of the Pagan high-priest, where it was totally impossible for the Christians to get access to it. And yet it seems, according to Justin, that this manuscript contained every thing which had been done by Jesus Christ. If we admit that the present copy is all corrupt, yet we must allow that the real Sibyl contained the same in substance as the one we have, at least if we can believe Justin.

Page 579

The Bishop (Horsley) repeatedly observes, that the style of the prophecy is exactly that of the Jewish prophets.* This justifies me in what I have said about Isaiah. He says, "The sum of the character is the same in both : in its nature unequivocal, and such as even in the general outline could not possibly belong to different persons in the same age." …

* Page 22.

I now conclude what I have to say of the Sibyls, but it has naturally brought me to the consideration of Cæsar, who, I shall shew, was a ninth Avatar. But before I proceed to the proof, I shall, in the next chapter, discuss many preparatory matters.




Page 580

In Polydore Virgil* is the following passage : … The following is the translation of Thomas Langley.** "Some people lived single, as certain nations called CRISTE and ESSENI among the Hebrews, which did abhor the calamities and trouble in marriage." … and here we have probably the Christian monks in Thrace, ancestors of the monks of mount Athos, long before the time of Christ.

* Typia Jacobi Stoer, impensis, Nicolai Bassei. M.D.X.C. Cap. IIII. P.21.

** Printed Anno 1551, fol. X.

Page 581

I have already proved that Thrace was peopled by a colony from North India; and, that the Crhjoj or Cristna or holy person appertaining to the latter country was crucified. From this, I think, there can be no doubt that on that account it was accounted crhjhj in its sense of a prophet or an oracular or benignant person. It was a holy land; in every thing as far as possible an imitation of a holy land in India. In some maps it is written Grestonia … It had also another most important name which I take to be its first name—Crestona or Crestonia,* that is, Creston-ia, which means the country of Creston or the good Genius or Crestus. … My reader will recollect what I have said of Cristna having his name from the idea of good Genius. This Crestonia is a very sacred district; in it is the town called Chrysopolis, or, as I have shewn, Chrystopolis, i.e. Chrystos-polis. This town was also called Eion or Adon, and Iamboli or Emboli, the same name as the town of Emboli-ma on the Indus, and Ioni-keni, and Orpheus,** Or-phi, the voice of Aur, or of the oracle of Orus and Iona, and Amphi-polis, or city or Amphi or Omphi, or the OM, or the voice of OM. The district around it was called Edon or Hdwnida, the same as the Garden of Eden; …

* Rennell, D'anville. ** Bryant, Anal. VII. p.129.

Page 582

… The promontory on which Byzantium stood was called Cryso-ceras; and the present Scutari, opposite to it, was called Chryso-polis. The circumstance of the Chryso-polis being in the district of Crestonia, proves what I have said before to be true, that Chrysopolis ought to be Chrestopolis, and the letters i and y ought to be the h; and that they were not sacred to Gold or called from Gold, but that they were sacred to the good Genius, or called from the good Genius, and that therefore, originally the name was Chrestopolis. It was, probably in reference to this superstition that Constantine selected this place for his city.

The tablet on which is the inscription with the Crhjoj and HRWS, was found by Dr. Clarke in a place where I should expect to find it : at Delphi, in the temple of the God called IE.* Under Parnassus, in a Gymnasium, where a monastery called Pana-ja (a name sufficiently Oriental—Hindoo I should think) now stands; adjoining to the Castilian fountain which flowed by the ruins of CRISSA, probably the town of Crestona, into the Crissæan Bay, i.e. Cresta and Crestiæ bay. Dr. Carke has observed what I should have expected to find, that the foundations of the ruins at Delphi are Cyclopæan. The spelling of the Crhjoj on the Tablet, and of the district Cres-tonia, clearly prove that the word Crissæan and Crista are the same.

* We must not forget that all orthodox persons maintain that Jesus Christ was the Jehovah incarnated; that is, the IE incarnated, whom they call Jah.

In Dr. Clarke's map, Delphi, or a place close to it, is called Crissa; and an ancient scholiast upon Pindar affirms, that under the name of Crissa, the city of Delphi was designated. This is a most important fact, but it is nothing but what other circumstances would lead us to expect.* …

* Travels in Greece, Ch. vi. p.183, 4to.

Page 583

… And what marks the similarity more between the Sinde or Indus of Thrace, and the Sinde or Indus of the East, and indeed puts identity out of doubt, is, that Herodotus informs that, in his time, like the Indian wives now, the Thracian wives were sacrificed on the death of their husbands, and that it was a point of contest among the wives which should have the privelege. This I think completes the picture. The Thracians of rank were generally burnt after their death, and their ashes put in urns and buried in tumuli. This practice is noticed by Solinus* and Herodotus.** Stobæus,*** who cites Herodotus, says, that the case of the Thracian women was exactly parallel with that of the wives in India, for they were burnt with their husbands. … The Indian practice, I believe, was known to Diodorus, Cicero, Propertius, Strabo and Plutarch.**** …

* Cap. xv. ** Lib. v. p.183, ed. Steph.

*** Cap. cxx. p.521. **** I quote these names from memory.

Page 586

We must not forget that the black Apollo of Delphi was called by the Hebrew word IE and also by the name Cunnius; that we, in a neighbouring country, found the people sacrificing their wives; that these people were called Sindi; that this black Apollo is called on the tomb of the Youth of Larissa Crhjoj, and that we found a Chrys in Youdia of India. All these matters considered, I come to the belief that when the Brahmins perfected their Sanscrit, on the foundation of the old language of the country, they applied to the word Kris the meaning black or dark blue; but that its original meaning was benignus, mitis. …

In the CELTIC DRUIDS, Chap. V. Sect. XV., I have shewn that the Irish Ceara, the wife of Ceares, was the Goddess of Nature, and the same as Ceres. She had a daughter called Porsaibhean, pronounced Porsaivean, the Persephone of the Greeks, and the Proserpine of the Romans. … The meaning of this name was præstigiatrix, mago, or fabricatrix.* The Maja of India was the same as the Maia of the Greeks, but she was the same as Persephone,** and Persephone was Ceres, and Ceres was the mother of the Gods and Queen of heaven. From the same source came the Cruswr and Chryssor of Sanchoniathon. Cres or Krhj or :9, krs, was the being to whom the astrologers came on the birth of Christ, the 25th of December, to make the solar offerings at the temple of Bethlehem or Ceres, where Adonis or Adonai was worshiped, as described in Book V. Chap. II. Sect. 3. …

* Lac. Epit. 68. ** Sir W. Jones.

It is from the Ceres or Krhj, that the Christians got their custom of burning candles before their saints, and of carrying them in their processions. Ceres was called Tædifera.

As we might expect, one of the sons of the Yadu of India was said to be Croshta, or Croshtdeva. Here we find the Christ as Crost, and the Cras-devas of Arrian : and here we see the mythos of the crhj, or Crhst, or Crest, most clearly proved to have been in existence long anterior to the Christian æra.* Christ was called Crost by the Ethiopians. In book I. Chap. IV., I have shewn that the Ethiopians were a colony from India.

* Trans. Asiat. Soc. Vol. III. Part I. pp. 143, 144, Essay by Tod.

Page 588

The Tetragrammaton of the Pythagoreans I have shewn, in my CELTIC DRUIDS, was the word %&%* ieue : on this account they had great reverence for the Quadrangle, and said it corresponded to Ceres. The reason of this was, because in the secret science the sacred four represented Jehovah, who was the Logos Incarnate, the Crhj. Ceres was the Deity androgynous, the Creator from whom abundance and all blessings flow.

The earth is called the nursing mother of all creatures, the Ceres. This was because the earth, like all other things, was an emanation from the Creator—was but a link in the chain of emanations proceeding from the highest to the lowest, or vice versa. Thus the mysticism of Plato, noticed in B. I. Ch. II., may be reconciled. Thus the earth, in the sacred metaphorical language, was a Ceres; and all rivers were Adonises of Dons, or Sirs or Surs—rivers of the sun. They were, in fact, Cereses, for they were the nurses of the creatures living on the land fertilized by them, and which, without them, would be arid wastes. I have a strong suspicion that every place had a mystical name for the priests', and a common name for the people's use.

When I consider the identity of the history of Cyrus with that of Cristna, and the mythological character of its date or birth, that he was the same as Adonis whose history was very similar to that of Perse-phone or Proserpine, who was called by the same name as Cyrus, Core, in Hebrew :9&, curs, I cannot help doubting his existence as a human being. He was a Messiah foretold by name, a solar appellation, to save the Jews; and he was most assuredly the presiding Genius of the eighth cycle, being born on the first of it.

In the male and female Crhj, M. Creuzer1 might have found the Kiris or Kyris who came to Argos of Peloponnesus, and whom he shews to have been identical with Adonai or the Lord, or Adonis and Osiris, and afterward2 with Proserpine called also3 Core. All these Creuzer shews to have been identical with a God called Æon,4 or the eternal Creator or Demiurge.5 I suppose I need not point out to my reader how all my system is here unconsciously confirmed by this learned German. And further, he has shewn them all to be identical with Oannes, Anandatus, Derceto, the Patares of Lycia, and the Hom or Omanus, called also Comœus;6 and again with an Autochtone called Cresus,7 the builder of the temple of Ephesus, and he with Semiranis, and Chersiphron;8 and again with Omphale, daughter of Jordanus, (this shews the river Don probably in Lydia,) who had a son called Crœsus,9 by Hercules, whose name was Here and clo;10 Here being Chore, Core, or Cere, or Ceres; and again with Axiokersa, (another corruption of Ceres,) who was the same with De-meter; but Demeter was Bacchus, the Saviour, as was also Ceres.11 Thus Bacchus was the androgynous Saviour, IHS—and IHS is Jesus; and Jesus is the Logos and the Crhj, an incarnation of divine wisdom, the Erwj or Hrwj, or divine Love. Thus we see how, as Ammonius Saccas taught, all the vulgar plurality of the Gentiles, of the East and West, melt at last into precisely the same trinity of the Indians, the Jews, and the Christians. In the explanation of these identifications, no doubt, partly consisted the Eleusinian mysteries.12 In the above I am supported by the Scholiast of Apollonius Rhodius, who affirms that Axierus was Ceres.13

1 Tome II. Liv. iv. Ch. iii. p.45 2 Ibid. p.53 3 Vide Lempriere.

4 Aiwn, name of Cyrus. 5 Tome II. Liv. iv. Ch. iii. p.73

6 Comœus the aspirated Omaus. 7 In pp. 82, 114, 116.

8 Tome II. Liv. iv. Ch. iii. p.94. 9 Creuzer, p.179. 10 Ibid. p.195.

11 Ibid. p.312. 12 Creuzer, Liv. v. Ch. iii. p.315. 13 Nimrod, Vol. III. p.258.

Page 589

It is impossible to dip into the inexhaustible treasury of Creuzer, without seeing my theory confirmed. Could we but make out the whole, no doubt a beautiful system would shew itself in every part. Probably many Christians, from the indulgence of their prejudices and, I fear, from the bigotry and hatred instilled into their minds in youth by the priests, (who, as usual, will fear that some change of opinion may affect their emoluments,) will be much shocked to find their religion to be, at last, nothing but that which they have been accustomed to designate with every opprobrious epithet. But why should they object to the religion of the Gentiles being, when uncorrupted, the same as theirs ? Are they not always at work endeavouring to make proselytes ? Then I hope they will not be angry with me for at once bringing all the religions of antiquity, stripped of their corruptions, into the pale. I am, in fact, the greatest proselytist in the world. I proselyte those that have lived, those that live, and those that will live.

We have seen that the Thracians were Jews, Ioudi, and Orpheans, and Indians; that their wives sacrificed themselves on the death of their husbands. Orpheus charmed the beasts with his music, and the trees of Pieria came down to listen to him. He was accompanied by nine Muses. Kanya of India or Cristna, or Crishna, or Creeshna, or Crhjna, charmed the beasts with his music, as Orpheus had done. He was accompanied by nine Gopys, each called Radha.* All the same things are told of Apollo in the neighbouring Temple of Delphi or Kanya, or of the Grecian Apollo Cunnius—Kan-ia. The last syllable is the IE on the Delphic temple, %* ie of Jah of the Jews, the Jah of the Sanscrit, and of Apollo or A-pol, or % e -3" e-bol—the God Bol or Bal or Pal, of whom the shepherd kings of India, that is, the shepherds of Rajah-stan or Royal shepherds, Pallestini, were followers. Apollo had his nine muses; he was the God of Music. Like Kanya, and he performed on the Lyre as Orpheus did, and as Kanya did on the same instrument, called Vina.**

* Vide Tod's Hist. Raj. and plate—Crishna on the flute.

** See a figure of an ancient violin in Montfaucon.

Page 590

The word Khrux or Ceryx, the Herald, was derived from the Hebrew word :98 qrs, and meant the cross or the caduceus of Mercury or of Buddha. The Herald or Ceryx, Littleton translates Caduceator, and from it Lardner derives the word crux. It is very curious to observe how every thing connected with a cross comes at last, when sought to the bottom, to be connected with Hermes, Mercury, or Buddha—the Taranis of the Druid oak. The caduceus was either a crucifix or a cross. I very much suspect that our coats of arms, and particularly our crests, came from the Crestian or Cretian mythos. The ancients had their crests.* The figure carried on the shield or banner was the emblem of the crhj or good dæmon; therefore every people who adored the crhj or good dæmon would have a crest. From the first word emblem, or whatever word stood in the place of emblem, being a regimine, it came to have the name of crest. This style of the first language accounts for innumerable names, and in particular for the priests having the names of their Gods : for if it were said, the priest of Apollo, it would be exactly the same as to say, priest Apollo.

* See Book VIII. Chap. II. Sect. 1.

The Druids of Ireland carried in their hands the Crux ansata, called a key, or in their language kire or cire.* This we must recollect was carried by the Gods or priests of Egypt, and is also found in a very remarkable manner in the hands of many of the bearded Druidical-looking figures, given by Mr. Hammer, either as figures of the Templars, or as emblematical figures used by them. I cannot help suspecting that this cire was closely connected with the Cris and Ceres. … This key was what unlocked or opened the door of eternal and of human life. It was a polis or pole and a tri-pole. …

* Vall. Coll. Vol. VIII. p. xlix. Pref. to No. XII.

Page 591

… Mr. Bryant has noticed a country of Colida. Here we have the original Chaldea, where was the Ur—Ur of the Chaldees.

… There can be no doubt that many Assyrians might be Chaldeans, and vice versa. But the Chaldeans, most assuredly, were a sect or order of some kind, totally independent of the Assyrian or Babyloninan empire. … Ancient history shews traces of them in many places besides Babylon. Zoroaster was said to be their founder : but who was Zoroaster ? I shall discuss this question at present, but content myself with saying, I suspect that he was merely the supposed genius of a cycle. Seven Zoroasters are recorded by different historians.

Page 592

In the Colida or Colchida of Arrian, noticed by Mr. Bryant, I think we have the origin of the Culdees of Chaldees. They are in the district of Ur-li or Ur-iana, where Abraham or the Brahmin came from. He came from Ur of the Cullidei, or Chaldees, or Culdees, or from Colida. This completes the proof of my system.

The country of Calida or Colida in North India, between the Burrampooter and the Indus, is the country of the holy Cali—Cali-di, i.e. dis or divus and Cali.

Cali is the Greek caloj beautiful. It is remarkable that, in the Celtic, the word Cal means wise :* whence comes calling or vocation. When a person was called, he was deemed wise for the purpose for which he was called. The Roman meeting for the election of priests was called Calata Comitia. From this comes our Gala-day, Whit-sunday, when the Druids granted the orders or functions to priests.

* Cleland, Spec. P.124.

I believe myself that the Arians, said by Col. Van Kennedy* to be bounded by the Indus, was Uriana, which extended thus far; that all the Doab between the Ganges and Indus was Ariana and Ur-iana, and perhaps Ara-bia also. The word UR in the Indian language signigfies also country or town**—Era of Greece. Then, when it is said that Abraham came from "Ur of the Chaldees," it may mean, that he came from the country of the Chaldees or from Colida, not from the fire of the Chaldees.

* P. 197. ** Barthol. System. Brach. P.151.

Ammianus Marcellinus, in the following passage,* seems to imply that the Chaldees were eastward of Bactrina; this will take them to my Colida. … The whole passage evidently alludes to a Chaldea far Eastward of Assyria. We must remember that the name of the God of the Jews, Jah, IE, was the name of Apollo of Delphi. But the Oracle of Apollo, preserved by Porphyry,** said, that the Chaldeans and Jews were the only people who honoured a God produced by himself, autogeneqlon. And, assuredly, they were the Chaldees of Abraham whom the Oracle meant, whose God had the same name as the God of the Oracle, not the Moloch-adoring Assyrians. The coupling of the Chaldeans and Jews was natural enough, if they were originally from the same country. The place here found for the Chaldeans fully justifies Jeremiah's assertion, that they came from the ends of the North and of the sides of the earth,*** i.e. from a very distant country. …

* Hist. Lib. xxiii. ** Euseb. Evan. Præp. Lib. ix. Cap. x. *** Cab. Enc.

Page 593

But there was another Colida at the south end of the Peninsula of India, not far from Cape Comorin, as well as that of the Doab of the Ganges and Indus; thus there were two Colidas.

… Every one knows that Abram was said to be a great astrologer, and no person at all conversant with the history of the Roman Emperors can be ignorant that the Chaldeans from India were their great astrologers or tellers of fortunes.

… I think the most blind and credulous of devotees must allow that we have the existence of the Cristna of the Brahmins in Thrace, many hundred years before the Christian æra—the birth of Jesus Christ. Now, what could Mr. Maurice, Sir W. Jones, and Mr. Bentley, say to this ? Did the Cristna of Thrace take his name from the Apocryphal Gospels ? The Apollo EI, Crhj, in the country of Sind, with his flute or music, his nine muses or nine Rhadii, with the Brahmin custom of burning the widows cannot be doubted or evaded. How is it that this has never been seen before ? How, but because, if roguish priests did see it, they in every case endeavoured to suppress it; and because prejudice is so strong in devotees as to blind them even to an unclouded sun at noon ! … Every ancient author, without exception, has come to us through the medium of Christian editors, who have, either from roguery or folly, corrupted them all. We know that, in one batch, all the fathers of the church and all the Gospels were corrected, that is, corrupted, by the united exertions of the Roman See, Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Monks of St. Maur. …

Colonel Tod has given an account in his History, of an order of priests called Gosaen. They now officiate in the temple of Eklings, in Mewar. But the present religion of this temple is that of Kanyia or Cristna, and is said to have come from Matura. When I consider that I have found Maturea, Ur or Urii of the Colida, or Doab, or Mesopotamia of the Chaldees or Culdees, and Ayoudya or Oude, or Judia, and the Joorgees or Jews, all in India, nearly together, I cannot help believing that in the Gosaen of India we have the Goshen of Egypt, and of the Old Testament, called in the Hebrew 0:1 gsn, I leave the case to my reader, with the often-repeated observation, that it is not an individual name of this kind that is of any weight, but the number of them. These Gosaen were priests. The Hebrews dwelt in the land of Goshen or of the Goshaen.

Page 598

… "The river Indus was often called Sindus, and nations of the family whereof I am treating were called Sindi. There were people of this name and family in Thrace, named by Hesychius : … The Sindi (of Thrace) are an Indian nation. … "* In the next page Bryant repeats what the reader has before seen, that Apollonius of Tyanea affirms, that the African Ethiopians were originally an Indian nation. … and I think no one can read the long dissertation of Mr. Bryant, and not see that the Gymnosophists were the wise men or Magi, or priests of Ammon, or of the ƒeron Om-manq.

* Bryant, Vol. III. p.215

… Hermippus, in the Life of Pythagoras, observes, "Pythagoras performed and said these things in imitation of the Jews and Thracians."* The identity of the doctrine of the Trinitarian and Thracian Orpheus with the Trinity of India and of Genesis, again proves the Thracians and Jews both to have been colonies from India. …

* Benj. De Tudels, by Gerrans, Ch. xviii. note.

In Thrace we have, in the doctrines of Orpheus, the triune God of India and of the Jews. In the names of towns, rivers, &c., a repetition of similar places in India : …

… I think I may now safely consider that every thing which I have formerly said of Ammon being the OM of India is satisfactorily PROVED. The tomb of Orpheus was shewn in Thrace, and a perusal of what Mr. Bryant has said respecting him, I think must convince any person that there never was a man of this name, but that the Orpheans were a sect or tribe having the religion of the Trimurti, and were the Iudi who came from the East, and who were also called Iberi, or foreigners, or Hebrews.

Page 602

A learned Jew, of the name of Marcus, has given an extract from Philosturgius, a Greek of the fourth century, who says, that the inhabitants of the East shore of Africa, as far as Cape Guardafui, were called Suroi, and were tout-à-fait basanés par la chaleur du soleil, or nearly black. These Suroi I suppose to have been the same people who were called Suroi and Fannoi in the Mesopotamia between the Indus and the Ganges. M. Marcus observes, that the Geez translate the word Suroi by Saman, which resembles Samen. Claudien calls the Abyssinians Judæi. Now these Judæi or Saman were the Samaneans whom we have found in Meroe, and proved to be the East Indian Gymnosophists of that state, and who were sometimes called, by the Greek and Roman writers, the people of the nether India, and, at other times, of India alone.*

* Journal Asiatique Nouveau, No. 18, 19, June, 1829.

Page 603

The country of the Chaldeans was Northern India; in which there was a district called Syra, (Syra-strene), and Pallitana; and as the people were Judi or Judæi, they spoke the Chaldee or Syro-Chaldee language. The same took place in South India : Mysore is Maha-Sura or the Great Syria.* Here then was also Colida or Chaldea, the people Judi or Judæi speaking the Syro-Chaldee language; and there also were found the Samaneans.

* Buchanan.

In Abyssinia, the country was called India and nether India; in a large district of which, the people were called Sufoi—a sufficient proof that the country was called Sura or Suria : there also people were called Judæi, and they likewise spoke the Chaldee or Syro-Chaldee language. In all these countries the Pallestini and Samaneans are found; and what is more remarkable, the Phannoi or Phœnicians are found in Egypt, and in two of the Eastern Syrias, together, as the reader has seen, with several other striking coincidences. …




Page 608

We are now prepared, I think, for another divine incarnation—the Ninth—and we shall find him in the celebrated Julius Cæsar.

In the history of Julius Cæsar, and, indeed, in that of his whole race, there is something peculiarly curious and mystical. He was born of the family of the Julii, who were descended from Venus, by her son Æneas, the son of the Trojan Anchises. From Æneas and Creusa descended Ascanius, also named Julius, who lived in the mystic Alba, till that city was ruined by Tullus Hostilius, who, it is said, instead of destroying the family of his enemy as usual, removed it to Rome, where it flourished for many generations, until it achieved the sovereignty not only of Rome, but almost of the world, to which, in a very particular manner, it may be said to have brought peace. The greatest of the Cæsars was Caius Julius, who was born about half a century before Jesus Christ. The word Julius is the same as the ancient Yule, who was Saturn. The Quintile month, the month in which the great Julius is said to have been born, was sacred to Yule. See Nimrod,* who has shewn how the Saturnalia became our Christmas gambols. We must not forget, that the Mons Capitolina, the Roman capitol, where Julius established his empire, was first called Saturnia.

* Vol. I. pp. 155, 156, 158.

The Rev. Dr. Barret, says, "the woman of the Revelation clothed with the sun, and having on her head a crown of twelve stars, brings forth a child, which is --&3 oull or Christ." This is Yule, Julius, or Iulus. …

Page 610

… Nimrod* says, "Æsar, which is the chief part of the word Cæsar, meant GOD in Etruscan : and no doubt the same family which inherited the name of the Ænead Hero, and Indigete Julius, were also the cognomen Æsar, or Deus, with an honorific prefix." … As Cæsar was held to be an incarnation of the Crhjoj, his birth was fixed to a period which we have found, by modern inquiries, was one of the sacred æras of India, when the ninth Crhj was supposed to be born, or the ninth benignant incarnation was believed to have taken place, or when the ninth sæculum began.

* Vol. III. p.456.

Page 611

The Zarina of Russia, the name of the queens of that country, is evidently the 9: sr with a feminine termination. This is the Phœnician and Chaldæan Sar or Zar, a prince or grandee.* Thomyris, the Scythian queen, who was said to have conquered Cyrus, was called Zarina. I have a strong suspicion that the despots of Russia and Germany both affect the name of Cæsar, for the same reason that the family of Cæsar kept its mythic name. I have no doubt that the person who claims this title, claims, though secretly, to be autocrat of the world, both by right of the sword and of the book,—both as priest and kind.

* Enc. Brit. Voce Philology, p.568.

It is notorious that Nero was thought by the Romans to be a particular sacred person, or to have opened some sacred period. On this account he was, in more than an usual manner, hated by the Christians, who took him to be Antichrist, that is, another or opposition Christ. The name of Nero, which he bore, looks very much like the name of the Neros, a coincidence which would never have occurred to me had it not been for the other circumstances. We often hear of the wickedness of Nero, but we seldom hear of the wickedness of Constantine the Great, who murdered his son, his brother-in-law, his wife, his nephew under age, and amused himself by making the kings taken prisoners in war fight wild beasts in the circus. Notwithstanding all this, the Rev. Dr. Lardner tells us this GREAT man "was not a bad man," and his general conduct is marked with the approbation of the Christian world, by his equestrian statue being placed, at this very day, June 1832, in the porch of St. Peter's Church at Rome ! ! !

Cæsar had all the honours paid to him as to a divine person, and that particular divine person of whom we have been treating. He was called Father of his country, that is, …, Pater futuri sæculi. At the end of five years, a festival was instituted to his honour, as to a person of divine extraction. A day was dedicated to him, and he had the title also of Julian Jove : and a temple was erected to him.* His temple bore the appellation of Heroum Iuleum, and contained images of Venus. Julius was followed by his nephew Octavius, who was also called Cæsar, to which was added the mystic title of Augustus,** which meant sanctity and deification upon earth.*** … And to make the mythological circumstances complete, we have the astrological number of 12 applied to the first 12 Roman Emperors, called Cæsars, by the historians of those times. …

* Dion. Cassius, Lib. xliv. Cap. iv.; Ferguson's Roman History, Vol. III. Book v. p.32.

** The Nile was called Augustus by the Egyptians. They called it King Augustus. Basnage, Hist. Jews, p.247.

*** Ennius ap. Suet. Octav. Cap. vii.; Hor. Lib. iv. Cap. xii.

Page 612

… In every case the founder of the cycle seems to have suffered a violent death, in some way or other, and the earth to have been darkened; but we shall see much relating to this hereafter.

The observation made respecting the twelve Cæsars only applies to a part of an universal mythos. There were twelve tribes of Israel, who all assembled to worship at one temple. There were twelve tribes of Ionians, who all assembled in like manner at one temple. There were twelve tribes of Etruscans, who all assembled at one temple; and who, by colonies, founded twelve tribes in Campania, and twelve more in the Apennine mountains. There were twelve Cæsars, and twelve Imaums of Persia, followers of Ali, all believed to be foretold by Esdras, 2, ch. xii. 11-15. When Moses built a Druidical temple near to Sinai, he set up twelve stones; at Gil-Gal again twelve unhewn stones, and on Gerizim, again, twelve stones in circles. I need not point out the circles of twelves so often found in the remaining Druidical temples—all Pythagorean and Masonic—still intelligible in many of our chapter-houses, for the builders of these were the oldest monks (probably Carmelites) and masons. …

Page 613

We have heard of the death of Adonis only from the Greeks; Mars was jealous of Venus. In Gaul Mars was called Esus, and Æsus, and Hesus, Hesar. What was it in Chaldea that killed Adonis ? 9&( Hzr, Chesar, Cæsar. But 9*&( hzir, a wild boar, was taken from 9&( hzr, and thus a wild boar killed Adonis. The evil principle prevailed over the good, but the good one rose again to life and immortality.* But in Saurashtra, the God Bal had also the name of Cæsar. We need not therefore be surprised to find a Cæsar in Italy, where the Palli, the Saturnia, the temple of Loretto, &c., of Surastrene.** … Cæsar is the Iswara of India.

* See Ouseley's Col. II. p.221.

** Vide Col. Tod on the Temples of Ellora, Trans. Asiat. Soc. Vol. II. Pt. I. p.329.

… I believe originally the word Cæsar was As-sar, or in the Hebrew style of reading, Ras-sa, closely connected with the Ras-sees of India. Upon these the word Cæsar or Tzar was formed.

Page 615

It appears from a passage in Suetonius, that the death of Julius Cæsar was in a peculiar manner deplored by the Jews—prœcipuèque Judæi. I think from this and many other circumstances that the two Cæsars were not only held up by a few contemptible retainers, (hangers-on for bread, as they have been represented,) as the Cyrus or the Great One of the age, foretold by the ancient prophecies, but by a great and learned body of mankind, who were believers in them. The Cæsars were supposed by their followers, when they were alive, to be renewed incarnations, like the Lamas of Tibet. The Popes say that Constantine gave up Italy on his death-bed. At the same time he probably surrendered all claim to the pallium and the other privileges of Pontifex Maximus. From that time I think the emperors ruled by the sword only, the Pontifex Maximus by the book. Cæsar ruled by both. Whenever a king is crowned, he is always made to swear that he will support the rights of the church. This is really nothing less than fealty disguised.

The sacred books of India, from being called the books of Wisdom, were at length called Wisdom itself. In somewhat a similar way the Muses acquired their name. All sacred doctrines were contained in verse, which was invented for the purpose of preserving them, and every cycle had its epic, or song, or musa, to record its Saviour or %:. mse. Thus Homer celebrated the Greek Avatar of the Asian Cyrus, and Virgil, the vates, sung the arrival of the Xæsar. So completely mythic is it, that the historians have made the early life of Virgil almost a close copy of that of Homer, as the modern author of his life, W. Walsh, Esq., has pointed out and detailed at length. This affords an admirable example of what I have observed in another place—that all history has been corrupted by judicial astrology. …

Page 616

When Cæsar was murdered there was a darkness over the earth. … Soon after Cæsar's death, when Augustus obtained the power, he was believed to be the person, and the Æneid was written to celebrate him. The Death of Cæsar, so like to that of Romulus, rather tended to prove him a sacred character like Romulus. The darkness was easily invented afterward to complete the picture.

Page 617

It is Cæsar that Virgil celebrates in all his verses. The mythos taught that there were to be twelve Cæsars, and Julius's praise will suit all or any of them. If the generation in this case were taken at thirty years, it brings us to the mythos of Constantine, who founded Nova Roma on the seven hills, 360 years after the first of the Cæsars. I have no doubt that the mythos was, that the Julian family should last for twelve generations—in all 360 years—till a new period arose. …

… Julius declared himself high-priest, Pontifex Maximus, and probably, though perhaps secretly, pretended to the office by hereditary or divine right. He certainly pretended to be the great one of the ninth age, who was to come, and was believed to be so, both by the Jews and Romans. And though this is scarcely perceptible, yet it may be perceived in the fourth eclogue of Virgil, and in the regret of the Jews. His aphanasia and six hours' darkness at his death liken him to Romulus and to Jesus Christ. The suffering of a violent death seems a necessary part of the mythos; and I suspect that the deaths of Calanus, of Cyrus, of Crœsus, of Hercules, of Romulus, &c., &c., &c., all had a connexion with it. The following two verses are of themselves enough to shew that the fourth eclogue refers to the mythos of which I have written so much.

Incipe, parve puer, risu cognoscere matrem :
Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia menses.

Here is the child laughing at its mother as soon as born, and its mother suffering a pregnancy of ten months. Zoroaster, Buddha, and Jesus Christ, are all represented to have laughed as soon as they were born.

Page 618

Whether an angel appeared to the mother of Cæsar to warn her not to have connexion with her husband during gestation I do not know, but this is precisely what happened to Aristo the father of Plato, according to Apuleis, Plutarch, and Hesychius. So that there can be no doubt that it was a part of the mythos.* A star was said to foretell the birth of Cæsar. This seems to have been a necessary part of the mythos; … Col. Tod says,** "The Chinese account of the birth of Yu (Ayu) their first monarch,*** (Mercury or Fo,) a star struck his mother while travelling. She conceived and gave to the world Yu, the founder of the first dynasty which reigned in China." Here we have the same mythos of the immaculate conception in China, and of the same God if I mistake not—%* ie.

* Vide Taylor's Jamblicus, p.6, note. ** Hist. Raj. p.57.

*** De Guines sur les Dynasties des Huns, Vol. I. p.7.

In Basnage is a very curious account of a kingdom of Cosar or Cæsar, which has been much sought after.* It alludes to another kingdom of the Jews in the East. Lord Kingsborough has noticed this in his magnificent works on Mexico.** I believe this arose among them from meeting every where with remains of a mythic kingdom of a Cæsar which they could not understand. They learnt that there was a kingdom of Cæsar of Cosar or TZR or Tzarina ruled by Jews on the North of India, which they fondly flattered themselves must keep alive the prophecy that the sceptre should not pass from Juda till their Messiah come; but when they examined it, it vanished from their touch. They were the remains of the kingdom of Oude which they found.

* Bk. vii. Chap. i. Bk. viii. ** Vol. VI. p.284.

There is yet one more circumstance of the mythos of Cæsar which shews, in a very extraordinary manner, how all history, even almost to our own day, has been corrupted to conceal or record the mythos. We have seen that Buddha was born from the side of his mother, and that the Christian heretics taught the same thing of Jesus. To complete the secret doctrine, Cæsar was said to have been born by means of what we call the Cæsarean operation, from the side of his mother. No doubt this was told to the vulgar, but to the initiated the doctrine of Buddha was told. When all the other mystical circumstances relating to Cæsar are considered, the nature of this story cannot be doubted, the doctrine of the birth from the side, he probably learnt, with much more that has not come to us, from the Chaldeans whom he employed to correct the calendar.

Page 620

Much nonsense has been written concerning the heroes of antiquity being converted into Gods; but now, in the Cæsars, I think, we may see the real nature of the apotheosis. They were not supposed to be men converted into Gods, but incarnations of a portion of the Divine Spirit; at least this was the real and secret meaning of the apotheosis. They were men endowed with the Holy Ghost. They were nothing but men supposed to be filled with more than an usual portion of that spirit which our bishops profess to put into their priests, when they ordain them by the imposition of hands—by which they give then the unconditional power of remitting sins; at least so the book says. …

Page 621

A great many years ago, the question of the truth or authenticity of the history of the first four hundred years of the Roman empire, was discussed in the Transactions of the French Academy of Inscription,* by Mons. De Pouilly and the Abbé Sallier. The former asserted the same as had been asserted by an Englishman called Lumsden, in his travels to Italy—that many of the incidents in the Roman history were identical with those in the heroical history of the Greeks, and therefore must have been copied from them. In reply to this, the Abbé shewed, from dates and circumstances, that they could not have been copied by the Romans from the Greeks, … But that which seems probable has never been suspected,—that they were not copies of one another, but were drawn from a common source; were, in fact, an example of remaining fragments of the almost lost, but constantly renewed, mythos, which we have seen every where in the East and the West,—new Argonauts, new Trojan wars, &c., &c. …

* For the year 1729.

Page 623

The ancient spirit of mysticism is well exemplified in the names of Rome. Among others we are told, that it was called Erwj or Love, because its name, of Roma, spelt anagramatically, made Amor. In the same way, probably, its legislator, Numa, was called from Menu or Amun.* It is very extraordinary, that when it must be known to the learned, that all the writers on mystical subjects concealed them as much as possible by anagrams, and acrostics, and ænigmas, of every kind, they should be so unwise as to cast these things away, and pay no attention to them. The Jews and Gentiles were equally addicted to these practices. …

* Vide Creuzer, Vol. II. p.521.

Page 624

In I Pet. v. 13, Rome is alluded to under the name of Babylon. This is very much perplexed the Luthers and Calvins, who were not initiated in the Roman religion. But this was the mystic name of Rome, as is proved from a passage in the Sibylline Oracle, Lib. iii., where Rome is most clearly designated by the word Babylon. Very truly has Nimrod said,* that the Sibylline Oracles as Gnostic performances.

* Vol. I. pp. 228, 388.

Thus we have Rome called Babylon, and Babylon called Rome. We have a city of Rama and an island of Rama in India : and a point Romania.* We have in Phrygia Mount Ararat noticed by the Sibyl, and a Roma, &c., and a country of Roum; and, to complete all, we have in each, for rulers, Cæsars or Kesari. Can any one doubt a common mythos ? And it may have been any of these Romes to which the Erythræan Sibyl in her prophecy alluded. Rome was Babylon. And Babylon was the city of the Dove, and Lanca or Ye-lanka** or Ceylon was the island of Rama, (in which were Ararat and Adam's foot-mark,) the capital of which is Columbo. …

* Hamilton's Gaz. p.184. ** Called Yelanki by Wilson.

Creuzer says that Rome was called an Olympus,* and in their ceremonies they chanted Tri-omphe, Triomphe—that is, the triple Omphe.

* Liv. v. Ch. v. p.524.

Page 626

Infinite in number are the places in the writings of the ancients, and in their ceremonies, where the sacred Argha or Ark is noticed or alluded to. Every mythos of antiquity is represented or disguised in the form of a history. We have the Trojan war, the adventures of Bacchus, Hercules, Theseus, Osiris, Cristna. The early history of Rome is like all the others; and of the same character is the history of Noah—an allegory concealed under the garb of history—Buddha, Jain, or Menu, floating on the ocean in a boat; that is, the principle of generation or the generative power reduced to its simplest elements : the Linga, in the form of Menu floating in the Yoni, in the form of a boat. In Genesis it is Noah and his three sons. These great incarnations always affected a similitude to those which had preceded, the nature of which may be seen in all the Indian Avatars, particularly in those of Buddha and Cristna. They are visible also in the accounts which we have seen of the repetitions of the ten years' sieges, of towns, &c., &c., of Western nations. All these histories were probably repetitions of mythoses, on the same principle as the Indian Avatars. Precisely like all others was the Mosaic history. There are Adam and his three sons, from whom all mankind descended in the first yug, age, or world. These are succeeded by Noah and his three sons, at the second yug, age, world. Though they be not the same any more than the histories of Buddha and Cristna, they do not differ from one another more than the two latter differ. The theory was, that a renewal of every thing should take place in every mundane revolution—new Argonauts, new sieges of Troy, &c. This nature prevented, but the priests carried the practice as near to the theory as they were able. Similar adventures were attributed to every new incarnation. this is not a theory, it is a fact; and if my method of accounting for it be not satisfactory, I beg that one more probable may be proposed. My theory has this peculiar recommendation, that it requires no miracles or admissions of incredible facts, but only what is probable and consistent with the course of nature, which we learn from experience.

Page 627

As I have just now said, it was at the end of a MUNDANE revolution that a renewal of nature was to take place; but we may reasonably ask, what was meant by the word mundane ? In our dictionaries we are told, that Mundus means world; but it also means a Cycle, which implies the same as the Greek word Kosmoj. It should always be recollected that I am describing a system which would, by being constantly at variance with nature and circumstances, oblige the priest to have recourse to such expedients as chance afforded him, whether entirely satisfactory or not.

Plutarch says, that it was Pythagoras who first named all the parts of the universe Kosmoj, on account of its order. …

Cristna is called Can-ya. This, when all other circumstances are considered, is evidently the epithet of the Apollo of Athens, Cun-ni-us,* and Ya the IE on the Delphic temple. Each of the nine wives of Can-ya is called Radha, and answers to one of the nine Muses of Apollo; and Radha is the Latin Radius or English Ray. Each Radha or Muse or %:. mse or (:. msh or female Saviour or Messiah, was an emanation from the Solar Deity, incarnate in the presiding genius of each age or cycle. Each was a Ray, and thus each king-priest was a Ray-jah or Ra-ya or Ra-ja, and the Rajah was an emanation, or the Ray Jah** emanating from the solar power in the form of air or fire. It was, I suspect, an incarnation of wisdom, of the Raj or Ras. This Ras generally, when visible, appeared in the form of Air or Fire.*** Thus came the Ray of light, the Ras, and the Rajah or Jah the Wise. All kings or Rajahs were priests, thus all inspired, all incarnations of the Ray-Jah. From these came the Rex, Regis, the Roi of France, and the females of these were the Reine of France, and the Rana of North India.

* Cuno-Belinus, the admitted Apollo of Britain, was of both genders. There are coins yet existing where he is so described. But many learned medalists have thought, that these were not pieces of money, but medals struck by the astrologers.

** Col. Briggs says, Ray and Raja are found to be synonymous. Vol. I. p.7. …

*** When the Holy Spirit descended upon the apostles, on the day of Pentecost, it was in the form of a tongue of fire, accompanied by a rushing wind.

Parkhurst* says, "The personality in Jehovah is in Scripture represented by the material Trinity of Nature : which also, like their divine antitype, are of one substance; that the primary scriptural type of the Father is fire : of the Word light : and of the Holy Ghost, Spirit, or Air in motion." This material Trinity as a type is similar to the material trinity of Plato—as a type to conceal the secret Trinity.

* In voce "9, krb, II.

Page 628

I suppose the Shepherd Kings who conquered Egypt were Rajpouts or Buddhists, of the country of the Rajahi Bedoueens, from Rajah-stan. The Israelites as well as the Royal shepherds, were both, in fact, Arab tribes—tribes also from Arab-ia on the Indus. From Rajah, and Pout or Buddha, came the name of the country of the Raja Pouts, or the Royal Buddhists, for Pout was a name of Buddha. The inhabitants of that country were Palli or Shepherds. They were Royal Shepherds or Raja-Pout Shepherds. They came from a country called Arabia; and as they crossed the Western Arabia in their route to the Abyssinian Ethiopia, when forced forwards by succeeding tribes, they left behind them, to the peninsula, the name of Arabia, which it still possesses. … From the belief that persons were incarnations of the solar ethereal fire, came the glories, as they are called, (or, as the learned priest Taylor has called them, clarys,) round the heads, and sometimes round the body, of incarnated persons. We are so used to see this solar glory in pictures, that we think it of no consequence; but a careful examination of the meaning of the word Glory will shew that it is correctly what I have described. The sycophants of Augustus Cæsar said, that his glory dazzled them when they looked upon him. I suspect the Raj %!9 rae has not only an intimate connexion with the (9 rh, spirit, but with the :!9 ras, wisdom.* Generally, when Divine Wisdom or the Logos made itself visible to man, it was in the form of fire or a ray of light.

* Vide Parkhurst.

Page 629

In India there were eight Vasus. These were Jesuses or incarnations of the Holy Spirit, one for each cycle. In the early part of the Jewish Gospel they fade away, and are not visible : but Osee, the son of Nun, was one, preceded by Moses, or M-Oseh, as Cristna was by Ram. Elisha was one, preceded by Elijah. The Vasus, the Muses, and the Jesuses, were all, or had all, so far the same signification as to mean one of the persons of the Trinity,—Triune God—three in one, and one in three; and they all meant Saviour.

The title Pharaoh is probably a compound of the word Phre, and roh—Raj, Roi, Rex.* In Hebrew %39 roe means shepherd. The shepherds of Egypt, I have shewn, were Rajahpoutans. They also bore the name of Palli and %39 roe. From a union of all these circumstances they became Royal Shepherds.

* Drummond, Pun. Ins. P.51.

Page 630

In Isaiah Cyrus is called !-5 pla, in our book translated wonderful. This is the holy Pala, or Palladium, of the Greeks, which the Romans got from Troy or Ter-ia. It is Pallas or Minerva; it was an idol which descended from heaven; it was, I believe, a black stone, a Cornu Ammonis, like that in Westminster Abbey, on which our kings are crowned. It was the emblem of Minerva or Wisdom. It was the King's-bench on which he sat. It was the origin of the Polis or gate, in which the judge or king sat to administer justice. Mordecai sat in the king's gate. From this came the seat of the king, or his residence, to be called Pala-ce. It was the same as with the Sopha or the Divan of the Eastern nations. Divan is Div-ania place of the Divus. Sopha is EoF-ia, place of Wisdom. Divan is also divustania, Divus-stau-ia, place of the holy stone, softened, like Casmillus into Camillus, Pelasgus into Pelagus, &c., &c. … But soph also means wool, and from this double meaning came the sopha of wool. The Pallas of the Greeks is the !-5 pla of Isaiah ix. 6, mistranslated, as already noticed, wonderful, to conceal the Gnosticism; for it is evident from the Greek Pallas, that it ought to be wisdom. … As !-5 ple, it means intercessor between God and man. The Palla-dium shews that the sigma is only the Greek termination.

… The possessors of Pallas were possessors of divine wisdom, and the possessors of divine wisdom were possessors of salvation. Thus the city possessing the talismanic diu-Palla was safe. All the hero Gods Theseus, Bacchus, Æsculapius, &c., were saviours and black saviours too. These black icons were made when man himself was black. He made his God after himself, and then said that man was made after the image of God.

Page 631

I suppose I need scarcely remind my reader that Jupiter was Iao, &%* ieu. But Hesychius says, the Hellenes were named after Jupiter, who was Hellen.* He afterward says, that his countrymen were Hellenes, in respect of certain Wisdom, … We all know how Constantine was connected with Helena. He understood the secret doctrine of WISDOM or Hellenism : for this reason, as I have intimated, he probably called his metropolitan church St. Sophia. And from this we see that Hellenism was the doctrine of Wisdom. Eusebius has formerly told us, that Hellenism came in with Serug, which shews its great antiquity. Constantine was a Hellenist and a Gnostic, or follower of Wisdom, and also of Crhj. Cæsar, the descendant of Venus, was the same, with his liber or book, the emblem of Wisdom, in his hand. I have no doubt that the use of letters was for many generations secret, sacred, and cabalistic, and used only in the mythos and the temple.

* Nimrod, Vol. I. p.468.

Gengis Khan was considered a prophet; the Turkish emperors called Khans, are also considered to be prophets. This is the Tibetian superstition; hence the Khans or Tartary.* Guichart derives Khan from 0%, ken, in Greek cohj.** From this he derives Diaconus.

* Sandy's Travels, p.37. ** Parkhurst, in voce 0%, ken.

If Constantine were an incarnation of Divine Wisdom in the fourth century, Attila, the Scythian and the Hun, and a Khan of Tartary, was the same in the fifth. He professed to be the owner of the sword God Acinaces, a kind of Palladium, which entitled him to the sovereignty of the universe. … He called his capital in the West the city of Buda, Buddha, Babylonia, and Susa.* … Attila died in his 124th year, almost the age of a Nestor. It is probable that he was held out to be a renewed incarnation of Odin. The Buddhist doctrines cannot be denied. By means of the Homeridæ or Bards, such as Damascius, patronized by him, I feel little doubt that the ancient Scandinavian mythology was in fact renovated, and probably embellished, and thus handed down to us, which would otherwise have been lost. I think it not at all unlikely that this hardy old warrior should have been induced, by the flatteries of his bards, really to believe himself the promised one, the desire of all nations; and I think it not unlikely also, that some superstitious fear prevented him from seizing the holy and eternal city, when it was really in his power. This seems to be the opinion of Nimrod. The renewal of the ancient superstition by Attila and afterward by Theodoric, may satisfactorily account for many parts of the otherwise fading mythoses of antiquity being found in colours at first sight unaccountably brilliant in the Northern climes. Our historians erroneously suppose all these mythoses to have been invented by learned monks in the middle ages, and thus dismiss them without examination.

* Wilkina Saga, Cap. ccclxxiv. p.505, ib. Cap. lxiii. p.134, Cap. ccclxxvii. p.494; Nimrod, Vol. I. p.475.



Page 634

In a former part of this book I observed, that if my theory were right, the Avatar of the incarnation of Aries—of the Lamb—ought in course to be succeeded by an incarnation of Pisces or the Fishes. I shall now shew that it did succeed, and that it was foretold in the Sibylline Oracles.

Page 635

I now request my reader to recollect that we have had Avatars of Taurus and of Aries, and if my theory be correct, at the time of Christ, we ought to have had an Avatar of Pisces. The Crhjoj was adored under the form of Taurus, and of Aries; and if the acrostic of the Sibyl foretold the Crhjoj of the Zodiac in its proper course, it ought to have foretold the Pisces or Fishes to succeed the Lamb, as an object of adoration; and so in fact it did—though it has been kept out of the sight of the vulgar as much as possible. The worshipers of the Bull or Calf of gold, we have seen, in ancient times did not like to yield to the Ram or Lamb. In the same manner the followers of the Lamb did not like to yield to the Fishes. Besides, the adoration of two Fishes, absurd as man is in these subjects, does appear to have been rather too absurd to overcome the old prejudices of the people of the Lamb.* The fishes were indeed very unseemly Gods, so that the attempt to introduce them, except as a secret system, failed. But nevertheless the attempt was made, as I will now prove. The acrostic of the Sibyl, which was a mode of concealing the secret meaning of the Cfhj—of the Lamb—had also another secret meaning. …

* In former times the Lamb was eaten at the Passover. This is still done by many Christian devotees, but it is not ordered as part of the religion. But the fishes have succeeded, and they are now ordered (that is, a fast-day in which meat is forbidden, but fish is ordered). This is the origin of fish day.

The Acrostic itself forms an Acrostic, as the learned Beausobre has shewn.* The first letters of the five words of the Acrostic mean ICQTS, a Fish which was a name given to Jesus Christ. This identification of the fish with the IHS CRHSTOS and Jesus Christ, and its succession, or, I should rather say, its attempted succession, must surely appear very extraordinary and at first incredible. But I ask, what has Jesus Christ to do with a FISH ? Why was the Saviour IHS, which is the monogram of the Saviour Bacchus, called ICQTS ? Here are the Saviour, the Cycle, and the Fish all identified. The answer is, because they were all emblems of the sun, or of that higher power spoken of by Martianus Capella, of which the sun is himself the emblem; or, as Mr. Parkhurst would say, they were types of the Saviour. From this it was, that the Christians called themselves, in their sacred mysteries, by the name IICQTS meaning I the ICQTS, and Pisciculi. The I was prefixed for a mysterious reason, which I shall explain hereafter.

* Basnage, Hist. Jews, Bk. III. Ch. xxiv.




















Page 636

Jesus is called a fish by Augustin, who says he found the purity of Jesus Christ in the word fish : "for he is a fish that lives in the midst of waters." This was Augustin's mode of concealing the mystery.

The doctrine was probably alluded to in some way or other in the miracle of the five loaves and two fishes, because "Paulinus saw Jesus Christ in the miracle of the five loaves and two fishes, who is the fish of the living water." Prosper finds in it the sufferings of Jesus Christ : "for he is the fish dressed at his death." Tertullian finds the Christian Church in it. All the faithful were with him. So many fishes bred in the water and saved BY ONE GREAT FISH. Baptism is this water, out of which there is neither life nor immortality. St. Jerom commending a man that desired baptism, tells him, that like the son of a Fish, he desires to be cast into the water. Here we come to the true, secret origin of baptism. I beg my reader to look back to Bk. IX. Ch. VII. Sect. 6, and see what I have said respecting the sacredness of water. St. Jerom no doubt understood the esoteric religion. The Lamb kept its ground against the Fishes. They never greatly prevailed, and soon, at least among the rabble, went out of fashion.* …

* Basn. Bk. iii. Ch. xxiv.

Page 637

The adoration of the fishes may be found, as we might expect, in ancient Italy. Janus married his sister Camisé, and had a son and daughter called Camasenes, a word which in Greek means the fishes, les poissons. Cam-isé is Cama the Saviour, or Isis of India, Efwj or divine love incarnate in the fishes. Brahma seated on the Lotus swimming on the waters was called Camasenes.* One of the Muses, or the person called (:. msh or the Saviour, was called by this name, a little corrupted.** …

* Creuzer, Vol. II. Liv. v. Ch. iii. p.440. ** Ibid. pp. 441, 442

It is chiefly on account of the acrostic, that the Sibyls have been determined by the moderns to be spurious. But again, I ask, what Christians had to do with fishes, and why they were called little fishes ? In these fishes we have the Syrian Dagon, which was an attempt by devotees, who, in their secret lodges, understood the real doctrine, to introduce the Avatar of the fishes, but failed. Although the sign of the Zodiac is called Pisces, it is remarkable that the two are joined into one by a ligature, which justifies the Chrestus, or Cfhjoj, or benignant incarnation of that Avatar being called ICQTS in the singular number : it probably alluded to the male and female, or androgynous, Deity. As we might expect from what we have already seen, the origin of this will be found in India. In the entrance of most Romish churches, is a vase full of water. This is called Piscina. It is true that the word may merely mean a vessel for water. But few persons will doubt that it has here a more mystical meaning. This Piscina was the Bowli found in the ruins of Mundore, by Col. Tod.

Page 638

In the history of Jonas, we have a second notice of the Gentile Hercules, probably in a second incarnation. The story of Jonas swallowed up by a whale, near Joppa, is nothing but part of the fiction of Hercules, of the sun in its passage through the signs of the Zodiac, described in the Heracleid or the Labours of Hercules, of whom the same story was told, and who was swallowed up at the very place, Joppa, and for the same period of time, three days.* Lycophron says that Hercules was three nights in the belly of a fish.** The sun was called Jona, as appears from Gruter's inscriptions.***

* See Dupuis, Hist. de tous les Cultes, Vol. I. pp. 335, 541.

** Nimrod, Vol. I. p.211, Sup. Ed. *** V. Atlantic II. pp. 149, 150.

The Syrian God is called Dag-on. Now the fish in which Jonah was preserved, was called in the Hebrew, sometimes in the masculine 19 dg, sometimes in the feminine, according to the Rabbies, %19 dge. Calmet has observed that this word Dag means preserver, which I suppose the same as Saviour, a word which Calmet or his translator did not like to use. Here is Jonas buried three days in the ocean, and cast up again by this preserver—raised again to-day. Jonas means Dove, the emblem of one of the persons of the Trinity, and the same as Oannes and as John. Dagon has been likened to the ship of Noah, by Mr. Taylor, the editor of Calmet's Fragments. …

… We must recollect that the Neros cycle was passing in about its middle state—about half of it passed, when the cycle of the Zodiac Taurus ended, and the cycle of 2160, of Aries began. In the same manner when the sun entered Pisces at the vernal equinox, about half of the Neros cycle had passed; thus the incarnation of that cycle was both Aries and Pisces, as in the former case he was both Taurus and Aries. This is the reason why the word Ram means both Beeve and Sheep. As this Avatar-Jonas ended with Christ, he would be born about six hundred years before Christ.

In Taylor's Calmet there is a print given of the Indian Avatar of VISH-NUH coming forth from the fish, which looks very much like Jonah coming from the Fish's belly. (Fig. 32.) He also notices Jonah's likeness to the Oannes of Sanchoniathon. The whole of his very long trreatise on this subject, in which he has collected ans repeated a most surprising mass of nonsense, is itself a most extraordinary mass of confusion. This arises from his seeing marks of similarity between several persons, without knowing how to account for them. But he has made a sort of table, unconscious of what he was doing, which will shew the reader that this Jonah or Dagon was a renewed incarnation. it is as follows :





In the water,
is preserved
by Divine power
in his Ark,
in which he was
1, part of a year,
2, the whole of a second year,
3, the beginning of a third year.

In the water,
is preserved
by Divine power
in his Dag,
in which he was
1, part of a day,
2, the whole of a second day,
3, the beginning of a third day.

In the earth,
is preserved
by Divine power
in his tomb,
in which he was
1, part of a day,
2, the whole of a second day,
3, the beginning of a third day.

He also shews that this Dagon was the Buddha Nar’ayana, or Buddha dwelling in the waters of the Hindoos.* Nara means waters. In Hebrew 9%1 ner means river.* Ay-ana is the Hebrew %* ie or God, with the termination ana making Nara-ayana—God floating on the waters. …

* Fragment, No. CCCCLXXIL. p.181.

Page 640

In the Vishnu of India, my reader will perceive that, as usual, the renewed incarnate person or Avatar is treading on the head of the serpent. Here also we see him with his four emblems : the book and the sword, to shew that, like Cæsar, he ruled both in right of the sword and of the book; the circle, emblem of eternal renewal, and the shell with its eight convolutions, to shew the place in the number of the cycles which he occupied. His Triple Crown or Mitre, or three Tufts, shew him to be an emblem of the triple God. The shell, also, is peculiarly appropriate to the fish God. His foot on the Serpent's head connects him with the Jewish seed of the woman, in a manner which cannot be disputed.

We have said enough, perhaps, of the Trinity—the Trimurti—the Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer; but we have never inquired into the meaning of the name of this triple Hypostasis. We find the second person called Buddha, and, in succession, Caniya or Cristna, and the Brahmins now call the three Brahma, Vishnu, and Seva. I cannot help suspecting that, in former times, and with Buddhists, the name has been Brahma, Buddha, and Seva, and, in succession, Brahma, Cristna or Caniya, and Seva;* and that it is only since the equinox fell in Pisces, that the second person has been called Vishnu or Fishnu. …

* Seva, I suspect, is Seba and Saba, the reason for which I shall shew hereafter.

… Vishnu in the sacred books of the Hindoos is prophesied of, as to appear in his ninth INCARNATION IN THE FORM OF Buddha, son of Jina. This number exactly agrees with all my calculations and theories.* This is the ninth Avatar of the Buddhists of Jains.

* Asiat. Res. Vol. III. p.413.

Col. Tod says, "The Bull was offered to Mithras by the Persians, and opposed as it now appears to the Hindu faith, he formerly bled on the altars of the sun God (Bal-Iswara), on which the Buld-dan (offering of the bull) was made."* This was the predecessor to the Yajni or Agni sacrifice of the Lamb; which, notwithstanding the objections of the Brahmins to the shedding of blood, yet bleeds on the altars of Caniya. And, I have no doubt, if we could come at the truth, that the sacrifices of the Lamb would be found to be yet followed, or to have been followed by the sacrifices of the Fishes, taken from the sacred finny tribe preserved in the tanks near some of the large temples, particularly at Matura.

* Trans. Asiat. Soc. Vol. II. p.279.

I think I recollect that when I have talked with Indian gentlemen respecting the tanks and the sacred fishes, they have always called them Vishnu's fishes. …

Page 641

At the temples of India, before the priest officiates, ablution always takes place in the sacred river, or tank in which the holy fishes are kept. In India every temple has a tank for the fishes of Vishnu. In humble imitation of this, we have the Piscina in every Romish church. It is not merely a vas or cisterna, it is a piscina. The ablution in the European climate would not always be agreeable even in Rome. Each of the Grecian temples had, at its entrance, the piscina, for the holy water of the fishes. See Potter's Antiquities, and Miss Starke's Travels.

Mr. Maurice* has proved the identity of the Syrian Dagon and the Indian Avatar. He says, "From the foregoing and a variety of parallel circumstances, I am inclined to think that the Chaldaic Oannes, the Phœnician and Philistian Dagon, and the Pisces of the Syrian and Egyptian Zodiac, were the same Deity with the Indian Vishnu." This I think will not be disputed.

*Hist. Hind. Vol. I. p.566.

Page 644

What is said in the play of Æschylus respecting the crucifixion of Prometheus, on Mount Caucasus, finds a parallel in the Alcestis of Euripides, which is proved by a gentleman of the name of H. S. Byod, in the Classical Journal,* like the Prometheus bound, to be a sacred drama : these doctrines came from India, and are founded on Genesis. The Trinity, the Atonement, the Crucifixion, are all from the same quarter, where they were the foundations of the universal, secret religion, long before Jesus of Nazareth was born.

* Vol. XXXVII. p.10.

The head of the religion in which we have found the fishes in Italy, the Pope, received all his authority from a fisherman, called Peter. We must now make a little inquiry into the history of this Peter, whom we shall find a very mysterious person.

Matt. xvi. 17-19 : And Jesus said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona.
Again. I say unto thee, that thou art Peter : and upon this rock I will build my church.
Again. I will give unto thee the keys of the knigdom of heaven.

Page 645

What can be the meaning of this Peter or Rock, called Simon, the son of Janus or Jonas, or the son of Jain, or the son of the Dove, or the son of the Ioni—the generative principle ? Does it mean, that on the union of the two principles of generation the church shall be founded ? What say the opponents of allegory in the Scriptures to this ? Dare they deny that this is figurative language ? Will they tell me its literal meaning ? Will they dare to say there is not a concealed meaning in these texts ?

On this stone, which has the emblem of the male generative power, the Linga, Jesus founded his church. This sacred stone is found throughout the world. In India at every temple. The Jews had it in the stone of Jacob, which he anointed with oil. The Greeks, at Delphi, like Jacob, anointed it with oil. The black stone was in the Caaba, at Mecca, long before the time of Mohamed, and was preserved by him when he destroyed the Dove and the Images. He not only preserved it, but he caused it to be built into the corner of the sacred Caaba, where it is now kissed and adored by all Mohamedans who make the pilgrimage to Mecca. Is it the corner-stone on which the Temple or Church is built ? …

… Peter was not the common name of this apostle, but a cognomen or sirname given to him by Christ. His appears to have been Simon. Mr. Bryant* says, "When the worship of the sun was almost universal, this was one name of that deity, even among the Greeks. They called him Peter, and Petros, and his temple was styled Petra." Where the temples had this name, he shews that there was generally a sacred stone which was supposed to have descended from heaven. Peter is also called Cephas, which, in Hebrew, means a stone.

* Anal. Vol. I. p.291.

In the oriental languages, without vowels, Petor, Petra, Patera, are all the same. In the Western languages Peter has three significations : Paoter, a pastor; Peter (Be-tir), a fisherman of a Peter boat; and Petra, a Rock.*

* Cleland's Specimen, p.62.

Page 646

The Baptist, and the author of the Apocalypse were called John, or Joannes or Iwannhj. Bryant says,* "This name, which we render John, I have shewn to be no other than Iona. It signifies a dove; but means likewise an oracular person : by whom the voice of the Most High is made known and his will explained." That is, a resoul or prophet. This was the Ionas sent to the Ninevites as noticed before.

* Vol. II. p.293.

In Berosus and other authors the being, half man, half fish, called Oannes, is said to have come out of the ERYTHRÆAN Sea, and to have taught the Babylonians all kinds of useful knowledge. This is clearly the fish Avatar of India; whether or not it be the Ioannes of Jonas I leave to the reader. … The extraordinary number of extraordinary circumstances detailed above will compel my reader, I think, to believe, that the incarnation of the fishes was once, if it be not yet, among the secret doctrines of the Vatican. …

Jonah "a Dove" was an appellation deemed applicable to one sent on a divine mission; and hence, among others, John the Baptist had his name.*

* Class. Jour. Vol. VI. p.329.

Anna, or the year, was the mother of Maria, or Mæra or Maia, all of whom (as I have shewn or shall shew hereafter) were the same, and Maia was the first month of the year, on which, in very ancient times, began both the year and the Cycle of IHS-oj, or 608. There was also a certain Anna who was supernaturally pregnant (like the wife of Abraham, who was sometimes called Maria* and Isha, but commonly Sarah or Sarai or Sara-iswati) in her old age; and she was delivered of a son whose name was John, Joanes, or Johna, or Jana, or Oanes. He was born at the Midsummer solstice, exactly six months before the son of Maria. Thus he might be said, astrologically, as Matthew makes him say, to be decreasing when the son of Maria was increasing. He prepared the way for the son of Maria,—as the prophet said, he was the voice of one crying in the wilderness. Was he a previous Avatar, as the learned divine Parkhurst would say, sent as a type or symbol ?

* Nimrod, Vol. III.

Jesus came to his exaltation or glory on the 25th of March, the Vernal equinox. At that moment his cousin John was at the Autumnal equinox : as Jesus ascended John descended. The equinoxes and solstices equally marked the births and deaths of John the Baptist, and of Jesus. John makes the Baptist say, chapter iii. ver. 30, He must increase, but I must decrease. As Michaelis has justly observed, this is sufficiently mystical. How can any one doubt, that what was admitted by the fathers was true—that the Christians had an esoteric and an exoteric religion ?* I have nothing to do here with their pretended explanations, but only with the fact which they admitted—that there was an esoteric religion. It cannot be doubted that all the explanations pretended to be made of the esoteric religion by Jerome and the early fathers, are mere fables to deceive the vulgar. How absurd to suppose, that when these men, who were at the head of the religion, were admitting that there was a SECRET religion for the initiated only, they should explain it to all the world ! Their explanations to the vulgar are suitable to the vulgar, and were meant merely to stop their inquiries.

* See Basnage's History of the Jews, Book iii. Ch. xxiv., for St. Jerome's account of it.

… But I do not doubt that a secret system is yet in the conclave, guarded with as much or more care, or at least with more power, than the secrets of masonry. The priests know that one of the best modes of secreting them is to deny that they exist. Indeed, the heads of the church must now see very clearly, if they were to confess what cannot be denied, that (if the most learned and respectable of the early fathers of the church are to be believed) Christianity contained a secret religion, that the populace would not consent to be kept in the dark. But whether the secret doctrine be lost or not, IT IS A FACT that it was the faith of the first Christian fathers, admitted by themselves, that there was such a secret doctrine, and before I have done, I will prove it clearly enough.

Page 648

Mr. Bentley thinks he has proved that Rama was born about 1200 years before Christ. It has been often observed that Rama was to Cristna what St. John was to Christ; particularly in assisting him in clearing the world of monsters and in preparing it for a day of judgment, and that he was an inhabitant of the desert. The identity of the mythoses cannot be disputed; and no doubt, with Cristna, Rama was renewed every six hundred years. But the exact meaning of the parable I have not been able to discover.

Page 649

… In the life of Zoroaster the common mythos is apparent. He was born in innocence of an immaculate conception, of a ray of the Divine Reason. As soon as he was born, the glory arising from his body enlightened the room, and he laughed at his mother. He was called a splendid light from the tree of knowledge, and, in fine, he or his soul was suspensus a ligno hung upon a tree, and this was the tree of knowledge.* Let it be remembered, that I formerly, in Book X. Chapter II. Sect. 7, pointed out the fact, that there were probably as many Zoroasters as Cycles. Here we have the universal mythos, the immaculate conception and the crucifixion; and we find this crucifixion connected with letters and the tree of knowledge.

* Vide Malcom's Hist. Pers. Vol. I. Ap. p.494; Nimrod, Vol. II. p.31.

Among the Jews and among the Indians, Rama was also known by the name of Menu and Noah. The striking similarity of Noah to Janus has been remarked, and their identity, in fact, admitted by every person who has written upon these subjects. … I apprehend that Bal-Rama is said to be the same as Cristna, because his cycle ran, in part, along with that of Cristna. It was probably partly before the flood or entrance of the sun into Aries, and partly after, as Shem, founder of the one of the cycles, lived partly before and partly after it. Thus his cycle was on the decline when that of Cristna began. If he were the fourth Avatar, he would begin in the year of the sign of Taurus 1801; and when Cristna began, in the year 2161, he would have passed the best part of his time of 600 years, viz. 360, and would be declining. We must not forget that the Brahmins say, Rama and Cristna were the same. Similar to this might be the meaning of the increase of Jesus and decrease of John, just now pointed out. He answers closely to John. He stands, as lately remarked, in the same relation to Cristna that John does to Jesus. He is now to be seen, as the reader has been informed, in a temple a few miles from Muttra in the very dress of Hercules, as described by Arrian; yet pious people persuade themselves that John and Jesus are the originals from which Cristna and Bala-Rama are copied.*

* Eusebius mentions an idol dedicated to the sun— … , having the lordly and regal head of a Ram with Goat's horns. Sharpe of Cherubim, p.149.

When we come to the next Zodiacal incarnation, we have it in the fish Avatar of India, and the Dagon of the Syrians; and as the Romish Jesus was an Avatar in the same intermediate state, partaking of the two cycles, we ought to find him, as we have found him, mixed with the Zodiacal symbols of Pisces.

In reference to the double cycles, namely the cycles of 600 and of 2160 years, we may observe how constantly the double mythoses of the Avatars, of the Neros, and of the Zodiacal signs, keep shewing themselves. They support each other. …

In addition to all the other odd circumstances relating to the Ioannes and St. Peter, I have to inform my reader that, in the Gospel of the Nazarenes, Peter is called Simon filius Joannæ.* This shews that Jonas and Johannes were the same.

* See Jones on the Canon, Vol. I. P. ii. Ch. xxv. p.269.

Page 630

The apostles of Jesus, I believe, were most of them fisherman. There are many stories of miraculous draughts of fish, and other matters connected with fishes, in the Gospel histories; and Peter, the son of John, Ioannes or Oannes, the great fisherman, inherited the power of ruling the church from the Lamb of God. The fisherman succeeded the shepherd. The Pope calls himself the great Fisherman, and boasts of the contents of his Poitrine.

Although it cannot be shewn exactly how it was effected, yet I think no person who considers all the circumstances can doubt that there was anciently some connexion between the Roman God Janus and St. Peter—that one is the prototype of the other. Jesus is called the Prince of Peace, the same as Janus, and his religion the religion of the God of Peace. Peter was the chief of his apostles. … As successor of Janus he held the keys of heaven. …

There can, I think, be no doubt, that out of some tradition not understood by us now concerning Janus, Peter has been made the chief of the twelve apostles, endowed with the keys, and made keeper of the gates of heaven. In this case the process by which the effect was produced is lost, but the effect itself cannot be doubted; and surely in all this, a parable, a figurative meaning, must be allowed.*

* Many years ago a statue of the God Janus, in bronze, being found in Rome, he was perched up in St. Peter's with his keys in his hands : the very identical God—not the bronze merely melted and recast—but the identical God himself, in all his native ugliness, as is proved by his duplicate in stone, which I found in the vaults below. …

Page 651

On the Janus I have some very curious observations from Mackenzie Beverly, Esq., LL. D. : "Many reasons have been proposed for the position of Janus at the gates of cities, but the true meaning is to be found only in the Ling-yoni doctrine—than which none is more ancient. The arch of gate of Janus was a symbol of the mysterious gate through which all men and animals enter into the world, and over which the two or four-faced Janus presided, representing the sun rising in the East and setting in the West, of the power of the Sun in the four quarters. The Sun, Lord of procreation, was in his most ancient human figure the quadrifront Janus or Brahma. The quadrifront Brahma is to be seen occasionally sitting before the Lingham-Yoni, presiding over the great mystery; and the key of Janus is but another form of the crux ansata of Egypt, the key that opens the ARCH through which we all pass. The crux ansata is the ligam, and is the monogram of the planet Venus, the key that opens the great door of mystery over which the veil of Isis was drawn. This key is in the hand of Janus-Sol, because it opens the gate of the mysterious arch. But as the sun was always triplified in his power, and as the TRIANGLE is another form of the great gate of mystery, they were fond of erecting triple gates in the East, as in the triple portal or Tripolia of the Rajas of India,* from which root also comes the word Tripoli. From the Sanscrit Pola, we have the Greek pulh a gate; and, as I suspect, the pole and phallus always inseparably connected with the mysterious gate. Pylos signifies also a pass, and in Sanscrit these natural barriers are called Palas, which I consider a near approach to the Greek Phallus.

"Ganesa, the Indian Janus, was expressly formed by Oomia (the Indian Juno, and the Goddess OUM) to guard the entrance of her caverned retreat in Caucacus. Ganesa is four armed and carries a dirk, a club, a lotus, and a shell : the two last are emblems of the female mystery. One of the gates of every Hindu city is called Ganesa-pol; clearly pointing to Janus or Ganes, Lord of the Pole, May-Pole, or Phallus, and therefore most appropriately made to guard the GREAT ARCH of mystery,** through which all must enter." In the cross we here see the emblem of generation, and as the instument of death of destruction—of destruction and reproduction, regeneration,—of the cycle of the Sun and Moon, of 600.

* Tod, Hist. Raj. P.589. ** Royal-Arch—verbum sapienti.

Jesus Christ was an incarnation of divine Wisdom. He taught that he was the door, or that through him was the entrance to the kingdom of heaven. He that entereth not by the door is a thief and a robber. Again, I am the door of the sheep. Again, I am the door; by me if any man enter in he shall be saved.* This door or gate is the pulh—the --5 pll, the intercessor. This is also !--5 pl-a, wisdom, Pallas. This is the Ganesa Pol** of India, the Gate of Wisdom. From this, Pol comes to mean head. Here we have ænigma within ænigma, parable upon parable. When Jesus declares himself the door of life, surely no one will deny the allegory or figure of speech, and it is in perfect keeping with the declaration that he taught in parables—that the uninitiated might hear and not understand.

* John x. 1, 9. ** Ganesa, God of Wisdom.

Page 652

… But still a polis always meant a city; for instance, the Decapolis of Syria. This was an imitation of the Decan of India, which lay beyond the river Buddha, as the Decapolis of Syria lay beyond the sacred Jordan. But there is another Pole which the Colonel (Tod) has forgotten to notice—the Pole of the globe. Why does the axis of the earth bear this name, but because it is the mundane emblem of the generative power—the sacred Meru—with the beautiful diamond at the end of it—the Pole-star, called by the Arabians the star of Iudè or Juda ?

Here also we have the mystic triangle, (Freemasons understand this,) and the triangle triplicated, as noticed in my CELTIC DRUIDS. When I wrote that work I was not a Mason. It is no secret, but it is a Masonic emblem; and, as Col. Tod has observed, is found with other Masonic emblems on probably the oldest buildings in the world, the Cyclopean walls of MUND-ore. …

Page 654

I will here shortly notice another personage, called John [Johannes Butta Deus—the wandering Jew, Presbyter or Prester John], who is very problematical, and has been the object of much inquiry, and of whom we shall say more presently.

Page 655

This Joannes, whom Mr. Bryant identifies with the Oannes of the Assyrians, whom the Portuguese call Presbyter, and John, who was descended from Solomon and the Queen of Sheba in Abyssinia, and whom Mr. Maurice has declared to be the fish Avatar of India, and the God Dagon, and who, Nimrod observes, was Johannes-Butta Deus, was in reality a renewed incarnation of Buddha; or, perhaps, rather a superstition which took its rise from the half-understood doctrine of the renewal of the Indian incarnations. Jesus is made to declare that Joannes should remain till he came; that is, that, as the fish incarnation, he would remain until the end of the six millenaries, which, as the Equinoctial incarnation, he would do; for the fish would remain the equinoctial incarnation, or the emblem of it, till the ten less avatars were all finished.

We are now in the centre of the land of mysticism. Every thing is a parable, an ænigma, a mystery. What can be more mystical that Matthew's expression, that Jesus should increase and John decrease ? What can be more mystical that what we have seen respecting the Joannes, and Butta, and Deus ? What can be more mystical than the expression, that John should stop till Jesus came again in his glory ? What more mystical that that the Baptist was Elias, that is, in plain Greek, the sun—`Hlioj ?

Jonas the amphibious, was swallowed, and returned again in three days from the fish. He was the same person as Hercules or as Heri-clo, the saviour 608, swallowed at the same time and place with Jonas, who (vide Bk. V. Ch. VI. Sect. 6) prophesied the destruction of Nineveh about the year 600 B.C. This was the time of the famous central eclipse of Thales,* or conjunction of the Sun and Moon, the time when the oriental messiah, Cyrus, was born, he having the solar title,** and who having established the Persian monarchy at Babylon, restored the Jews and abolished idolatry. He is still worshiped, under the name of Jonas, on Mount Libanus,*** by the Curds or Culdees formerly named. He has the same appellation, according to Mr. Bryant, (vide Bk. VII. Ch. V., Bk. VIII Ch. II.,) as the half-man, half-fish, or amphibious being called Oannes, who appeared for the instruction of mankind, &c., according to Sanchoniathon; the same as Dagon, which was the name of the fish which harboured Jonas, or SAVED him, and the meaning of which is saviour. This Oannes or Ioannes we find again after about 600 years, born of an aged woman, called Anna, the name of the mother of the Italian Janus, miraculously foretold by the prophet Zacharias, to whom his birth was announced by an angel. He was the forerunner of Jesus Christ, and called, as above-mentioned, by the celebrated Julian, Crhjoj Iwannej. He was by profession a saviour of men by means of baptism or immersion, like Jonas in the water. Jonas was immersed three days in the ocean for the salvation of the Ninevites, as Jesus afterward was buried three days for the salvation of the Jews of mankind. After this we find another person called Ioannes, a fisherman, beloved by Jesus, of whom Jesus declared from the cross that he should not die till his return. And after this, another Iaonnes, who had revelations from God; and, at last, we have the Iaonnes ordered by Jesus to remain till his return, as Ioannes, Butta, and Deus, or the fish, or Oannes God Buddha. It is impossible to conceive any thing altogether more mystical than the character of I-oannes, whom, it will be recollected, Mr. Bryant declared to be the same as Oannes. Now John the Baptist or the Prophet, Regenerator by means of water, who was also a revived Elias, was the immediate forerunner of Jesus—in almost every aspect an exact copy of Bala-rama, the forerunner of Cristna. And John the Baptist, or Saviour of men by means of water, was the Oannes or Avatar of Pisces, as Buddha was of Taurus, and Cristna of Aries; or, according to Mr. Parkhurst's doctrine, Oannes was the type of the Baptist, if ever he appeared; and, if he did not, then, according to Mr. Parkhurst, the history must have been a figurative representation of an avatar, foretelling the Baptist.

* The eclipse of Thales is said to have happened in the year 610 B.C. See Herodotus, and an Essay on it, by M. Bailly, in the Phil. Trans. for 1811; Pritchard, p.442. …

** Vide Univers. Hist. Vol. XXI. P.59. *** See Clarke's Travels, Vol. II. Ch. xiii.

Page 656

Lightfoot* observes of the births of John and Jesus, 'So the conceptions and births of the Baptist and our Saviour, ennobled the four famous Tekuppas (Revolutions) of the year : one being conceived at the summer solstice, the other at the winter : one born at the vernal equinox, the other at the autumnal."

* Exer. On Matt. Ch. iii. Col. II. p.113.

In the Eastern countries, chiefly now in the neighbourhood of Bussora, there exists a sect called Mandaites, Hemerobaptists, Nazoreans, Nazareans, Nazireans, and, among the Musselmans, Nousaïriens. They are evidently all the same sect, only with some slight shades of difference, which must necessarily arise between the parts of the sect, scattered into distant countries, and unconnected for long periods, and divided by difference of language. … They are noticed by the learned Matter.*

* Hist. Gnostiques, Vol. II. Ch. iv. Sect. iii. p.394.

Page 657

This is a sect named by St. Epiphanius, and said by him to have been in existence before the time of Christ, and not to have known the Saviour. These people have a book called the book of Adam, in which, Mons. Matter says, is the mythos of Noë and most of Genesis, but he says they equally detest the Jews and Christians, and put their founder, the Hemero-baptist John, in the place of the Saviour : that is, in other words, that their founder was a Saviour or incarnate person. This is very important—these people having, as Epiphanius informs us, existed as a sect before the time of Christ. They have in their mythos a person, the Principe de Vie, Abatour, 9&(!"! abatur, pater taurus, which answers to the Kaiomorts of the Zendavesta, translated Taurus. This Abatour had a son, the creator, called Feta-Hill or El-Phtha (noticed by matter, Vol. II. p.203); but El-Phtha is the God Phtha, or … 600, before named.

These people hold the doctrine of the eternal renewal of worlds; they abhor all bloody sacrifices; and they do not use the rite of circumcision. Hence I think we may conclude that they are descendants of the ancestors of Melchizedek. From the Jews they cannot have come; … and from the Christians they cannot have come, because they existed before Christianity. My reader will please observe, that these Mandaites or Nazareens or DISCIPLES OF ST. JOHN, are found in central India, and that they are certainly not disciples of the Western Jesus of Nazareth. He will also recollect what has been said respecting Joannes Butta Deus or Prester John, or the old man of the mountain, as he was often called. In Lardner's Cyclopædia,* it is said, by a missionary called Carpini, that the Mongol army marched in Greater India, and fought the king of that country, called Prester John.

* Vol. I. p.258.

M. Matter has given the meaning of Manda, the origin of Mandaism in the word Gnosis.* This suits very well with my belief, that all Gnosticism came originally from India, and perhaps from Mundore. Mundus in Latin, cosmoj in Greek, we know means cycle or circle.

* Hist. Gnost. Vol. II. pp. 400, 407.

Page 658

I quite agree with M. Matter, that their numerous sacred books deserve a much more careful examination than they have hitherto received, and I think the sect comes from Mundore in India.

In the Tibetian language John is called Argiun.* this is Arjoon. (Ar-John,) the coadjutor of Cristna.

* Georg. Alp. Tib. xcv.

Page 659

Whatever offence I may give these assertions, it is impossible to deny that what the Rev. Robert Taylor has said, respecting the epithets of Christ being applicable to the sun, is true. They meet us at every step we take in forms innumerable, and would be seen by every one if not prevented by early prejudice. …

Page 660

We will inquire into the history of a person called Jasius.

Mr. Bryant says, "Justin places him (Jason) in the same light as Hercules and Dionusus, and says, that, by most of the people in the East, he was looked up to as founder of their nations, and had divine honours paid to him. … I suspect, that Æson, Jason, Jasion, and Jasius, were originally the same title; … "

I take Jasius or Iasion son of Abas (father) and Jupiter, to be the same as Jasus, son of Triopas : see Lempriere in voce. Iasius had a daughter called I|sis. This was Isis. Nimrod* shews that this Iasius was the Babylonian Jove; …

* Vol. I. p.70, Ed. 2.

Page 661

I shall now assume that the Sibylline Oracles are genuine, and that they foretell the Chrestos or the ninth Avatar, in whom also is blended the fish Avatar. This is exactly what took place with Cristna. In his person he was mingled both with Taurus or Buddha and with Bala Rama. And here we have mingled together, Buddha, Dagon, Pisces, Jonah, and Jesus or the Lamb, and we have Cristna and Arjoon, (Ar-John,) Jesus and Iohn, I-Oannes. In every case I suspect Buddha will be found to be a name of the Zodiacal incarnation—perhaps of every incarnation. No doubt all this will surprise my reader very much, but it will not surprise him more that it has done me. But the facts cannot be denied.




Page 662

Some time after the history of Cristna had found its way into Europe, the learned Orientalists were surprised with what appeared to be another version of the same story, from the Southern part of the Peninsula of India. In the Asiatic Researches,* there is an account of a person called Salivahana, near Cape Comorin. He was a divine child, born of a virgin, and was the son of Taishaca,** a carpenter. He was attempted to be destroyed in infancy by a tyrant who was afterward killed by him : most of the other circumstances, with slight variations, are the same as those told of Cristna. Mr. Maurice*** says, "The manuscripts from which the above is taken have been carefully examined and ascertained to be genuine." Again, "Sir W. Jones has examined the age of these manuscripts, and he undertakes to prove their date COEVAL with the birth Christ."

* Vol. IX. Preface, &c.; Maurice, Brahmin, Fraud. Exp. p.61.

** Ta-ish-aca. Is this any thing but TA meaning THE, and isha, and Saca—The Saviour Saca ?

*** Brahmin. Fraud. Exp. p.59.

Col. Wilford, in the tenth volume of the Asiatic Researches, has given a long account of this Salivahana, who is clearly identical and synchronical with Christianity, and evidently answers to the incarnation of the ninth age, alluded to before the birth of Christ by the Sibyls, and, as most Christians, but not all, have thought, by Isaiah. …

The Brahmins maintain that Salivahana, or the Carpenter, was the ninth avatar : they say he was also (i.e. by the Buddhists) called Buddha, or divine wisdom. They affirm that another, the tenth, avatar will come or has come in the shape of a horse. …

Thus several ninth avatars may be perceived, without having recourse to the necessity of supposing that they copied from one another. There was Salivahana, with the Brahmins, and what they called the second Buddha with the Peguese and Buddhists, and the Teve-tat* who, they told La Loubière, was Jesus Christ; and among the Western nations Cæsar and Jesus Christ. … The Brahmins will say that there have been nine avatars with the Buddhists, one for each cycle, but that they were all impostors. The Buddhists will say the same thing of the avatars of the Brahmins.

* Divus TAT.

Page 663

… I think my reader will now understand the nature of this mythos, which has hitherto puzzled our orientalists. I beg him to recollect, that it was held by Ammonius Saccas one of the most early and respectable of the Christian fathers, that the religion of Jesus and that of the Gentiles, were the same, if cleared of the corruptions of priests : and the Brahmins constantly tell our missionaries that our religion is only corrupted Brahmanism. I must now suspend my history of Salivahana, to introduce to my reader a very celebrated person—St. Thomas of India.

When the Portuguese arrived at a place on the coast of Coromandel, called Malliapour, which was called by Ptolemy Malliarpha, they found the natives professing a religion with names, doctrines, and rites, so like those of Christians, that without much, perhaps without any, inquiry, they determined that they were Christians; but judging from several points wherein these natives differed from themselves, they considered that they were heretics. They supposed that the ancestors of these people had been converted by the Apostle St. Thomas. It is clear that they paid their adoration to a Thomas, who was slain in their country, and whose tomb they shewed in the church of a monastery. The same kind of people were found by the Portuguese on the coast of Malabar, called Mandaites or Nazareans. … When the Portuguese examined them they found them to acknowledge for their spiritual chief a Syrian. Of course, in their superficial and prejudiced way of examining, they concluded that he must have come from Syria of the West, not from one of the Syrias of the East, either that of Siam or Sion, (La Loubière,) or that of Syrastrene : of the Syrias, in fact, they knew nothing. The mistake, if it were one, was a very natural one for them to make. But still they ought to have examined how these people came to worship the apostle instead of his master. These Christians are said to have had for their Bishop, a Mat-Thomé, a successor to the Apostle St. Thomas, whom, to complete the story, they make to have suffered martyrdom at the place formerly called Betuma, or Beit-Thoma and Calamina, and by Ptolemy Maliar-pha; in Sanscrit, Meyur-pura or the city of Peacocks.* St. Thomé is near Jay-pour, that is, I should say, town of Jah, on the Coromandel coast, where the tomb of St. Thomas is shewn. …

* Asiat. Res. Vol. X. p.77.

It cannot be doubted, I think, that the Tamuz of the Bible or Adonis was Buddha under a different name, that is, under the name of the Zodiacal twins or one of them, or was in some way closely connected with them. And it is worthy of observation, that this is the account which the native Vishnuvites of Malabar give to their Thomas —calling the Christians Baudhenmar or sons of Baudhen.* And the Christians of the present day always call their bishops by the name of Mar-Thome, that is, son of Thome, Thomé-mar. Manes, whose existence I much doubt, is said to have had for his ancestors or predecessors a Budwas and a Thomas, and he may have come from Malabar, or from the Matura of Upper India or Syrasta, from the Bituma, where there is the same mythos. Bithuma is evidently %/3;-;*" bit-tomé, house of Tomé. This Bithoma is not far fom the promontory of Tamus and the island of Chryse.

* Bartol. System. P.161.

Page 665

The Portuguese state, that the St. Thome Christians had all their sacred books in the old Chaldee tongue, but what they contained we can never know, as Menezes and the Portuguese inquisition, after having held a Synod at Odiamper, sought them out with the greatest care and destroyed them all, substituting in their place books of their own, but yet in the Chaldee language. … It seems that the Roman Catholics in this instance broke the rule of their church, to have the service in Latin, in order to indulge these Indians with the Chaldee. … Therefore it is pretty clear that Chaldee must have been the vernacular language of these people. … Now I think the natural inference from this is, that one at least of the broken dialects of India, as they are called, must have been the Chaldee or Hebrew. It must be observed that I am speaking both of the Chaldee letter and language.

The Christians of St. Thomas are said to have had only three sacraments, Baptism, the Eucharist, and Orders. These were all Jewish rites, for the rite of orders is nothing but the samach* or investment with office, or communication of the holy spirit by anointment and the imposition of hands. … The laws of the Chaldee-speaking Malabar Christians have a near affinity to those of the Jewish-looking, Jewish-named, Chaldee-speaking Afghans of North India and to those of the Western Jews. This affinity is far too close to be the effect of accident. … I cannot help entertaining a suspicion that they were a tribe of the Ioudi, from Upper India, and that the town of Odiamper ought to be Ioudi-pore.

* See CELTIC DRUIDS, Chap. IV. Sect. IX.

Page 666

… Is there not great room for suspicion, that this Thomas was the Tamus for whom the women of Judea wept, and that his followers were not Christians, but Crhj-tians, followers of him of whom the Erythræan Sibyl prophesied ? It is a very important fact, that the city of Adoni should not be far from the place where Thomas was put to death, and that a large TEMPLE should be placed on the highest mount of the country called SALEM, of course ƒroj-Salem.*

* In the name of Thamas Kouli-Khan we have an example of the adoption of a sacred name after the Hindoo fashion.

The Portuguese finding these Christians worshiping and bewailing a Thomas or Tamuz—put to death at the vernal equinox, and after three days rising again to life, as I shall shew in a future book—to whom were attributed all things which were attributed to Jesus Christ, settled it instantly, that there was a mistake ignorantly made between St. Thomas (who must have gone to India as they believed) and Jesus Christ—a mistake made before by Jerom : they then proceeded to destroy their sacred books in the Hebrew or Chaldee tongue, the language in which we have the account of the women weeping for Tamus, and gave them their own gospels : these they properly gave them in the Chaldee or Hebrew, that being the language which the natives of this country, the Lascars, speak at this day, and that of the Mandaites or Nazarenes, Christians of St. John. From this quarter the Manichæans had before come to the West, bringing with them also their Apostle Thomas.

Page 667

Now let us look at Madura on the Jumna, where we have found our Cristna, and afterward towards the South, near Cape Comorin and the island of Ceylon or Erythræa, where the Sibyl came from, and we shall find another Pandion, a Madura, a Tanjore, a Tricila, a Salem, an Adoni, a COLIDA now Cochin, and a district or place called Aur, URR, or Orissa, and a Trichinopoly. At Madura is a most magnificent temple, probably the largest in India, occupying about a square mile of ground.

The Jesuit Bouchet, in a letter to the Bishop of Avranches, about the year 1710, has given an account of the religion of the Brahmins at this temple, where the Mohamedans never had any power or influence whatever. This immense temple was the property of the government of the country, not of a sect. According to their doctrine, from the Supreme emanated the Trimurti, one of whom formed our world and man, and placed him in a garden of delight, where were two trees of Good and Evil. This story was accompanied with that of the temptation, &c., &c. There is also an account of Abraham and Sarasvedi, the attempt to sacrifice Isaac, the son, and the prevention of it. Then we have a relation of Crishen (Moses) exposed on a river, and saved by a princess : after that Crishen exposed on a river and the river opening to save him from a tyrant who pursued him, and which closed on the tyrant and drowned him and his followers. After this, the Jesuit goes on to describe the Veda, given from a mountain, like the law at Sinai, and many of the rites and laws of the country respecting both religion and property, as being a close copy of those of the Jews. He describes the paschal sacrifice of the Lamb; and, what is very extraordinary, the head chiefs of the nation, but no others, have the right of circumcision. … Altogether this is a most curious history of this Jesuit's, though evidently full of mistakes, and well worthy of further inquiry. All the Mosaic history, and much of the Romish Christian, is here interwoven with the oldest Indian customs, names of places, laws of property, and existing in the times before Christ, as proved by the Greek and Latin authors. … At a little distance from Madura in Cochin or COLIDA, and the place called Aur, is the Ur of the Chaldees called now Uri-ya and Orissa. It is perfectly clear from the whole text and context of the letters, that these people were neither Jews nor Christians in our sense of these words, but Brahmins—but still not Sanscrit-speaking Brahmins—as I believe they used the language now called Tamul. The fact is, they were Christians, of the sect of the Youth of Larissa in Thrace.

Page 668

… So decidedly Brahmin was the country, which had in its religion all the facts stated above respecting Moses and Cristna, that the Jesuit Robertus de Nobilibus and his associates, it has been said, and as I have formerly noticed, were obliged to turn, to all appearance, Brahmins and Saniasses, which they certainly did, in order to procure attention—and that they, with a fraudulent design, pretended that they were of the same religion, only from a distant Brahmin nation, called Roum. It has been said, I believe by Voltaire, who pretended to prove it against them, that they had gone the length of forging a Veda, which actually passed many years as genuine IN THE COUNTRY : but I have a suspicion that this Veda was not forged. He only judged it to be so from its contents, consisting of doctrines strikingly similar to those of the Christians. It seems to be as absurd to suppose that the learned Brahmins, the only readers of the Vedas, should not know their own Vedas, as it would be to assert that our priests did not know their own Pentateuch or Gospels. The Jesuit Bouchet complains that he cannot get sight of the secret books, though he learns the contents, as detailed above, from the Brahmins. The Veda afterward produced by Robertus, was probably the book containing the history, and for that very reason supposed by Voltaire to be a forgery, and for that reason alone. Mr. Baber thinks he has proved the Christians to have been in this country at Madura, in the year of Christ 56. I do not dispute his proof, as I think he might have gone back to some year of a cycle a thousand years sooner. It seems almost certain that the Brahmins of Madura, in their sacred books, must have had a history of a Moses, and Exod, and also a history similar to that told by the Sibyl. Had they a Pentateuch ? Had they any other Jewish books ? Had they any books about Tobit, or Saul, David, or Daud-potri, or Solumannee, or Solomon ? I do not mean the Solomon, whose magnificent empire was invisble to Herodotus, when searching for kingdoms in Judæa, but the Solomon who gave names to the mountains in Raja-poutana, and who built the temple in Cashmere, near which Moses was buried, and where his tomb remains, and the other Tect-Solomons in India. …

Page 669

The ninth Avatar in India, was known by the name of Vicramaditya, as well as by that of Salivahana, the carpenter. … Salivahana bears date the identical year of Jesus Christ : yet it is acknowledged that there were found, as Col. Wilford says, on close examination, nine persons of his name, having nearly the same history.* This is precisely as it ought to be. There is one for each of the nine cycles. This is confirmed by the fact, that the Buddhists, as well as the Brahmins,** claim Salivahana as belonging to them. Salivahana or Vicramaditya are only descriptive terms or epithets, mistaken for proper names.

* Asiat. Res. Vol. IX. p.211. ** Ibid.

Salivahana, Sali-vahan, Saliban, or Salban, is formed of the word Salib or Salb, which has the meaning of the Greek stauroj, furca, or cross, and vahana, carried, from the Sanscrit verb vah, Latin veho, to carry.* Then Salivahana will have the meaning of cross-borne. Thus there were nine cross-borne Avatars, let them be who they may, and live where they may. …

* Asiat. Res. Vol. X. p.120.

I suspect that our Salva-tion comes from the cross-borne Sali-vahana; and that all the following words have a close connexion either by derivation or translation :

Sali-vahana—salus-veho, I bring health or salvation.

Sally—the name of the wife of Abraham, Sarah, Saraiswati, called %7T ise or Iscah or Eve or Isis.

Salus—health. Salutis, of health or Salvation.

Salus-bury or Sarum or Saresburie, i.e. Sares-pore.

Solym—the Hebrew .-: slm, Salem, peace or salvation.

Suli-Minerva, the Bath Goddess of health.

Sol—the Saviour or Healer,whence the spring at Bath was Fons Solis or Fons Suli-Minervæ. The early Christians Monks were called Therapeutæ or physicians of the soul

The words Deo-Soli are to be seen on numerous pictures of the black mother and child in Italy—the black child having a glory. …

The following extract from Banier's Travels contains some striking particulars, and will confirm what has been said above.

Page 670

"Moreover, I have seen the Rev. father Roa, a German Jesuit and Missionary at Agra, who being well versed in their Sanscrit, maintained that their books did not only import there was one God in three persons, but even the second person of their Trinity was incarnated NINE TIMES. And that I may not be thought to ascribe to myself the writings of others, I shall relate unto you word for word what a certain Carmelite of Chiras hath lighted on, which he related when the above-mentioned father Roa passed that way to come back to Rome. The Gentiles (saith he) do hold that the second person of the Trinity WAS INCARNATED NINE TIMES, and that because of divers necessities of the world, from which he hath delivered it : but the eighth incarnation is the most notable; for they hold, that the world being enslaved under the power of giants, it was redeemed by the second person, incarnated and born of a Virgin at midnight, the angels singing in the air, and the heavens pouring down a shower of flowers all that night." He then goes on to say, that the incarnate God was wounded in the side by a giant, in consequence of which he is called the wounded in the side; and that A TENTH incarnation is yet to come. He after this relates a story that the third person of the Trinity appeared in the form of fire.*

* Tavernier's and Bernier's Travels, Vol. II. p.106, Ed. fol.

The observation that the eighth avatar or incarnation is the most notable, is indeed very truly so; because it proves that the mythos or history of the eighth was precisely the same as the ninth, precisely as it ought to be, according to my theory, and according to Virgil. The words nine times which I have put in capital letters prove that he clearly distinguished between the eighth and ninth time, thus giving us a proof, which we have no where else, so clear, that, in several respects, the avatars were the same.

About the beginning of the æra of Salivahana, the Romans became possessed of a large part of Asia, and penetrated into India, with which they carried on a great trade; and devotees will tell us, that they carried the doctrines of Jesus Christ to India, from which the history of Salivahana was copied. Of course this will be very satisfactory to persons of this description. But philosophers will doubt, and ask, how came there to be nine Vicramadityas or Salivahanas, or cross-borne Avatars ? Every one must judge for himself. It is only necessary for my argument, to point out the well-marked Avatar or Cycle correctly in its proper place, and that, in other respects, it resembles those which precede it. I shall therefore dwell upon it no longer. …

Page 671

… It is truly surprising that the Sibyl from the Erythræan sea before the time of Christ should contain the history both of Jesus and of Salivahana. The observation of Justin martyr that almost the whole history of Jesus Christ was to be found in the Sibyl, must not be forgotten, as hereafter I shall return to it, and it will be found to involve a consequence of the very first importance.

It is allowed that Rama preceded Cristna, and yet they are both said to be the same. In Hebrew .!9 ram means Bull; but it is easy to see from Parkhurst, (in voce,) that it also means Ram or male Lamb. Thus as Rama is the same as Cristna, and Cristna is the same as the sun in Aries, Rama is also the same as Adonis, which was the sun in Aries. Adonis is the same as Tamuz, killed and bewailed in Western Syria. Tamuz is found to have died, or to have been killed and bewailed, on the coast of Coromandel. Kr-ioj and 9, kr mean a Lamb Ram.* Mandalam means a circle or cycle :** then, coast of Cr-mandal will mean coast of cycle of the Ram Lamb. In the language of the West, this is the meaning of Coromandel. The language of the West being found in an Eastern country, will radically still retain its Western meaning. The locality makes no difference.*** The Rama, Adonis, Tamuz, was the Egyptian Am-on or Indian Om, worshiped in the form of a Lamb or Saviour at Sais and Thebes.****

* And also a circle. Parkhurst, in voce 9, kr, II. pp. 337, 667.

** Trans. Royal Soc. Ed. Vol. II. p.141.

*** It is just the same with Nerbuddha. **** Parkhurst, in voce 9, kr, II.

Page 672

I now request my reader to recollect what I have said before, in different parts of this work, of Roma, or Rama, or Ram. In the Indian accounts of the Salivahanas or Vicramadityas frequent mention is made of a place whence they came, called by our authors, Roum, or Rom, or Ram. That the Salivahana of India, in the time of Christ, should have copied from the Papal church, not established till three hundred years afterward, seemed impossible, but how to account for this I could not tell. At last I accidentally learnt, from an Indian scholar, that the celebrated Lanca, Serindive, Palisimunda, Ceylon, called also Taprobane, was the sacred island of Ram, which I doubt not was corrupted to Rom or Roum : this removes all the difficulties. …

I must now return to the cycles and the prophecies of Daniel.

Daniel is said to have lived at the court of the king of Babylon, to have been at the head of the Astrologers, Magi, and Chaldeans, and to have flourished both before and after the taking of that city by the Persians. Who and what he was seems doubtful. … I think Daniel understood the doctrine of the renewal of Cycles, as Virgil did in a later day, and I shall now endeavour to shew, that his prophecies had a reference to them, as, in fact, the Christians say.* … I must observe, that in all the prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse, a day means a year, and a week seven years. In keeping with this, in the Oriental cyclical mythoses, 12,000 years are called a day of Brahm, and 12,000 x 360 = 4,320,000 are called a year.

* Vide Daniel ix. 24-27.

Page 673

The Astrologers and the Chaldeans were prophets, or rather the prophets were astrologers. Daniel was at the head of them at Babylon, as is most clearly proved by the Bible. Isaiah foretold the Messiah Cyrus—Om-nual, Om-our-God. Daniel foretold Jesus, Ham-Messiah, or Om—the Saviour, and Jesus was believed, as I shall presently shew, by the Gnostics and Templars, to have foretold Mo-hamed or Om-ahmed, Om the desire of all nations. Hence it was, as I shall shew, that these two sects or orders of persons were both of the Christian and Mohamedan religions. I have often wondered why the word Mo was prefixed to the Ahmed, but here we have the reason. The reason is the same as that which causes the mysterious, inexplicable M—600—to be prefixed to so many mystic words, such as M-Omptha, M-uin, &c., &c.

It is allowed in the Dialogues on Prophecy,* that we are now in the seventh millenary of the world. This is exactly my theory. When Daniel prophesied to Nebuchadnezzar of the golden head about the year before Christ 603,** he clearly speaks of four kingdoms, (ch. ii. 39, 40,) including that then going, for he calls Nebuchadnezzar the golden head. After thee (he says) shall another rise, (the cycle of Cyrus,) and then a third of brass, (the cycle of Jesus) : and a fourth strong as iron (the cycle of Mohamed). And then (verse 44) shall a kingdom be set up which shall last for ever—the Millenium. These kingdoms are cycles of 600 years, and bring the commencement of the Millenium to about the year 1200, according to what I have proved, that the æra of the birth of Christ was the beginning of the ninth age of the Romans and Sibyls, and the ninth Avatar of India.

* Part iv. p.338. ** Univers. Hist. Vol. XXI. p.59.

If the learned Nimrod be right, that the beast of John, with ten horns, is the fourth kingdom of Daniel, which I have suggested to be the tenth Neros,* then the beast may be the consummation of the ten Cycles. The beast with seven heads and ten horns will be the six thousands, and the seventh will be the Millenium, and the ten Cycles will be the ten horns. The beast that was to be resuscitated under one of the heads—the beast that was, and is not, and goes into perdition, that is, goes to destruction, revolves and passes away as the former had done. It has been observed that five heads were passed at the time of the vision, and that the sixth was going; this is as it ought to be—the sixth millenary running. This answers to the beast with seven heads and ten horns.

* Nimrod, Vol. III. p.595

Page 676

We now come to the famous Crusades, the real origin or cause of which, in modern times, has never been understood. They will found to occupy a prominent place in the complete development of my system, and particularly of the tenth Avatar, and will lead to a variety of matters which will greatly surprise my reader.

In the time of Richard the First, about A.D. 1189, a general belief prevailed that the end of the world drew near, a belief which, in a great measure, caused the crusades to Palestine, where the devotees expected the Saviour to appear. This is attested by St. Bernard of Clairvaux, and was foretold by Joachim, Abbot of Curacio in Calabria,* a most renowned interpreter of prophecy in those days. Antichrist was to appear at ANTIOCH, and the crusade was the gathering together of the kings of the earth to the battle of the great day of God Almighty.** It seems from the accounts that the possession of Antioch was made a great point, almost as much so, indeed, as that of Jerusalem. It was among the first cities taken by the crusaders.

* Roger Hoveden, ap. Script. Post Bedam, p.681.

** Rev. xvi. 12, 14; Nimrod, Vol. III. p.393.

Various reasons have been given to account for the crusades, but these were the true ones. …

Page 677

The persons who were initiated into the Esoteric religion of the Vatican, after being disappointed in the year of Christ 600, imagined, that the famous 6000 years would end at or about the year 1200 of Christ, when the millenium would commence, and it was this which caused the crusade against the Mohamedan Antichrist, who had arisen against the new, the tenth, and the last Messiah or Avatar, patronised by the Pope of Rome, whom I shall draw from this obscurity. If the ninth age began with Christ, then the tenth would begin with the year 600, and finish with the year 1200; and then would be the manifestation of the Lord at Jerusalem, which the devotees wished to prepare for his reception.

These circumstances premised, we now, at last, come to the tenth Avatar, and the facts respecting it are not less remarkable than the others. My reader will recollect that, in the Gospel of the mysterious Ioannes, Jesus, the Avatar of the Sibylline oracles, is made to declare that he would send another person to complete his mission, called in our translation a comforter, and also the spirit of truth. The words spirit of truth would well justify the expectation, that this person would be an incarnation of Divine Wisdom if he appeared in human form. In consequence, we find that various teachers of doctrines were believed, by their followers, to be this person. For instance, Simon Magus, Montanus, Marcion, Manes, were all so considered, and in consequence have been grievously abused by the Romish writers for the unparalleled wickedness of giving themselves out as being the Holy Ghost—these writers never attempting, perhaps not being able, to explain the nature of the case. The most remarkable of these Teachers was the person called Simon Magus, called by the Romists Magus, probably as a term or reproach.

Page 678

… After Simon Magus, Montanus was held to be the person promised; and, after him, Mani : and this brings us to a tenth and last Avatar, the celebrated prophet of Arabia—Mohamed.

Mr. Faber,* who is the most sensible of all the mystics, makes one very striking observation. Which I shall give in his own words : "Now it is an undoubted fact, whatever application we may make of the fact itself, that in the year 608 or 609, Mohamed, dexterously availing himself of the unscriptural demonolatry which had infested the Christian church, set on foot an imposture, which soon overspread the whole Macedonian empire, and which performed the very actions that are ascribed to the second predicted power, both in the same geographical region and during the same chronological period." This forms, to my mind, the finest example ever known of a prophecy causing its own verification or completion. In the Gospels, Christ is made to prophesy that one should come after him to complete his mission. This was nothing but repetition of all the Gentile prophecies of a tenth and last Avatar. Mohamed was believed by his followers to be this person, whose name they said, in the original, uncorrupted gospel, was given by Jesus, as that of Cyrus was by Isaiah. …

Then what was the fact ? Jesus Christ was believed, by the followers of Mohamed, to be a divine incarnation, or a person divinely inspired, and to have foretold the next and the last Avatar, Mohamed, to complete the ten periods, and the six millenaries, previous to the grand Millenium, or the reign of the Crhjoj, or Christ, on earth, for the last and seventh period, of one thousand years. Irenæus and the first Christian fathers said, that, during this period, the lion was to lie down with the lamb, and the grapes were to cry out to the faithful to come and eat them !

Page 679

… I beg to refer to what I have said in the last section; there my reader will see that the end of the tenth cycle was foretold by Christian astrologers, which caused the fanatical crusaders, almost by millions, to flock to Jerusalem about the year 1200, the end of Mohamed's cycle. The observation of Mr. Faber, that Mohamed's mission began at the year 608, is important. This is the very period when the tenth Avatar ought to commence, according to one of my two Neros' systems. Is this be accident, it is surely a very extraordinary accident, that, among all the numbers, the identical number of the great Neros should be fallen on; and that number the very number required to support my system—nay, to prove the truth of it, if the system be true.

The expression which the Mohamedans say has been expunged from the Romish Gospels, is as follows : "And when Jesus, the son of Mary, said, O children of Israel, verily I am the apostle of God sent unto you, confirming the law which was delivered before, and bringing good tidings of an apostle who shall come after me, and whose name shall be AHMED." Chap. lxi. This is correctly as foretold by Haggai.

Page 683

From the Mohamedans we can learn little; we are at too much enmity with them; and it is probable that the Turks may really possess nothing of the Arabian knowledge upon these subjects. But it is a most important fact, that the Brahmins maintain that Mohamed either was or pretended to be a Vicramaditya and Avatar. This will lead us to some very important consequences.

The fact cannot be denied, and a very important fact it is, that when the Mohamedans overran India they did not destroy the images of the Buddhists. The reason was, in the simple, unadorned, uncorrupted icon of Buddha, they found their own Om, and I have no doubt that they were in reality Buddhists, and Mohamed was believed by himself, (for what is too absurd for human folly not to believe ? How much or how far is prosperity capable of corrupting even the strongest minds !*) or by his followers, to be the tenth Avatar—incarnation of the sacred Om—the Amed or desire of all nations. On this account it was, that the Afghans and the mountaineers of Mewar and Malwa came to be among the first of Mohamed's followers.

* When I consider that Alexander was born exactly when the sun entered Pisces, and that Mohamed's name meant Great, in connexion with other circumstances, I am induced to suspect that they were both, as well as Constantine, called Great, because they were thought to be Avatars. I think this superstition might probably make them conquerors.

If we consider what I have said in Bk. VIII. Chap. V., respecting a tribe proceeding from India, as the Mohamedans say, and their having carried back the religion of Mohamed, the tenth avatar, we may observe, that there were no great man in their own country to answer to the tenth whom they daily expected; and when they saw this Om-amed, the desire of all nations, conquering all Asia, and declaring that his success was the proof of his mission, it was very natural for them to receive him : it was no change, but only a necessary completion of their religion, arriving, as they would learn, to the very year in which, according to their doctrines, he ought to arrive.

Page 684

In the province of Oude or Judæa, in North India, the people still flatter themselves with the hopes of a Saviour, of whom they know nothing, except that he is to be the tenth Outar or Ontar. He is to be called the "spotless," because he is to be born of a pure virgin. He is expected to appear in the province of Oude, i.e. Youdia. He will destroy all distinctions, and establish happiness on the earth.* As these people did not accept Mohamed for their last Avatar or incarnation, and all their seminaries of sacred learning were destroyed, they still, like the Jews, continue in expectation of they know not what.

* Col. Broughton's Popular Poetry, notes, p.152.

The prejudices of modern Christians entirely blind them to the undeniable fact, that every Mohamedan is as really a Christian as themselves. If this be the case, it is in perfect keeping with their possession of the magnificent church or mosque of St. John, at Damascus, where his head is preserved, and so much venerated, that the Turks will not permit even one of their own religion to look at it, and never permit a Christian to go into the church or mosque.*

* Maundrel's Journey, p.170.

Page 685

Vicentius Belovacensis notices the custom of two Indian nations making Carns in honour of their Gods, at the equinoxes.* This is still continued in Tibet, and what is remarkable, he says the custom passed from the Indians to the Arabians, and was ordered to be continued by Mohamed. This seems to support what I have said of the Arabians' first coming from India, and to have been connected with the Mohamedans' protection of the Buddhist images in India.** Buddha was spared, because he was the male generative principle, as the Lingas were spared by Cambyses. Late travellers have found, as we might expect, Carns in Western Syria.

* Parkhurst, in voce, %.9 rme

** The Christians accuse the Jews of blindness in believing that the promised Messiah or Saviour was to be a temporal prince. In this case, it is necessary, in justice to the Jews, to ask in what sense the word was used in their sacred writings. It had always one sense, and I believe only one sense, and that sense is at once seen when we look to Isaiah, where Cyrus is expressly called a Messiah.

… Col. Wilford informs us, that the Arabian writers unanimously support the doctrine, that the present Mecca is the Moca of Ptolemy. The sea-port of this Moca is the town or port of Bad-deo, regia, or the city of the holy and royal Buddha.




Page 688

In the dark and mystical learning of the middle ages we meet with many very odd circumstances which have never yet been accounted for, but which have in vain attracted the curiosity of the philosophers; until at last the inquiry seems to have been given up as hopeless. The circumstances to which I allude seem to connect the learning called Gnosticism with the Christian and Mohamedan systems : but though a connexion evidently existed, yet it was in an obscure, mystical and incomprehensible way, of which no one could make any sense. All this learning was closely connected with judicial astrology—with a famous prophetic magical demagorgon or brazen head, and various idolatrous and Gnostic emblems—with the well-known mysterious man of the mountain or Syrian Assassins, and with the person called Johannes, Butta, and Deus, of whom we have lately treated. On charges intimately related to secrets of this kind the famous Knights Templars were destroyed. The accusations brought against them, as well as their defences, were involved in mystery. This was closely connected with the Millenium, and the Crusades in the eleventh and the twelfth centuries were the effects of that doctrine. The foundation of this was laid in the Virgilian doctrine of the renewed cycles—the expected commencement of the Millenium at the end of 1200 years, or at most in the thirteenth century, and the belief that Mohamed was either the tenth Avatar or Beast of Revelation, or Antichrist, or the person foretold by Jesus, by Daniel and the prophets, and referred to by the Magician Virgil.* And thus came to be united the doctrines of Magic, Heathenism, Christianity, and Mohamedism, an union at first sight totally incomprehensible, of things to all appearance absolutely in diametrical opposition. The expectation of the Millenium was clearly entertained by the Papal See, which, on this account, encouraged the Crusades, and though the Cardinals of course could not believe that Mohamed was the hero of the tenth age or cycle, yet they believed that the seventh millenary of the Millenium was about to come, till the thirteenth century had considerably advanced, probably till after the year 1260, and till its non-arrival had proved to them, as well as to others, their mistake. Then this dogma, from its evident falsity, was despised, and by degrees almost forgotten. … I have no doubt whatever, that the Romish secret religion was essentially magical or astrological, till about the end of the thirteenth century, when the prophecies of the Millenium failed, and proved its falsity.** Perhaps it might exist in a doubtful kind of way, till after the year 1260 had passed over; then, if not before, astrology became heresy.

* I believe a life of Virgil is yet extant describing him as a great magician. And he is said to have been consulted by Octavius on astrology.

** Mr. Gibbon has some very curious and striking passages in Chap. XV. N. 64, 65; Chap XX. N. 59; Chap. XXI. N. 19, 24 &c., on the Millenium, and on its universal reception in the early ages of the church. (See Burnet's Sacred Theory, Ch. V. p. iii., Justin ag. Trypho, pp. 177, 178, Edit. Bened.; Lact. Lib. vii.; Daillé de Usu Patrum, Lib. ii. Cap. iv.) The Trinitarian doctrines of Philo are shewn to have preceded the death, or probably the birth, of Christ, Ch. xxi. N. 17. It will be of importance to remember this.

Page 689

In the persecutions of the Knights Templars, which are known to every body, a certain mystification and secrecy may be observed, as if the whole of the charges against them were not brought publicly out. This arose from various causes. The persecuted were really very religious, and were bound by the most solemn Masonic oaths (and Masonry was intimately connected with these matters) not to divulge the secrets of the order. This caused them to recant at the stake, when all hope had fled, what they confessed when on the wheel; and by this means they endeavoured to make amends for the secrets betrayed, and the oaths involuntarily broken on the rack. But yet it is charged upon them that although at the last they declared themselves innocent of the charges brought against them, yet they acknowledged themselves guilty and deserving of punishment; but the wickedness which they are said to have confessed is concealed from us. I have no doubt it consisted in part, at least, in having, when under torture, accused, and thereby having brought on the ruin of, the order. The Papal See having first come at the secrets by means of confession, of persons who had gone over to the Heretics, and afterward repented and confessed, proceeded with the greatest certainty; but at the same time in a way which appeared very cruel, and also very mysterious : for it knew the truth, but it would not divulge the mode by which it obtained it, namely, that it acquired it by confession.

Page 690

The doctrines to which I have alluded above, are visible every where in the curious mystical figures always seen upon the monuments of the Templars, in the fishes bound together by the tails, on the tombs of Italy—in the astrological emblems on many churches, such as the Zodiacs on the floor of the church of St. Irenæus at Lyons, and on a church at York, and Notre Dame at Paris, and Bacchus or the God IHS filling the wine-cask, formerly on the floor of the church of St. Denis. Again, in the round churches of the Templars, in imitation of the round church at Jerusalem, probably built by them in the Circlar or Cyclar or Gilgal form in allusion to various recondite subjects which I flatter myself I need not now point out to my reader, and in the monograms IHS and CH in thousands of places. In these mysteries, not only the Cardinals, but the heads and chapters of all the orders of knighthood, and of all the old orders of Monks, were more or less implicated; and from that part of them more intimately connected with the ancient doctrines of Ionism, arose a profound devotion of all orders of knighthood to the fair sex and the mother of God. That the Gnostic doctrines named above, that is, that Christianity was only a species, or an uncorrupted or reformed kind, of Paganism, were secretly held by the Cardinals in the Vatican, I can scarcely doubt, and I think I shall prove it by and by; and their refusal to believe Mohamed to be the Paraclete is easily accounted for.

Page 691

At every turn we meet with some remnants of Paganism, any one of which taken by itself would be of no consequence, but which becomes of consequence when united to many others. Some of these are ridiculous enough. The Pope boasts of being descended from St. Peter, Bar-Jonas, or Janus, i.e. son of Janus, and as he held the keys of heaven, so the Romanists maintain that their Pope holds them, and, by virtue of this, possesses the power of granting or refusing absolution for sins—opening or shutting the gates of heaven. This is evidently a grand step to universal empire, and it is not surprising that great exertions should have been made to establish it. Various miracles are recorded of St. Peter, at Rome; and, to support the credit of the chief of the apostles, the actual chair on which this Bar-Jonas sat was formerly exhibited. As Bar-Jonas was holy, it followed that the chair on which he sat must also be holy; therefore, a festival was instituted on the 18th of January to the holy chair, which on that day was annually exposed to the adoration of the people. This continued till the year 1662, when upon cleaning it, in order to set it up is some conspicuous place of the Vatican, the twelve labours of Hercules unluckily appeared engraved upon it. "Our worship, however," says Giacomo Bartolini, who was present at this discovery, and relates it, "was not misplaced, since it was not to the wood we paid it, but to the prince of the apostles, St. Peter. An author of no mean character, unwilling to give up the holy chair, even after this discovery, as having a place, and a peculiar solemnity among the other saints, has attempted to explain the labours of Hercules in a mystical sense, as emblems representing the future exploits of the Popes. But the ridiculous and distorted conceits of that writer are not worthy of our notice, though by Clement X. they were judged not unworthy of a reward."*

* Bower, Hist. Popes, p.7.

Page 692

When the wicked French got possession of Rome, they did not fail to examine this celebrated relic and lo ! in addition to the labours of Hercules, they discovered engraved upon it, in Arabic letters, the Mohamedan confession of faith.* In these two facts there is a beautiful exemplification of the doctrine held by me and Ammonius Saccas, that all the varieties of religions are at the bottom the same—but including, in the collection known to Ammonius, the modern Mohamedan religion, which will be accounted for presently. I can scarcely conceive a more marked proof of the nature of the secret doctrine of the Conclave. The story goes, that this chair was brought from Constantinople by a Pilgrim, who, of course, could neither see the Zodiac, nor read, nor know, when he saw Arabic letters, that they were the letters of the country where he had been travelling. And it is also clear that the Pope and all the Cardinals who adopted this chair were equally blind, and could not see the Zodiacal signs, and equally ignorant of the Arabic letters. Besides, it is also manifest, if they did see them, that there was not at the time a carpenter in the Roman dominions by whom these offensive emblems might have been removed from the chair, or who might have simplified the matter by substituting a new one, if one must be had, and if the emblems proved the falsity of the story of its being St. Peter's.

* Lady Morgan's Italy.

Irony aside, the fact is, there is no doubt that, under these mysterious circumstances, something lies hid. These emblems and letters did not come there by accident : nor are they to be ascribed to the ignorance of the Pope and the whole college of Cardinals, and the priests of the Propaganda employed in educating youth in Arabic and other languages for the foreign missions. … The whole tenure of this work goes to explain the labours of Hercules, the symbols, as Mr. Parkhurst calls them, of what the real Saviour was to do and suffer. …

Page 693

We shall presently see, notwithstanding the boasted immutability of the Holy See, that at the time of which I am now speaking, it was not so determined against all charges as its followers pretend, and that it had not any very great objection to a new incarnation. I think when the reader has perused the remainder of this chapter, he will not consider my theory so improbable as he may do at present. The Arabic inscription must have a meaning.

About the time of which I am speaking, there seems to have been something strangely unsettled in the Roman See. This is proved by the fact, now almost concealed by the priests, that a new Gospel was preached with its permission, and actively and energetically supported by it, as Mosheim says, for about thirty years. For various reasons, which will be detailed, it was at last suppressed, the zodiac* and inscription on the chair forgotten, and the Templars were burnt.

* This Zodiac is in good keeping with the Zodiac in the church of St. Irenæus, at Lyons, with the wine cask at St. Denis, with the Zodiac on the church at York, and with many other similar matters.

The new Gospel of which I have spoken was called the Evangelium Eternum, and, after being some time preached in the 12th century, was first published in a written book by one Joachim, Abbot of Sora or Flora, in Calabria, of whom I spoke in Chap. V. Sect. 9, from which it was called the BOOK OF JOACHIM.* This Gospel was called the covenant of peace. It was intended to supersede all the old Gospels, and by it an union was expected to take place with the Mohamedans and all other sects, which caused it to have this last name. It had the name of EVANGELIUM ETERNUM, or the EVERLASTING GOSPEL, evidently to insinuate or intimate to those capable of understanding it, that all other gospels were only of a temporary nature. This exactly agrees with the Mohamedan doctrine of the Paraclete. This gospel, known and preached in the end of the twelfth century, was received by nearly all the monks, but particularly by the Dominicans and Franciscans, and they were most warmly supported by the Popes, who censured their opponents, and particularly one St. Amour, and caused their books to be burnt.**

* This was the same man spoken of before as Abbot of Curacio. Here we see that this Io-akim, that is, Io the wise, was also Abbot of Flora, the mystic, perhaps secret, name of Rome. These mystic names betray the mystic nature of the system.

** Mosheim, Hist. Cent. xiii. Sect. xxviii.

Page 694

The Everlasting Gospel was also called the Gospel of the Holy Ghost. It had the same name of Evangelium Eternum from the fourteenth chapter and sixth verse of the Revelation of Ioannes or John, of which it was the completion and in which, as the tenth Avatar, or CYCLE, or AGE, which would come or be completed about the end of the twelfth century, it was of course found; for the Apocalypse is a very ancient astrological work on the Zodiacal Lamb, and the doctrines of the ten Cycles and the Millenium. Its other name, given above, of the Holy Ghost, or the Peri-clyte, or Para-clete, is evidently in accordance with the Mohamedan doctrine. The Roman See supported the Evangelium Eternum by all the means in its power. This gospel announces that there have been two imperfect ages, the one of the Father, the age of the Old Testament, and one of the New Testament, under the administration of the Son, and that the third or the perfect one, of the Holy Ghost, which was to be preached to all nations, was at hand. Here, most clearly, we have a doctrine which assimilates again to Mohamedism, and to the expectation of the Millenium.

The Evangelium Eternum consisted of three books. The Liber Concordiæ Veritatis, i.e. the Book of the Harmony of Truth, the Apocalypsis Nova or New Revelation, and the Psalterium decem Chordarum, Psaltery of the ten chords, or the TEN-stringed Harp. The reader will be pleased to observe that this being a new Apocalypse will, like the old one, be intelligible only to those initiated in the mysteries; and, this understood, I think I need not explain to him the meaning of the Harp with TEN strings. I think if he will now look over the old Apocalypse again, he will see that its doctrines all refer to the revolution of the different cycles. And if he look to the Grecian history he will find that the Lyre of Apollo at first had only three strings, but they increased till they amounted to seven. The Muses and the Curetes also increased as time advanced, till they got to nine, when the Greek temples were destroyed. They increased as the cycles increased in number.

Page 695

… The reason why we have very little left respecting this gospel is to be found in the fact of its universal reception, for all parties being equally exposed to ridicule when the failure of the Millenium took place, all were equally interested in letting the subject die and be forgotten. But I think such as retained any of the doctrine were persecuted as Manichæans.

After the devotees and followers of the new Gospel, in the 13th century, had in vain expected the holy one who was to come, they at least pitched upon St. Francis as having been the expected one, and, of course, the most surprising and absurd miracles were said to have been performed by him. Some of the fanatics having an indistinct idea of the secret doctrine of renewed incarnations, or letting their knowledge of the principle or renewed incarnations escape in the heat of controversy, maintained that St. Francis was "wholly and entirely transformed* into the person of Christ—Totum Christo configuratum."** Mosheim says, by some of them the Gospel of Joachim was expressly preferred to the Gospel of Christ.***

* The word transformed is used here to conceal the metempsychosis and renewed incarnation. It has the same meaning as the word transfigured in the gospels.

** Vide Litera Magistrorum de Postilla Fratis P. Joh. Olivi in Baluzii Miscellan. Tom. I. p.213; Waddingi Annal. Minor. Tom. V. p.51; Mosh. Hist. Cent. XIII. Pt. ii. Sect. xxxvi.

*** Ibid. Sect. xxxiv. Note.

All these matters shew, with the Popes, policy, with the common Monks, fanaticism. As might be expected, among the monastic fanatics, who were not entrusted with the High Secrets of the Conclave, different opinions and the most violent controversies arose, each claiming for his own order the chief merits of the new gospel. After a certain time this placed the Holy See in a most awkward dilemma. It could not condemn the gospel which it has supported, and on which it had so far relied as to believe that, at the commencement of, or some time in, the thirteenth century, the millenium and the completion of the ten cycles, or the completion of the famous 1260 years, would arrive. But after the failure of its prophecies, the Holy See could no longer support it. It could not explain to the intemperate monks the real secret, and it did not like to persecute; perhaps did not dare to persecute the light troops of the church—the united Dominican, Franciscan, and Augustinian Monks, all of whom supported the new gospel.

Page 696

… After it had been published some time, and had received the greatest support possible from the Popes and all orders of Monks, the Franciscan fanatic Gerhard published the work called an introduction to this Gospel, in which he censured the vices of the Church of Rome, and in set terms prophesied or deduced from the Evangelium Eternum the destruction of the Roman See. This appeared in the year 1250, close upon the last period to which the Millenium could be delayed, viz. 1260 years. As this dreaded moment approached, the passions of the different orders of Monks were excited to the greatest height. Gerhard's book was burnt and its author was persecuted, though his followers, among the Franciscans, claim for him the gift of prophecy, and place him among the saints. The followers of St. Francis generally—the great supporters of the new gospel—and Gerhard maintained, that he, St. Francis who was the angel mentioned in the Revelation, ch. xiv. 6, had promulgated to the world the true and Everlasting Gospel of God : that the Gospel of Christ was to be abrogated in the year 1260, and to give place to this new and everlasting gospel, which was to be substituted in its room : and that the ministers of this great reformation were to be humble and barefoot friars, destitute of all worldly emoluments.* … The Pope did not according to the usual plan burn the author, the book only was burnt, and its author mildly censured and banished to his house in the country. This took place in the year 1255, when the parties, expectant of the Millenium, must have been in the highest state of fear and anxiety.

* And, I have little doubt, along with this, the Spencean doctrine of equality of property among all its votaries.

The year 1260 arrived and passed away; but, wonderful ! the sun did not cease to give its light, the moon and the stars did not fall from heaven; nothing particular happened; the pious fools stared one at another, and the impious rogues laughed. The Pope and Cardinals at Rome, half rogues half fools, and the fools every where else, finding themselves all in the wrong, soon began to charge the folly upon one another, and as they had quarrelled before who should display the most zeal for the new gad-tidings, they now began to quarrel about who should bear the blame—each shuffling the odium on to some other. … After some time, the fanatics having, by degrees, ceased to preach, and the Popes to support, the new gospel, the old gospels recovered their credit, and the friends of the new one died away, or were burnt as they came to be considered heretics.

Page 697

… If we look back at the history of the world in the fifth and sixth centuries, we shall find that the Monks in that day swarmed almost beyond credibility. This, like the increase in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, arose from the expectation of the Millenium about the year 600, and I have no doubt that thousands of the order, a little later, joined the armies of the prophet of Arabia.

After the expectation of the Millenium had entirely passed away, and the power of the Saracens seemed to increase, the Popes became more than ever embittered against the Mohamedans, and equally furious against all who supported any thing relating to the now become obsolete Gnostic or Cyclic doctrines, or the expectation of a Millenium. This accounts, in a very satisfactory manner, for the zeal of the Popes up to a certain time for the new gospel, and their bitterness afterward towards the Templars and the Albigenses, among whom some remnants of these superstitions remained. The peculiar circumstance that a great part of these doctrines was necessarily involved in the greatest obscurity, and kept secret with the greatest possible care, being, in fact, the esoteric doctrine, accounts for many of the apparently inconsistent circumstances which we every where meet with. It easily accounts for them all.

There can be no doubt that the Adoration of the Maria, the Regina Cœli, the mother of God, existed before Christianity. But it was brought forward into more notice after a certain time in opposition to Mohamed, and I cannot much doubt that it was on this account adopted peculiarly by the orders of Knighthood : for the religion of Mohamed was utterly opposed to every thing which had the least tendency to the adoration of the female principle or Ionism. … But they had fallen into this mistake, from their zeal to make it out to be a modern corruption, fearing that if they admitted its antiquity, they would prove it to be an integral part of Christianity. The black virgin and Bambinos of Italy are far older than Christianity. For these reasons the Carmelites, the great friends of the Virgin Mary, the female generative power in opposition to the male, were brought forward in a peculiar manner by the Popes, and became their favourites to so absurd a length, that those Popes countenanced the doctrine, that every person who dies with the scapulary of the order on his shoulders was certain of eternal salvation.*

Page 698

There is a book referred to by Dr. Maclaine called the ALCORAN DES CORDELIERS, which shews, I think,* that St. Francis was set up by his followers as the tenth Avatar in opposition to Mohamed. At all events it certainly is designed to shew, that he was intended to supersede Jesus Christ. Every sect of religionists receiving the millenary system believed themselves to be the favourites of God, therefore, of course, they believed that the tenth avatar would appear among them; they were therefore ready to catch at any extraordinary persons as he whom they expected—as he who was the desire of all nations. Thus we have several ninth avatars, and several tenth avatars running at the same time in different places.

* Tom. I. pp. 256, 266, 278, &c.; Luc. Waddingi Annales Minor. Tom. III. p.380; Mosh. Hist. Cent. XIII. Part ii. Ch. xxx.

In the Western art of Asia in the beginning of the twelfth century, the sect or reigious tribe called Ishmaelians or Batternians or Assassins began to be noticed. … I believe there is not a single written document of the Ishmaelites in existence. They were equally at war with the Mohamedan Caliphs, the Christians, and the Jews. They are now nearly extinct. …

Page 699

About the same time, at least in the same Cycle, when St. Francis was set up by the Cordeliers for the last manifestation of God on earth, previous to the Millenium, these Assassins were first noticed in the Western world with their chief Hakem* Bemrillah or Hakem-biamr-allah, who was held up in Syria for the same person. He was said BY HIS FOLLOWERS to be THE TENTH AVATAR, or, as I suppose, incarnation, and, as I have said, the founder of what his enemies called the Assassins. His ideas of God were very refined. The first of the creatures of God, the only production immediate of his power, was the intelligence universelle, which shewed itself at each of the manifestations of the Divinity on earth; that by means of this minister all creatures were made, and he was the Mediator between God and man. They called themselves Unitarians. This intelligence universelle is evidently the Logos, Rasit, or Arch or Buddha or Mhtij of which we have seen so much. In the doctrine of the ten incarnations, and that Hakem was the tenth, and in the intelligence universelle, we have the complete proof of the reality of the system which I have been developing and tracing through the six thousand years from the first of them. It completes my proofs if any were wanted. It was not discovered by me till more than half this volume was printed.

* The word Hakem is nothing but the word .,( hkm which means wise. All physicians in the East are called Hakem. This man was believed to be the tenth incarnation of Divine Wisdom; another Solomon, who I am persuaded was an incarnation of the Rasit. If this Ishmaelite had not claimed to be something more than common, the word Hakem might have been considered merely a title of honour. It is curious to observe how constantly the incarnation of the Wisdom occurs.

I think it seems probable that the followers of Bemrillah were originally adorers of Taurus or the Calf or Calves, which they continued to mix with the other doctrines of Buddha, and that after Hakem's death they returned to the superstition of their ancestors, a very likely effect to follow among an ignorant people, when the disappointment of the expected Millenium happened. I have little doubt that the Templars were followers of this Bemrillah. Much curious matter respecting these people, under the name of Druses, may be found in the 3rd Vol. of the Transactions of the Academy of Inscriptions, An. 1818, and in my Celtic Druids.

Page 700

The reason why we have such a horrible idea of the man of the mountain and of the Assassins is, as I have said before, because our informants, as usual in religious matters, take their accounts from the enemies of the persons of whom they write, from persons blinded by bigotry and hatred to their enemies to such an excess, as to think it meritorious to practise any fraud to injure them.

… It is very certain that the Ishmaelians or society of Assassins is a Mohamedan sect; that it was at once both a military and religious association, like the Templars and Teutonic Knights; and that, like the Jesuits, it had its members scattered over extensive countries. It was a link which connected ancient and modern Free-masonry.

Page 701

… Now all this, and the circumstances relating to the Chaldees, often called Mathematici, to the Assassins, the Templars, Manichæans, &c., being considered, the name of the Assassins or Hassessins or Assanites or Chasiens* or Alchaschischin will not be thought unlikely to be a corruption of Chasdim, and to mean Chaldees or Culdees—Culdees at York, a certain class noticed in my Celtic Druids—and that they were connected with the Templars. When the Arabic emphatic article AL is taken from this hard word Al-chaschischin it is Chas-chis-chin. The Assassins were also called Druses or Druideans : in my Celtic Druids I have proved these Druses to be both Druids and Culdees. In all accounts of the Assassins they are said also to have existed in the East in considerable numbers.

* Vide Benj. Tudela, Ch. vii. note.

Page 702

It is a very extraordinary thing that the Christian Templars should call themselves Templars in honour of the Temple, the destruction of which all Christians boasted of as a miraculous example of Divine wrath in their favour, as Christians. This goes to prove the Templars much older than the Crusades, and that the pretended origin of these people is totally false. I can entertain little doubt that their origin is to be sought in the College of Cashi, and the Temple of Solomon in Cashmere, or the lake or mere of Cashi. I do not think the Calidei has their name from the Chasdim, but the Chasi-dim were Calidei. The Gymnosophists, the Kasideans, the Essenes, the Therapeutæ, the Dionesians, the Eleusinians, the Pythagoreans, the Chaldeans, were in reality all an order of religionists, including among them, and consisting in great part of, an order of Monks, who were, in fact, the heads of the society.

The Teutonic Knights seem to have been the first instituted, but I think it appears that they were grafted upon a class of persons—charitable devotees—who had settled themselves, as the historians say, near the temple at Jerusalem, … They are said to have come from Germany, from the Teutonic tribes. The word Teut is Tat, and Tat is Buddha. The name Buddha with some of the German nations was Tuisto, and from this came the Teutones, Teutisci, and the Teutonic Knights, and the name of Mercury Teuisco.

Page 703

The Knights of St. John are first noticed, as a society, existing near the ancient temple of Jerusalem, when a person called Raymond Dupuis distinguished himself among them. … At first they were attached to no one of the orders, but were probably (without having the name of Carmelites) of the Essenean or Therapeutic ascetics of Carmel in the West, or Tibet in the East. It is probable that they existed in Jerusalem in the time of its capture by the Saracens. …

All temples were surrounded with pillars recording the numbers of the constellations, the signs of the zodiac, or the cycles of the planets, and each templum was supposed in some way to be a microcosm or symbol of the temple of the universe, or of the starry vault called Templum. It was this Templum of the universe from which the Knights Templars took their name, and not from the individual temple at Jerusalem, built probably by their predecessors, and destroyed many years before the time allotted for their rise, but which rise, I suspect, was only a revivification from a state of depression, into which they had fallen. …

All the temples were imitative—were microcosms of the celestial Templum—and on this account they were surrounded with pillars recording astronomical subjects, and intended both to do honour to these subjects, and to keep them in perpetual remembrance, we have records of every cycle except of that of the beast 666. We have in Abury the cycles of 650—608—600—60—40—30—19—12, &c. We have the forty pillars around the temple of Chilminar, in Persia; the temple of Balbec, with forty pillars; the Tucte Solomon, on the frontiers of China, in Tartary, called also the Temple with forty pillars. There is the same number in each, and probably for the same reason.* In the Temples at Pæstum, on each side of the Temple fourteen pillars record the Egyptian cycle of the dark and light sides of the moon, as described by Plutarch, and the whole thirty-eight, which surround them, record the two Metonic cycles so often found in the Druidical Temples. All temples were originally open at the top; so that twelve pillars curiously described the belt of the zodiac, and the vault of heaven the roof.

* Forty is one of the most common numbers in the Druidical temples.

… The Templars were nothing but one branch of Masons; perhaps a branch to which the care of some peculiar part of Temples was entrusted, and, I think, that the name of Templars was only another name for Casideans.

Page 704

In many striking particulars, Mr. Von Hammer has shewn the similarity of the Assassins to the Templars, so that they might be mistaken for branches of the same order. It seems very certain too, that they had each a secret doctrine or mystery, which was guarded with the most anxious care, and with the most sacred oaths; and we shall see from circumstances, that this secret was probably the same in the two societies. We must not forget that the Templars were an order which was said to have arisen about the twelfth century,* when the Millenium, as we have seen, was daily expected, and that it arose in the country which was part of that in which the old man of the maountain resided, viz. in the lofty and inaccessible forests of Lebanon, where his followers are now known by the name of Curds, or Culdees, or Druses, treated on in my Celtic Druids. …

* Jerusalem was taken by the Christians in 1099, and retaken by Saladin in 1188. The Knights of St. John are said to have been instituted in 1099, the Templars in 1118, the Teutones in 1164.

I will now point out a circumstance certainly true and most extraordinary. The Christian Knights Templars, the enemies of all Mohamedans to the extreme length of being sworn never to make peace with them on any condition, entered into a conspiracy with these Mohamedans sectaries, Ishmaelites, Battaneans, or Assassins, by which they agreed to betray to them the rich city of Damascus, in return for which the city of Tyre was to have been given up to them. The attempt miscarried, but it proves the connexion between the two bands of fanatics, and fanatics do not often unite except there is something in common in their fanaticism. However, there can be no doubt that there were certain points of religion common to the Ishmaelites, or these Mohamedan sectaries, and to the Templar Christians. These I think could be no other than those for which the Templars were persecuted and destroyed. … In the time of Saladin,* the head of the Assassins was called Sinan, and claimed to be, or was said by his followers to be, an incarnation of the Deity. Here we come to the old story. … It was of the first importance to the Templars to possess Tyre instead of Damascus. They would have been separated in Damascus from all their immense estates in Europe; but in Tyre, by means of fleets, they could extend their arms every where.

* In Reinaud's History of the Crusades, p. 320, an account is given of a negociation between Saladin and Richard, when the former demanded the surety of the Templars for the performance of the treaty, which the latter refraining to give, the treaty went off. They would trust the people who were of their own religion.

Page 705

The Templars had no where possession of a city as a sovereign power, though they had armies. If they had obtained Tyre, they would then have been a sovereign power, with an army of devotees, and fanatical traitors, and immense wealth, in every country of Europe, which the governments dared not touch. It is quite clear to me that if they had gone on till they got one of their order elected Pope, they would instantly have been sovereigns of Europe, and all the kings their vassals. The Templars posses-sed 9000 manors in Europe, the Knights of St. John 19,000.*

* Hallan, p.38.

… and we find the Templars adopt for their emblem or distinctive badge, or coat of arms, a very particular cross, which is that worn by the Manichæans who were followers, as we are told, of one Buddæus, and also of Thomas of India. The doctrines of the Manichæans are also, in many respects, the same as those of the Assasins and the Templars. This cross is also found to be the emblem of the Buddhists of India. It is of a very peculiar and striking kind; it is red, and is mounted on a Calvary. It is an emblem of the tree of life; it is the tree Taranis of the Druids.

… It is an emblem which has no antitype but itself. I consider this eight-pointed red cross as decisive evidence, that Buddhism, Manichæism, and Templism, were identical : that is, Manichæism as far as Manichæism consisted of Gnosticism, for the principle of both were the same, though in later times, in some instances, they diverged as from a common centre, as they became corrupted.

Faustus is made, by Augustine, most clearly* to admit the Triune God in the following words, and thus he connects the Manichæans with the Hindoos : "We therefore worship one and the same Deity, under a triple appellation of the Father, the God Almighty, and of Christ his Son, and of the Holy Ghost. …" When it is considered that Augustine esteemed a belief in the Trinity to be meritorious, and that he never ceased vilifying the Manichæans, his evidence in this case in unimpeachable. The Manichæans being Trinitarians the only important point of heresy which they held, and a most important one it was, consisted in denying the supremacy of the holy see. Had they given up this point, there would have been an instant coalition.

* In Chap. xx. of Oper. Aug. Ben.

Page 710

Of the different dreams which have terrified the imagination of the weaker class of mankind, there is, perhaps, no one which has played a greater game than that of the fear of Antichrist, a person whom I believe to have been pretty generally misunderstood. The word Anticrhjoj I believe does not mean a person opposed to Christ, but a substitute for Christ—another Christ, a Christ in succession. In our sacred books the disciples are constantly warned against false Christs, but no where is it said that there shall not be another Christ. This is all in unison with the prophecy in John, that Jesus would send a person to them in some capacity or other. Mohamed was believed to be this Antichrist, and so was both Hakim Bemrillah and St. Francis. …

The Templars were accused of worshiping a being called Bahumid, and Bafomet, or Kharuf. Mr. Hammer* says that this word written in Arabic has the meaning of Calf, and is what Kircher calls Anima Mundi. It is difficult not to believe that this Kharuf is our Calf. Bahumid must be Pi the Egyptian emphatic article, and 9*.! amid the desire of all nations, that is Mohamed.

… It is very clear that this Bafomet is the Logos, to which they gave this name—the second person of the Trinity. …

Page 711

The truth creeps from under the veil, in the instance of the symbol of the Red-cross Knights Templars. Their badge, the red cross with EIGHT POINTS, the monogram of the Buddhists of Tibet and of the Manichæans* connect beautifully. This badge was a real Talisman. In peace it commanded the rights of hospitality. In battle one red cross would, of course, never strike another; though they might, as in the case of the Ishmaelians and the Templars, from circumstances be obliged to oppose each other.

* Vol. X. Asiat. Researches.

The revenues of the Templars in the twelfth century are said to have amounted to six million pounds sterling a year. Notwithstanding this immense wealth, it is very certain that their chiefs were repeatedly guilty of betraying the Christian cause to the Assassins, … I believe they took their oaths to the cause of the Crhjoj, the Chreestian cause, and that if a small body of Knights separated from the Hospitallers to form the order of Templars of the Temple, of the ancient circular or cyclar temples, not of the church, (their churches differing from all other churches in the world in being of the circular form,) they had become proselytes to or were of an opinion in its nature Manichæan, that Hakem Bemrillah was, as he was claimed by his followers to be, the tenth avatar—they were believers in some sense in the Evangelium Eternum, and thus they continued to be still the passing years proved the falsity of their system, as well as that of the Franciscans. Then, though they probably abandoned the Millenium, they retained part of their Manichæan or Gnostic doctrines; and, though friends to the Mohamedan Ishamelites, they were still Christians, but it was the Gnostic Christianity, which was in fact the oriental Buddhism of the ancient Gymnosophistæ or Samaneans, of which we shall presently see more.

The Templars were divided into orders exactly after the system of the Assassins : Knights, Esquires, and lay brethren, answering to the Refeck, Fedavee, and Laseek, of the Assassins; as the Prior, Grand Prior, and Grand Master, of the former, correspond with the Dai, Dai-al-kebir, and Sheik of the mountain, of the latter. As the Ishmaelite Refeck was clad in white, with a red mark of distinction, so the Knights of the Temple wore a white mantle adorned with a red mark of distinction—the red cross.

Page 712

In the very highest orders of Freemasons, viz. the Templars and Rosicrucians, as I imagine them to be, there is no emblem more sacred than the cross. Here I stop. Verbum Apienti.

… The Chaldeans and the Mathematicians of whom we read in the Augustin age as being the fortune-tellers, or the magicians, or judicial astrologers of the great men of the day in Rome, were in fact Freemasons, … I need not tell any one, whether Mason or not, how large a space the history of the building of the temple of Solomon occupies in the ceremonies of Masonry. … All the sacred numbers, and these astronomical symbols, relate to the building of the temple of the universe. The whole temple is a microcosm or an emblem of the universe, and the history of the building of it is a Genesis : and under the allegory, a beautiful and refined cosmogony is concealed.

In the building of the temple of Solomon the most profound silence prevailed; not a nail, not a blow was struck. As the Creator built up the edifice of the world from matter previously prepared, so in like manner was every thing prepared in the temple. …

Page 715

The Ishmaelites are the same, I believe, as the Nasareens or Nasouriens, or Nesseenes or Nessaries, and the Yezeedis or Yezidis or Yesdes. Mr. Buckingham has observed their similarity to one another and to the Hindoo castes.*

* Travels in Mesopotamia, 8vo., Vol. I. p.210.

Page 716

Free Mason is PH-RE—PH the Coptic emphatic article and re the sun, Mason of the sun. Re is roi, rex, rai, ray, whence Ph-aroah. Cleland observes* that the Druids taught the doctrines of an overruling providence, and the immortality of the soul : that they had also their Lent, their Purgatory, their Paradise, their Hell, their Sanctuaries, and the similitude of the May Pole IN FORM TO THE CROSS, &c., &c.

* Cleland's Attempt to revive Celtic Lit. p.102.

Page 719

Speaking of the initiation of Moses by the Egyptian priests, Schiller says,

"These ceremonies were connected with the mysterious images and hieroglyphics, and the hidden truths so carefully concealed under them, and used in their own rites, were all comprised under the name mysteries, such as had been used in the temples of Isis and Serapis, which were the models of the mysteries of Eleusis and Samothrace, and in more modern times gave rise to the order of Freemasnonry."

I doubt not that what Mr. Schiller says is true, with one exception : the mysteries were not the origin of Masonry; they were Masonry itself : for Masonry was a part of them, and every part, except that which my Masonic engagements prevent, I will explain before I finish this work.

Page 723

Free-masonary is known to be founded on principles of universal benevolence, and not to be confined to one class or to one religion. I think I may venture to say it is so constituted, that although it would not refuse to receive a simple Deist, no test being required, yet all its forms, ceremonies, and doctrines, are so constituted, as, in a very particular manner, to be applicable at the same time to the doctrines of Judaism, Christianity, and Mohamedism. Christianity is founded on Judaism : Mohamedism on Christianity. Mohamedism cannot for a moment exist independent of Christianity, nor Christianity independent of Judaism. We have seen the Rosy cross with eight points of the Templars, the cross of Christ, and of Manes, and of Buddha, and the rose of Sharon, symbols of the Templars and of the Rossi-(Rosy)-crucians. I am not of the two latter orders; I have abstained from becoming a member of them, that I might not have my tongue tied or my pen restrained by the engagements I must have made on entering the chapter or encampment. But I have reason to believe that they are now become in a very particular manner what is called exclusively Christian orders, and on this account are thought, by many persons, to be only a bastard kind of masons. But here are two mistakes. They are real masons, and they ought to be of that Christianity or Creestianity, which included Jews, Buddhists, Brahmins, Mohamedans, and which, before I conclude this work, I shall shew, was a sublime and beautiful system—the secret system of the religion often alluded to by the Christian fathers. …

Page 724

I think I have stated enough to raise or justify what the Jesuits would call a probable opinion, that the masonic ceremonies or secrets are descendants of the Eleusenian Mysteries. Every body knows the ridiculous traditionary fancy that a mason is, in some way, marked or branded or mutilated before he can be admitted into the order. I believe this, like most other traditions, had not its origin from nothing. I believe the higher classes of Masons were originally persons who were admitted into the mysteries of Eleusis and Egypt, and that they were Chaldeans and Mathematici, and I believe that what the above tradition of the branding alluded to, was Circumcision, and that they were circumcised. Origen and Clemens Alexandrinus both affirm, that the secret learning of the Egyptians was only taught to such persons as had undergone the operation of circumcision, for which reason it was submitted to by Pythagoras.* The same word in Hebrew means both initiated and circumcised. As infants are admitted into Christianity by baptism, so they were admitted among the initiated by circumcision. …

* Origen, Comment. ad 2 Ep. ad Rom.; Clemens, Lib. i. p.130; Concordia Naturæ et Scripturæ, Caput v.

Page 725

It is certainly worthy of observation that in the Hindostannee, the language of the country in which I believe masonry had its rise, a mason is called a raz, and has the meaning of mystery. This word has the same meaning as the :!9 ras of Genesis, the Arch of St. John. The persons called Royal-Arch Masons were the Archi-tect-onici, before the invention of key-stoned or radiated Arches, the Cyclopæan builders of the only stone edifices, at that time, in the world, which were temples. … The Architectonici, the Chaldæi, the Gnostici, the Mathematici, the Dionisiaci, constituted a MYSTERY, and erected Gothis buildings, the ruins of which now remain in India, thousands of years before they existed in Europe.* …

Page 726

The Masons were the first priests, or a branch from them, and as they were the persons employed to provide every thing requisite for honouring the Gods, the building of temples naturally fell into their hands, and thus priests and masons were identified. This was the first practical attempt at Masonry. Thus the Masons were an order of priests, that is, of initiated. Every initiated person was a priest, though he might not exercise the functions of a priest. Thus they became identified with the most powerful and influential body of society, and though all priests were not Masons, I think that all Masons were priests in one sense, being initiated. I think they were priests originally; and, as was to be expected, they provided good houses for themselves, and, when many of them consisted of Monks, Monasteria. In many instances, from superiority of intellect, the consequence of the constant use of their faculties, they acquired the sovereign power.

Having shewn how the Mohamedan and various sects were connected together, it is now time to unveil the secret doctrine of Mohamed, which will be in a great measure that of them all, and will, I think, easily account for the rapid diffusion of Mohamedism, and for its adoption when first promulgated by the most learned and talented of the Arabian philosophers—a secret doctrine yet found in a state of persecution among the followers of Ali in Persia. … We must never forget that in every thing respecting Mohamedism we labour under the greatest difficulties. The truth is, that its real doctrine is now confined to a persecuted sect, which considers that to unveil its mysteries would be to be guilty of the greatest moral turpitude; and the pretended history, as we have it, has been received from the meanest-minded of devotees, or from zealots so mean in mind too, that if they had been willing to exercise any thing like criticism they were incapable of it. …

It is well known that almost immediately on the death of Mohamed his followers divided into two sects, that of Abubeker, and that of Ali, the latter of whom had the twelve Imaums—hi successors—the same in number as the apostles of Christ and as the twelve Cæsars. The faith of the latter of these sects became and still continues the religion of Persia. This I have no doubt was the original or rather, perhaps, contained the original esoteric religion of Mohamed, which is yet to be found in the sect of the Sofees as they are called by Sir John Malcolm, in his History of Persia. These are followers of the ancient SoFoi, one of whom was Mo-amed, that is, Mo or Om, the illustrious or desire of all nations. The Sophoi or Sofees are allowed by the vulgar or present orthodox Persian writers* to have descended from the ancient Sabæans and to have been contemporaneous with the prophet, that is to say, they find them and their doctrines to have co-existed with him from his first appearance or from the beginning of his empire, but they know not how or why. Sir John judiciously observes, that "their rapturous zeal, perhaps, aided, in no slight degree, its first establishment."** I have no doubt that it did. But this acknowledgement conveys along with it the admission of the fact, that Mohamed was a Sofee, and his secret religion Sopheism. Sir John then adds, that they have been since considered as its most dangerous enemies. … Sopheism, the secret doctrine, might have become too common; it was necessary to put it down—to keep the people in ignorance. This is what the Popes did with Gnosticism—prohibit it publicly, hold it secret. …

* Sir John Malcolm's History of Persia, Ch. xx. ** Chap. xx. p.266

Page 727

The word Soph, in Persian, has the meaning of wool, and therefore some persons have thought the doctrines of Sopheism were named from it—overlooking what I should have thought could not be missed, the word SoFia wisdom, from which no doubt it took its name. We are also told by Sir John Malcolm that these people had a very remarkable name, that of Philosaufs, that is, philosophers.

The sovereigns of Persia have the titles of Sophi and Shah. The first explains itself; the second means, protector, preserver, saviour, from the Hebrew word 3:* iso, to save. …

Page 728

He says* [Sir John Malcom]… "The Mahomedan Soofees have endeavoured to connect their mystic faith with the doctrine of their prophet, who, they assert, was himself an accomplished Sofee. The Persian followers of this sect deem Ali, his sons, and all the twelve Imaums, teachers of Sofeeism;** and they claim as followers of their sect almost all the great men of the world."*** …

* P. 279. ** P. 276. *** P. 278.

… Again he says, " The Sofees represent themselves as devoted to the search of truth, and incessantly occupied in adoring the Almighty, an union with whom they desire with all the fervour of divine love. The Creator, according to their belief, is diffused over all his creation. He exists every where and in every thing. They compare the emanations of his essence or spirit to the rays of the sun, which, they conceive, are continually darted forth and reabsorbed, and they believe that the soul of man, and the principle of life which exists throughout all nature, are not from God, but of God."* Here is certainly the Gnostic doctrine of emanations which I have in part explained, and of which I shall have much to say hereafter.

* Ibid. p.269.

Page 729

The Sofees are divided at this day into many sects, and, in their four stages, they have a species of Masonic or Eleusinian initiation from lower to higher degrees. …

Page 730

On the Sofees Sir William Jones says, "I will only detain you with a few remarks on that metaphysical theology which has been professed immemorially by a numerous sect of Persians and Hindus, was carried in part into Greece, and prevails even now among the learned Musselmans, who sometimes avow it without reserve. The modern philosophers of this persuasion are called Sufis, either from the Greek word for a sage, or from the wollen mantle which they used to wear in some provinces of Persia : their fundamental tenets are, that nothing exists absolutely but God; that the human soul is an emanation from his essence, and though divided for a time from its heavenly source, will be finally reunited with it : that the highest possible happiness will arise from its reunion : that the chief good of mankind in this transitory world, consists in as perfect an union with the Eternal Spirit as the encumbrances of a mortal frame will allow : that for this purpose they should break all connexion (or taalluk, as they call it*) with extrinsic objects, and pass through life without attachments, as a swimmer in the ocean strikes freely without the impediment of clothes, that they should be straight and free as the cypress, whose fruit is hardly perceptible, and not sunk under a load, like fruit-trees attached to a trellis : that if mere earthly charms have power to influence the soul, the ideal of celestial beauty must overwhelm it in ecstatic delight : that for want of apt words to express the Divine perfections and the adour of devotion, we must borrow such expressions as approach the nearest to our ideas, and speak of beauty and love in a transcendent and mystical sense : that, like a reed torn from its native bank, like wax separated from its delicious honey, the son of man bewails its disunion with melancholic music, and sheds burning tears, like the lighted taper waiting passionately for the moment of its extinction, as a disengagement from earthly trammels, and the means of returning to its only beloved. Such in part (for I omit the minuter and more subtil metaphysics of the Sufis which are mentioned in the Dabistan) is the wild and enthusiastic religion of the modern Persian poets, especially of the sweet Hafiz and the great Maulavi : such is the system of the Vedanti philosophers and best Lyric poets of India—a system of the highest antiquity both in Persia and India."** We must not forget that the above is the figurative description of the poets, the real doctrines of the Sofees are a profound secret, untold by Hafiz or Maulavi, and only very partially known, by guesses or inference, by Jones. But enough transpires to shew the nature of the real uncorrupted system.

* That is, hold no conversation, no talk. G. H. ** Asiat. Res. Vol. II. pp. 62, 63.

Page 733

… I think when, in the latter part of this book, my reader shall have seen the whole development of the ancient doctrine of Wisdom, he will no longer be at a loss for a reason why Mohamedism prevailed in the seventh century over the base Christianism which was then taught to the vulgar by its priests.

… there is one fine work come down to us, extremely beautiful, the simplicity of which is in perfect keeping with the contemplative icon of divine wisdom, called Buddha; with the simplicity of the circular temples of Stonehenge, Dipaldenha, and the Pyramids; with the simplicity of the doctrine of the Trimurti, and the renewal of Cycles, &c., &c., &c.; and that is the work called the Fables of Æsop or Lockman.*

* See Univ. Hist. Vol. XVIII. p.401; see also D'Herbelot, in the article Lokman; Nimrod, II. p.660.

Page 734

He is said to have lived in the time of Heber, of David, and of Solomon : and to have been a Jew, that is, of the tribe of Ioudi or Judah. He is claimed by the Greeks, the Jews, the Arabians, the Persians, the Ethiopians, and the Indians. Much has been written about him. I believe the fables of Æsop are the fables of the SoFia and of Lockman, of L'hkm, .,(- lhkm, the wise. His residence, if he ever lived, probably was in Oudia. The nations are all right, because they are the fables of Wisdom, and they all had the doctrine of Wisdom. In Arabia there was a tribe of Lochmians whose general name was Mondar.* They were descended from Lakhm, the son of Am-ru, the son of Saba. Their kingdom lasted 600 years. The words Lochman, Mondar, Lakhm, Am-ru, Saba, and their 600-year kingdom, can want no explanation for any person who has read this book. They evidently bespeak the universal mythos.

* Univ. Hist. Vol. XVIII. p.429.


London, November 12, 1832.





Page 735

We will now return to the tribe of Afghans, of whom we noticed many circumstances in the 4th, 5th, and 6th chapters of the Eighth Book. And in which pretty good proof was given that they were the ancestors of the Jews. The author of the Cambridge Key, whose authority cannot be disputed for such a fact as this, says expressly, that the Vedas, in the Sanscrit, are now believed both by Persians and Hindoos, to have been originally written in a CELESTIAL language, long since extinct.* By this celestial language the Pali is not meant, for reasons which it is unnecessary to explain, and also because it is not extinct or lost. Then what language was it so likely to be, as the old Hebrew language of the tribe of Ioudi or Yud, or Western Oude, whose Samaritan nail-headed characters Dr. Hagar traced from India, and from which the Sanscrit letters descended ? …

* Vol. I. p.261, Vol. II. pp. 128, 129.

Page 736

… According to Dr. Babington and the late Mr. Ellis, it is a language not derived from the Sanscrit, but of independent origin. Wilson says, "It is not derived from any language at present in existence, and is itself either the parent of the Teluga, MALAYA-lam, and Canarese languages, or what is more probable, has its origin in common with these in some ancient tongue, which is now lost or only partially preserved in its offspring." Again, in another place, he makes an observation of the very first importance to all my theories, as follows : "The higher dialect of the Tamul, on the contrary, is almost entirely free from Sanscrit words and idioms, and the language retains an alphabet which tradition affirms to have heretofore consisted of but sixteen letters, and which so far from resembling the very perfect alphabet of the Sanscrit, wants nearly half its characters, and has several letters of peculiar power." … But I say it is not at all extraordinary, if the Tamul be either the sixteen-letter Hebrew or its first descendant, one of which I have no doubt that it is.

Page 738

… It seems extremely probable that the old Hebrew was the common centre from which the Tamul, the Afghan, and the Western Syriac diverged. It must also be remembered, that neither the Synagogue Hebrew nor the Samaritan is the original language, because it is written in twenty-two—not sixteen letters. …

The word Tam-ul itself is nothing but the Hebrew L-tam, or the Syriac Ol-tam, the language of the, or the country of the, Twins; of which I shall say more presently.

Page 740

… I know of no written language which exhibits such marks of rudeness and simplicity as the Synagogue Hebrew or Chaldee, and on this account has such a claim to antiquity. Probably the first language and letter of the Culdees or Chaldei or Chaldeans, when they came from India, was the Samaritan. In the thousand years which passed between the time of Abraham and the return of the tribe from Babylon, the Chaldees of the East had improved the present Chaldee letter, which Ezra adopted. The discovery of the Chaldee or Syro-Chaldee language yet in India, is, when well considered, almost a proof of the truth of my theory. …

The natives of Cashmere as well as those of Afghanistan, pretending to be descended from the Jews, give pedigrees of their kings reigning in their present country up to the sun and moon : and along with this, they shew you Temples still standing, built by Solomon, statues of Noah, and other Jewish patriarchs. Concerning these matters, when our travellers are told of the descent from the Jews they make no inquiry; at the same time they are occasionally obliged to allow, that the descent form the Jews is, for many reasons, totally incredible. Then how is this to be explained ? Simply by the fact, that the traditions of the Afghans tell them, that they are descended from the tribe of Ioudi or Yuda : and in this they are right; for it is the tribe of Joudi noticed by Eusebius to have existed before the Son of Jacob in Western Syria was born, the Joudi of Oude, and from which tribe the Western Jews with the Brahmin (Abraham) descended and migrated. … How extraordinary that it should never occur to this writer to inquire, how these subjects of Solomon and Saul should live near the temple of Solomon in Cashmere, or the mountains of Solomon in Mewar or Malwa ! In the fragments xxxiv. xxxv., Calmet's editor shews, that a great part of the Jewish history of Samuel, Saul, David, and Solomon, is to be found in the history of the Afghans. From this I have been led to a suspicion, that the reason for the monstrous numbers of soldiers, chariots, horses, &c., of which we read in the Bible, applied not to Western, but to Eastern, Judea; and the same of the gold used in the temple. All this, as applied to Western Syria, is ridiculous; but not so as applied to the state and the enormous city of Oudia of India.

Page 741

In Dr. Dorn's History of the Afghans* is an account of an embassy sent by one of the first Caliphs to the Afghans, to inform them that the last of the prophets had come, and to solicit them to turn Mohamedans. If we consider that the originals of the Jews were found in their country, and that it was called Arabia, there seems nothing improbable in this, or that this should be the reason why these mountaineers should have been among Mohamed's first proselytes. If we suppose that the Arabians in the time of Mohamed were acquainted with their descent from the Afghans, and that the latter were expecting a new incarnation to arrive, this does not seem very unlikely to have happened.

* P. 37.

Page 742

We find at three of the temples of Solomon—that in Upper India, that which I suppose to have been Salem, in the Carnatic, and that in Western Syria, the same mythos of a Moses or Saviour (for the word Moses means Saviour). From this I think it probable that it was the same or nearly the same in the secret writings in every one of the fourteen temples of Solumi of which we have read, for fragments of this mythos are to be found every where.

… Let us reflect a little on the consequences which would arise among mankind, if, as I suppose, one original language pervaded the whole world. It seems the natural course that when colonies went out into different countries, if their language were in comparatively-speaking a rude and unimproved state, they should take their language poor and rude, and that after they were settled, and began to get rich, and to become civilized, they should improve it. And in this manner cases, genders, numbers, would come to be formed in all languages, but the means by which they would be formed would vary. … Though the variations are considerable, yet the similarity among most nations is so great, that it can in no other way be accounted for than by supposing that the use of the same system of letters prevailed among them all in very early times. … But what would have taken place if the art of writing were at first secret and confined to one order, which extended over all the world, and that it became known by degrees as all secrets of this kind of such great importance to mankind in long periods will certainly do ? This is the theory which seem to me to be the most rational and probable, which I have been able to devise, to account for many anomalies. This fact and the supposal of a constant wish to conceal doctrines against their natural tendency to obtain publicly or to become public, will, I think, remove every difficulty with which the subject has been encumbered. I believe the art of writing was at first strictly magical and masonic, and many of the anomalies which we meet with may be accounted for by the unskilful and awkward attempts of its possessors to keep it so, or to restore it to secrecy after it had become partly known. In India, to divide themselves from the Tamulese and Buddhists, the Sanscrit was probably invented by the Brahmins. Every one knows that this language was solely confined to their order for many generations. From this view of the subject we see why we have, in great numbers of instances, the same words for the same things, in countries the most remote. … The universal prevalency of the sixteen-letter system almost of itself shews, that all the written languages ought to be considered but merely as dialects of one original.

Page 743

In the history of languages there is a circumstance which is well known, but which has not received the attention which it merits, and this is the universal diffusion of that of the Arabians. This language (of course with some dialectic variations) is found to be in use by the nomade tribes throughout all Africa and a very great part of Asia. We know that is actually traceable back to Job and thus to the Hebrew. My reader cannot, I think, have forgotten the great number of cases in which different authors have stated that some dialect of the old Hebrew was found. This old Hebrew is but, in other words, Arabic; and this accounts for traces of this language where Mohamedan Saracens never had any power. It is found, I believe, in the Polynesian islands among people never conquered by the Saracens and not professing the Mohamedan faith, and among the idolaters of the interior part of Africa. … As it deviated from the first original, nations became separated. Of course this separation would be aided by other causes. But the separation again tended to confound the languages. So far the allegory of Genesis is very clear. The confusion of languages caused the separation of mankind. …

Page 745

I cannot have a doubt that a real Hierarchy, like that in Rome and in Tibet, at one time extended over the whole world. … But at all events the :!9 Ras or Wisdom and the Trimurti were the foundations of it. Every new cycle, a renewed incarnation of divine wisdom took place,—one of the Trimurti became incarnate, was born sans souillure, after ten months,—was attempted to be killed, but miraculously escaped,—spent a life doing good to mankind,—was ultimately put to death, and the third day rose again to life and immortality : of all which, I shall say much more by and by.

I will now point out a circumstance not a little curious. I need not repeat, but I beg my reader to recollect, what has lately been stated respecting the Manichæans having come from India, their connexion with the Christians of St. Thomas on the coast of Malabar, who are found every where about Goa, and also respecting the Crhjianoi and Chryson, &c., in that country : and then, if he will look into my CELTIC DRUIDS, in Chap. III. Sect. V., he will find that the Manichæans were connected, by means of their name of Pattarini, with the people of Baieux or Baiocassæ, in Gaul, and the worship of Bel or Bal.

On the coast of Malabar, about Goa, there exists a race of people called by the natives Bhoees. They are Hindoos and refuse to eat the flesh of the Beeve, &c., &c.; but still they are called Christians. I learnt from a medical gentleman, who dwelt long on the coast of Malabar, that they are divided into two classes by the natives; one class, consisting of modern Portuguese converts, are called Christians; the other, those who resided there before the Portuguese came, are called Crestons or Cræstons. … The distinction made by the natives clearly marks and distinguishes the old Christianity from the new, in spite of all the unceasing, though not ill-intentioned, attempts of the missionaries, both Portuguese and English to confound them. The Crestons were the Christians of the three sacraments, the Culdees or Chaldees of Scotland and Ireland in fact, as distinguished from the Christians of the seven, introduced by the Portuguese. Here we have really the ancient Brahmin (flesh-refusing) followers of the cfhj—of the secret, unwritten religion of all nations; …

Page 746

In these Bhoees, Boicassæ, and Pettyeyah or Pattarini, I think we have the origin, or a colony, of the Manichæans, followers of Menu in Gaul.*

* The father of Cristna or Kanyia, Yadu, had a son called Druhya, from whom descended a tribe. I cannot help suspecting that in this tribe we may have the origin of the Druids. Cambridge Key, Vol. I. p.145.

… These Baieux or Bhoiæ we find on the sea-coast, and it is very remarkable that these persons or this caste, among whom we find the Manichæans and the St. Thomé Christians, are a tribe of fisherman. It is impossible to forget that the first Christians were most of them fisherman; and the Pope calls himself a fisherman. …

Page 751

It appears to me that soon after the entrance of the sun into Aries, according to Brahmin time, a calculation backwards to the entrance of the sun into the equinoctial Taurus must have taken place, to settle the calculation of the cycles, which gave them three cycles and the 360 years or life of Enoch before the flood, in all the 2160 years, as I have formerly shewn. I never suspected that it was possible to carry this back any farther, and I thought that the equinoctial Taurus was the beginning of the mythos. But the circumstances which my reader has lately seen, and some others which I will now point out, have induced me to believe, that I can perceive a glimmering of light a little more remote in the back ground. …

Page 752

We all know that the retrogradation of the sun through the Twins or Gemini, if the signs in the Zodiac were then invented, must have preceded the Bull, Taurus, and that all the common visible appearances of the heavens, must have taken place while it was passing through the sign of Gemini as those which followed under Taurus; it will not, therefore, be any matter of surprise if some remnants of this superstition be found.

We have seen that Adonis was the Sun. We have seen that he was Thamus, or Tamus, or Tamas. This is the Hebrew .!( tam, which means to connect, to cohere, to embrace, as twins in the womb : as a noun .*&!9 taumin, twins—and sometimes .*/&( tumin without the letter ! a, which makes it tumin. Parkhurst* says, "Hence the proper name Thomas which was interpreted Didumoj, or the twin, by St. John, ch. xi. 16, et al." …

* In voce .!(, p.782.

Page 755

Plato tells us,* that Thammuz was king of Egypt, before Thoth, who taught him letters. Here are the twins preceding Buddha or Mercury** or the Bull. And the inhabitants of Egypt are said to have descended from Thammuz. Eutychius says, that the first city was built by Noah, who called it Thamanim.*** This is most important; I shall return to it hereafter. Indeed, in every part of the world, the remains of the worship of Tam may be found.

* Vol. X. pp. 379, 380, Bipont. ** Nimrod, Vol. II. p.475. *** Ib. Vol. I. p.230.

Tahmuras taught letters to the Persians.*

* Ouseley's Coll. Orient. Vol. I. p.113.

The Egyptians had certain secret books, called those of Ammon. … Here we have the Apocrypha of Ammon and Thebes. …

The Jewish Bible contains several very fine works called Apocryphal or doubtful, and of no authority, by Paulite Christians, who fancy themselves reformed. This is because they, in a very particular manner, teach the doctrines of Wisdom or the Cabala, which was heresy to the vulgar Jews and Paulites. It is very extraordinary to see all our scholars admitting, without thought, that Apocrypha means spurious or doubtful, overlooking the real meaning, which is, secret doctrine. I am quite certain that no person can look into the Apocrypha, after having read this work, and not see that most of the books are ænigmatical depositories of the secret doctrine of wisdom. The Athenians had a prophetic and mysterious book called the Testament, which they did not permit to be seen, nor even be named or written about; but it is alluded to in the speech of Dinarchus against Demosthenes.* the Romans, I believe, and, in fact, every nation had its Apocrypha.

* Spineto's Lectures, p.122.

Page 760

I many Roman temples in Italy there were figures of two young men seated, armed with pikes, said to be Penates and Dioscuri; but, in fact, they were totally unknown : they were probably Dii Obscuri, Tamuses.* They were said to have come from Troy, whence every thing unknown was said to have come. I think they must have been either Gemini or Pisces.

* Creuzer, Vol. II. Liv. V. Ch. ii. p.416.

Creuzer says, a king of Italy, called Camises, Camese, and Camasenus, married his sister; and adds, that Camaséné was une déesse ou femme poisson comme Atergatis. In fact, Camaséné signifies, in old Greek, the Fishes.* I think it is impossible to doubt that we have here in Italy and Greece the Indian Cama; and, if in this I am right, as the Sun entered Piscis 350 years before Christ, it is quite clear that the communication between the countries must have been intimate, even up to that very late date; so that after this time the Sanscrit may have gone from one to the other. In India we have Comari, and the Cape of Comari or Comarin, near the tomb of Tamas; but Kumari means the Virgin, and the Cama-deva is the God of love. As divine love, Cama would belong to every incarnation : thus the Twins in India were Cama, and the Fishes in Italy were the same. Camasenus came at length to mean fishes from its being an epithet of the constellation. It was probably Cama-isi, with the Latin termination. Cama is Cupid, Cama-deva God-Cupid or divine love; then Camaséné will mean the sign Pisces, the emblem of divine love, the Saviour. In the sphere, the Virgin and Child constitute one sign, and form together Cama Deva. I suspect the forgotten mythos of Tam or the Di-oscuri, was made applicable to Pisces.

* Vol. II. Liv. v. Ch. iii. p.440.

Page 761

I now beg to recall to my reader's recollection, that we found Culdees both in Ireland and Scotland, and, as appears in the fifth Chapter of the CELTIC DRUIDS, a great number of the Gods of India. These are so marked, that they leave no room for doubt as to the identity of the two. Now, when this is considered, it will not be thought surprising that the doctrines of the inhabitants or the Culdees, of the Colida of Comorin, should be identical with those of the Culdees of Scotland, the fact is, the three sacraments, of what are called the Christians of St. Thomas, and of the Scottish Culdees, and of the Jews, viz. Orders, Baptism, and the Eucharist, are identical. When Christianity first came to Britain is not pretended to be known; it is only admitted that it was found here by the Romish missionaries. I suspect the Christianity of the Culdees of Ireland and of Scotland was the Crhsen of Malabar; in the same way the Hindoo Gods were brought to Ireland, where they are now found—a fact which cannot be disputed.

Page 763

And now I think we may see that there are yet some real surviving remains of the mythos of Gemini or the Twins, as well as of the three posterior constellations in the precessional cycle. When I consider the drawings of the Gemini and the Pisces tied together by the tails, and the construction put on the passage of Genesis, that Adam and Ever were one, I have been induced to suspect that the Gemini were like the Siamese boys : the drawings are exactly like them. …




Page 767

I shall not trouble my reader at present with any more observations respecting St. Thomas. I think I have shewn pretty clearly how his history arose. It furnishes a beautiful example of the way in which religions are raised by an union of weakness and roguery.

After I had, from various sources and by various means, added to reasoning, nearly arrived at a conviction, that the ancient order of Freemasons arose in India, and was established there, as a mystery, in the earliest periods, my conviction acquired wonderful strength from a knowledge of a fact which I shall now mention. I shall be censured for stating facts in this way; but I write truly and for the truth, and for this purpose alone. The style or order in such a work as this is not worth naming. At the time that I learned from Captain —, the gentleman who was named in my last Chapter, the particulars respecting the tomb of St. Thomas, I was also told by him that he was in the strictest intimacy with the late — Ellis, Esq., of the Madras establishment; that Mr. Ellis told him, that the pass-word and forms used by the Master Masons in their lodge, would pass a person into the sanctum sanctorum of an Indian temple; that he, Mr. Ellis, had, by means of his knowledge as a Master Mason, actually passed himself into the sacred part or adytum of one of them. Soon after Mr. Ellis told this to my informant he was taken suddenly ill, and died, and my informant stated, that he had no doubt, notwithstanding the mistake which his friends call it in giving some medecine, that he was poisoned by his servants for having done this very act, or for being known to possess this knowledge. Now, when this is coupled with the fact of the Masonic emblems found on the Cyclopean ruins of Agra and Mundore, I think, without fear of contradiction, I may venture to assume, that the oriental origin of Free-masonry cannot be disputed—and that I may reason upon it accordingly. Every person, at all conversant with inquiries of this kind, knows that our ancient and beautiful cathedrals were built by societies or fraternities of men supposed to be monks from Spain, to which country they are said to have come, along with the Saracens, from the East. These people were monks, but probably all monks were not masons. But the two societies, if separated in some things, were very closely connected in others. They were Culdee or Calidei monks, from Calida. They were Saracens from Surasena, on the Jumna in India.

Page 768

However far back I search into history I always find traces of the Chaldei, and this, not in one country, but all over the old world. I cannot help suspecting that they were correctly Freemasons form India. What I have said in my CELTIC DRUIDS, respecting them, that they were not a people but an order of priests, is confirmed by Diodorus Siculus,* who say, that the Chaldeans held the same rank in Babylon, that the Egyptian priests did in Egypt; that they transmitted their learning from father to son; that they were exempt from all public offices and burdens; that by their constant study of the stars, the learnt to foretell future events; and that they called the planets counselling Gods or Interpreters. Here we come back to my explanation of the first verse of Genesis, of the .*/: smim, or the disposers or placers in order of Parkhurst.

* In Lib. ii. Cap. iii.

Page 769

In another place Diodorus speaks, as a matter of course, of the Chaldeans as a college : "What the Chaldeans (literally the college of Chaldeans) say concerning the multitude of years, which they employed in the contemplation of the universe, no one will believe."* I have little doubt that they were the inventors of figures and letters, and, of course, of astrology; and that this, in many cases at least, conducted them to the possession of sovereign power.

* Lib. i.

To myself the truth of my theories has several times been proved in a manner the relation of which to such persons only as know me, and have a dependance on my integrity, will be of any weight. After I have, from a union of theory and reasoning and doubtful records, concluded, that certain events must have taken place, I have afterward found proofs of another kind, that such events really did happen. The discovery of the Masons at York is an example of what I mean. I concluded that the Culdees of York must have been Masons, and must have held their meetings in the crypt under the Cathedral. I examined the office in London, and I found a document which not only proved what I have said, but shewed that, as might from all circumstances be expected, it was the Grand Lodge of all England which was held there. Naming this to one of the oldest and most learned Masons in England, he told me he knew the fact very well, and that if I went to the Cathedral at York, and examined certain parts which he named, I should find proof of the truth of what I conjectured. From the circumstances, this evidence becomes to me very strong.

I request my reader to think upon the Culidei or Culdees in the crypt of the Cathedral at York and at Ripon, and in Scotland, and in Ireland,—that these Culdees or Chaldeans were Masons, Mathematici, builders of the temple of Abraham's tribe, the temple of Solomon; and, that the country where Mr. Ellis found access to the temple in South India was called Colida and Uria; that the religion of Abraham's descendants was that of Ras; that Masonry in that country is called Raj or Mystery; that we have also found the Colida, and most other matters on the Jumna a thousand miles distant in North India,—and when he has considered all these matters, as it is clear that one must have borrowed from the other, let him determine the question. Did York and Scotland borrow from the Jumna and Carnatic, or the Jumna and Carnatic from them ? In India, there were two kingdoms of Pandæa, one in North India and one in the Carnatic, in each of which all these matters, in both nearly the same, are found.

Page 770

I think I may venture to assume, that I have connected the Masons, the Templars, and the Ishmaelians, and I beg leave to observe that, by means of the red eight-point cross, I connect the Templars also with the Manichæans and the Buddhists of India.

… The truth is, that the religion of the Ras, of Buddha, of Metis, of Sophia, of the Crhjoj, of Bafomet, of Acamoth or the Intelligence Universelle, extended over the whole world, and was the universal esoteric, ancient and modern religion; —the religion of Tibet, of Sion or Siam, of the Monks of the lake of Paremboli, (Embolima of India,) of Dodona or Bodona, of Eleusis, of Ephesus, of Delphi, of Virgil, of the Gnostics, of the Manichæans, and of the Pope—for which reason he very properly calls himself a CATHOLIC, and his religion Catholic or Pantheistic, and his followers Catholics or Pandees, or Saints of Pan-ism or Catholicism.

I beg to repeat to such of my readers as are Royal-Arch Masons, that Solomon was a Ras or wise man, and that a Mason in Rajapoutana is called a Raz, which also means mystery; and now I take the liberty of observing to my brethren, that they are called ROYAL-ARCH MASONS, not because they have anything to do with kings, but because they are Raja-pout-an Masons, as the persons who conquered Egypt were Royal Shepherds or Shepherd Kings, or Raja-pout-an Shepherds, from Pallitana. Pout is Buddha, who is Arch, who is Ras.

If my reader recollect that the Queen of Sheba came from Ethiopia, and that the African Ethiopians, the Royal family at least, pretend to be the descendants of Solomon and this Queen, whose name was Helena, he will not be surprised to find the King of the Ethiopians taking the name of that virtue for which this prince was in a particular manner celebrated—Wisdom. Thus he is called, not the king but the Ras of Abyssinia. Why was Solomon so celebrated for this virtue ? It was no doubt from being the protector, or perhaps the renovator, of the doctrine of the emanation of the Rasit. …

Page 771

In the valley of Cashmere, on a hill close to the lake, are the ruins of a temple of Solomon. The history states that Solomon finding the valley all covered with water except this hill, which was an island, opened the passage in the mountains and let most of it out, thus giving to Cashmere its beautiful plains.* The temple which is built on the hill is called Tucht Suliman. Afterward Forster** says, "Previously to the Mahometan conquest of India, Kashmere was celebrated for the learning of its Brahmins and the magnificent construction of its temple." Now what am I to make of this ? Were these Brahmins Jews, or the Jews Brahmins ? The inadvertent way in which Forster states the fact precludes all idea of deceit.

* Forster's Travels, Vol. II. p.11. ** P. 17.

Page 772

… I apprehend that the temple was a type of the universe, and that all the temples were the same; all parts of the one universal mythos which extended, as is evident, from the same sacred names of places being found every where, to the farthest points of the globe.

… I entertain a persuasion that the Solomonian mythos, which we have found in China, in Cashmere, in Oude, in Persia, in Asia Minor, and in Matura of the Carnatic, as described by Bouchet, in the temple of the Brahmins, with its passage of the sea, &c., &c., were all the same with that of Western Syria; that they all had at the bottom the same recorded transactions; and that this was a part of the secret Jewish religion. …

Page 774

… That the tribe of Juda did exist almost all over the world cannot possibly be denied : the city of Judia in Siam, the mythos at Cape Comorin, the temple of Solomon in Cashmere, the Montes Solumi in Mewar, the great city of Oude or Juda, are facts which prove it, and admit of no dispute.

Page 775

… When I consider the little, obscure, mountain tribe of Jews in Western Syria, and I again contemplate the Judæa in the mighty cities of Agra, Oude, Mundore, &c., I cannot doubt that North India must have been the birth-place of the mythos; and the mistake of all these people in supposing themselves descended from the Jews of the little tribe of Western Syria, is easily accounted for; it is the natural effect of the loss by them of their real history, and of the stories told them by proselyting Christians, that they must have come from Western Syria. To these causes of mistake may be added the account of these people retailed and misrepresented to us by the same Christians, who, from prejudice, overlook important facts, (such, for instance, as that of the existence of an old temple of Solomon in Cashmere,) and who misrepresent others to make them suitable to their own superstitions and creeds. Thus, to believe them, all the Jews or Youdi, scattered in ancient times over the world, and forming great nations, were part of the mountain tribe of Western Syria, which Herodotus did not observe, or, in his search for nations, discover; the capital of which, with its temple, would not now have been in existence, had it not been preserved by Helena and the Christians.

To return to the assertion I have so often made, that the Hebrew is the first language. This assertion I must now qualify, in order to answer a question which will be asked, viz. What I mean by the first language. It is very clear that the Hebrew, when a spoken language, must have changed like all other languages, and must have undergone this change when it advanced from sixteen to twenty-two letters, and this change must have been very considerable. We have formerly seen, from the works of various learned men, that the Afghan language, called Pushto, is very similar to the Chaldee. We have seen the same Pushto very similar to the Tamul. We have seen that the Tamul is very similar to or identical with the Aramean Syriac or Pushto of Western Syria, and that this, which is the dialect of the time of Jesus Christ, is but a dialect of the Chaldee or Hebrew in which the Synagogue Pentateuch is written. All these similarities are as near identities as can be expected, and more than would have been ever discovered, had not the common mythos operated in a direction contrary to the tendency to change—the natural effect of time—united to the circumstance of the recluse Pentateuch in the Jewish temple having been fortuitously preserved. In fact, all the written languages are but dialects of a sixteen-letter language, as Mr. Gilchrist has judiciously observed. …

After much consideration I am induced to believe, that the Sanscrit has been a language artificially formed, by the caste of priests, upon the old language of the country, and, at first, as found in the earliest Veda, in a more rude state than it afterwards arrived at; and that, as long as the Brahmins were in power and prosperity, it kept improving, till it arrived at its present perfection. As they kept copying their Vedas they kept improving the language of them, exactly as we do with our Bibles. We all long keep correcting the antiquated mode of spelling and expression, though keeping to the sense.

Page 776

… In the sixteen-letter Tamul we have a refined language of learning and of learned men, and in the Kaliwakam* we have a work which will not disgrace any learned Brahmin.

* Kali-Hakim, Kali-akim, Kali-ow-akim; evidently the wisdom of Cali or Kali.

The following is an extract from the Kaliwakam.


The zealous study of sciences brings increasing happiness and honour.
From the fifth year of age learning must begin.
The more we learn the more understanding we get.
Spare no expense to learn reading and writing.
Of all the treasures reading and writing are the most valuable.
Learning is really the most durable treasure.
An ignorant man ought to remain dumb.
He who is ignorant of reading and writing is indeed very poor.
Though thou shouldst be very poor learn at least something.
Of each matter endeavour to get a clear knowledge.
The true end of knowledge is to distinguish good and bad.
He who has learned nothing is a confused prattler.
The five syllables Na-ma-si-va-yah* contain a great mystery.
He who is without knowledge is like a blind man.
Cyphering must be learned in youth.
Be not the cause of shame to thy relations.
Fly from all that is low.
One accomplished philosopher is hardly to be met with among thousands.
A wise man will never cease to learn.
If all should be lost, what we have learned will not be lost.
He who loves instruction will never perish.
A wise man is like a supporting hand.
He who has attained learning by free self-application excels other philosophers.
Continue always in learning, though thou should do it at a great expense.
Enjoy always the company of wise men.
He who has learned most is most worthy of honour.
What we have learned in youth is like a writing cut in stone.
False speaking causes infinite quarrels.
He who studies sophistry and deceit, turns out a wicked man.
Science is an ornament wherever we come.
He who converses with the wicked perishes with them.
Honour a moral master.
He who knoweth himself, is the wisest.
What thou hast learned teach also to others.
If one knows what sin is, he becomes wise.
Well-principled wise men approach the perfection of the Divinity.
Begin thy learning in the name of the DIVINE SON. (Pulleyar.)
Endeavour to be respected among men of learning.
All perishes except learning.
Though one is of low birth, learning will make him respected.
Religious wise men enjoy great happiness.
Wisdom is firm-grounded, even on the great ocean.
Without wisdom there is no ground to stand on.
Learning becomes old age.
Wise men will never offend any by speaking.
Behave politely to men of learning.
The unwise only flatter others.
Wisdom is the greatest treasure on earth.
The wiser, the more respected.
Learning gives great fame.
Wise men are as good as kings.
Do not deceive even thine own enemy.
In whom is much science, in him is great value.
He that knows the sciences of the ancients, is the greatest philosopher.
Truth is in learning the best.
Wise men are exalted above all others.
In proportion as one increases in learning he ought to increase in virtue.
The most prosperous good is the increase in learning.
Wisdom is a treasure valued everywhere.
The Veda teaches wisdom.
Speak and write for the public good.
If knowledge has a proper influence on the mind it makes us virtuous.**

* This is the Roman Nama Sebadia, often found on the Mithraitic monuments in Italy. I think this cannot be doubted; and it connects the Italian and Indian mythoses together beautifully.

** Asiat. Transactions, Vol. VII. p.357.

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… I have PROVED in my Celtic Druids, that at the time when the colonies came from the Indus, they each had sixteen letters only, and the same sixteen. In this alphabet the names of the Indian Gods are found, and the names of places and Gods in Greece and Italy,—Saturnia, Pallatini, &c., &c., and, in the names of the Indian Gods, the names of the God of the Hebrews, and of Syria—Jah, Adoni, Taurus, &c.

When the Chaldean tribe of Yuda, or tribe of Crestons, with its Kan-ya, or Crhsen, or IE, or Cristna, came, under its Brahmin, from Uri-ana of Colida or Chaldea to Creston and Sindus or Thrace, (bringing its custom of sacrificing widows,) and Creston or Corton of Italy, and mount Meru, or Sion, or Solyma of Syria, and the other Solymas, about 2500 or 3000 years before Christ, it brought the sixteen letters of Cadmus or the East with it; perhaps the sixteen letters of the Tamul. Its mythos of Meru, and its Arga, and its cycles of returning Saviours, Buddhas, or Cristnas, put to death and raised from the dead, &c., &c., were renewed and located under every distinct, independently-formed government. Thus we find traces of these things with the cyclar temples of Stonehenge, &c., &c., every where. Every nation had its Meru, Moriah, &c., &c. and the tribe of the Jews, where it differs from the others, differs in consequence of having had a great iconoclastic leader to legislate for it, in a particular manner, different from the others.

Page 779

I shall now proceed to make some observations on the sacred numbers of the ancients, which will not only confirm what has been said in several instances, but be of service in our future researches.

Before I make any observations on the sacred numbers of the Jews, I must observe, that generally, where seventy are named, seventy-two are meant. This is most important—for, without it, we shall lose half the proofs of the mythos. …

Bishop Walton, in his treatise on Hebraisms,* says "The Hebrews are accustomed to use round numbers, and neglect the two or three units which exceed them in certain cases. They say, for example, the Seventy Interpreters, and the Council of Seventy, although the number in each case was seventy-two; and in the book of Judges we read, that Abimelech killed seventy of the children of Jerobaal, although he had but sixty-eight."

* Sect. xiii.

Page 780

Every one has heard of the famous Septuagint, usually written LXX; but the story is, that the translation was made by seventy-two men, six of each tribe, though it is called the Seventy; that to these men seventy-two questions were put, and they finished their work in seventy-two days.

Page 781

These sacred numbers, every where the same, clearly prove an esoteric religion—an oriental allegory. The fact cannot be doubted. Jesus, the God of Peace, sent out his twelve apostles to preach his gospel. The God Iao, the Sun, had the year divided into twelve months, into twelve signs, through which, in his annual course, he passed. The year was divided by the ancient Magi into two hemispheres of light and darkness, of six months each; during one period, the genius of good and light prevailed, during the other, the genius of darkness or evil. Each month or part was divided into twelve parts, and this multiplied by six, gives seventy-two, the number of disciples sent out by Jesus. This number is the root of almost all the ancient cycles or periods of the Chinese, Hindoos, Egyptians, Magi, &c.; multiplied by six, it gives 432, &c. See Drummond. …

The mystical numbers used in the religions of the sun, are constantly found in the religion of Jesus. The number of the twelve apostles, which formed the retinue of Jesus during his mission, is that of the signs, and of the secondary genii, the tutelar gods of the Zodiacal signs which the sun passes through in his annual revolution. It is that of the twelve gods of the Romans, each of whom presided over a month. The Greeks, the Persians, each had their twelve gods, as the Christian followers of Mithra had their twelve apostles. The chief of the Genii of the annual revolution had the barque and the keys of time, the same as the chief of the secondary gods of the Romans or Janus, after whom St. Peter, Bar-Jona, with his barque and keys, is modelled. At the foot of the statue of Janus were placed twelve altars, dedicated to the twelve months. As Janus was the chief of the twelve lesser gods, Peter was the chief of the apostles; and, as I have said in Book X. Chap. IV., as Janus held the keys of heaven, so does Peter. The Valentinians supposed that Christ commenced his mission at thirty years of age, because it was the number of degrees in a sign of the Zodiac, and that he was crucified in the twelfth month; so that his career had one year, like that of the sun in the Twelve Labours of Hercules. It is very evident that the Valentinians considered Jesus as a Ray or Emanation from the Sun, and that he formed a microcosm of the solar orb, each being a microcosm of a superior being. The Romists evidently do the same in their annual scenic representation of the acts of the Saviour's life.

Page 782

… Clemens Alexandrinus, on the oriental doctrine, says, that the Valentinian Theodotus maintained that the twelve apostles held, in the church, the same place that the signs of the Zodiac held in nature; because, as the twelve constellations govern the world of generation, the twelve apostles govern the world of regeneration. In Dupuis many other striking circumstances relating to the number twelve may be seen.

Why did Jesus choose twelve apostles and seventy-two disciples ? Why did seventy-two men come from Medina to Mohamed; and why did he retain with him twelve as his apostles ? Why does the college of Cardinals consist of seventy-two persons ? Why did Ptolemy take seventy-two men to translate the Pentateuch ? All accident, as usual ?

The Persians had twelve angels who presided over the twelve months. He who presided over the first month was called the treasurer of Paradise.* Probably, like Peter and Janus, he carried the keys.

* Hyde, p.240.

The Gentiles had precisely the same astrological mythos as the Jews and Christians. The commanders of the Greeks against Troy, …were seventy-two.* Osiris was killed by seventy-two conspirators.** … Proofs, which cannot be impeached, of the astrological character of the temple and its sacred numbers, may be seen in Josephus.***

* Nimrod, Vol. II. p.453. ** Plut. de Isid. et Osir. P.356.

*** Ant. B. iii. Ch. vi. Sect. 7, and Ch. vii. Sect. 7, ed. Whiston.

The number seven is equally a sacred number in the Gentile religion as in the Christian. The number of planets has been copied in the Christian religion in the seven sacraments, seven deadly sins, seven gifts of the holy spirit.*

*Dupuis, Vol. III. p.47.

From the number of the days of the least of the cycles, seven, being identical with the number of the planetary bodies, it can never be known with a certainty when one is alluded to separately from the other. But the constant recurrence of the numbers connected intimately with the decans, dodecans, &c., 7, 12, 72, 360, 432, &c., into which the sphere was divided, sufficiently prove their intimate connexion. …

Page 783

In Ireland, at Wicklow, we meet with seven churches; and again, near Athlone, with seven more. Seven churches are described in the Apocalypse to have existed in Asia Minor, to whom angels or messengers were sent; but the church at Thyatira is said to have existed only in name : and in the Peninsula of India, about thirty-eight miles south of Madras, at a place called Maha-balipoorum or the city of the great Bali, is a collection of ruins, usually called the seven Pagodas. …

There are seven sephiroths, of rank inferior to the first three, answering to the seven planets. There are seven gates of the soul; there are seven gates employed in the creation; there are seven sabbaths from the Passover to the Pentecost; and seven times seven sabbaths for the year of Jubilee; lastly, the seventh Millenium will be the grand sabbath.*

* Basnage, Hist. Jud. Liv. iii. Ch. xi. p.190.

… Every where the sacred numbers, that is, judicial astrology, is to be found. The seven gates of Thebes were erected, as stated by Nonnus, according to the number and order of the seven planets.* Respecting the identity of the sacred numbers among Jews, Gentiles, and Christians, enough has been said; but many additional examples might be adduced if it were necessary.

* Dionys. Lib. v.; Clarke's Travels, Vol. iv. p.66, 4to.

The reputed books of Solomon, such as Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus, are full of allusions to the doctrines of wisdom. A person who has read the preceding part of this work will perceive, in a moment, that they use the word wisdom as referring to an unexplained or mystical doctrine in almost every page. This was, to the doctrine of the Cabala, to the doctrine of the Emanation, of the Sephiroth, which the present Jews call the ten emanations, which are evidently, on the slightest inspection, nonsense—NONSENSE designed originally to mislead; but, perhaps, latterly believed by the ignorant. Sephiroth is ;&95. sprut, and may mean ten attributes or qualities, but it also means the doctrine of the ten sacred numbers or cycles of India, or of Virgil. 95. spr is to cipher, or count, or calculate; and ;&95. Sprut is the feminine plural of 95. spr, and means the calculations or calculated periods. It also means a symbolical or hieroglyphical or emblematical writing.* This actually conveys the meaning of the ten mythic or emblematical names. … The text of Isaiah, if correctly translated, means, that above the throne stood winged serpents; for seraph, translated, is serpent. It is only written, in our translation, in the Hebrew word seraph to disguise the word serpent, which our priests did not like. I need only remind my reader that the serpent is an emblem of a cycle or circle. Serpents are constantly seen on the Egyptian monuments, as described by Isaiah; but with wings, and, In India, overshadowing the icons of Cristna or Buddha, in number three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine, according to the number of cycles, of which the being he was protecting, was the genius.

* Parkhurst in voce, 95. spr, IV.

Page 784

The word Cherub originally meant, and yet sometimes means, serpent, but this is only because its general meaning is emblem or emblematical figure. It is a compound word, formed of 9, kr, circle, and "&! aub, serpent : in short, a circled or circular serpent or serpent with its tail in its mouth—"&9, krub. It was probably the first sacred emblem ever used, whence all such emblematical figures came to be called Cherubs; and this accounts for learned men having made them out to be of many different figures.

The ten Jewish Sephiroth were the ten cycles, and, in honour of the Trinity, the first was called 9;, ktr Corona, the second %/,( hkme Sapientia, and the third %1*" bine Intelligentia—Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. The first three were also the Trinitarian Sol—the Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer—and the other seven might be the earth, moon, planets, the host of Heaven, forming altogether the Ever-happy Octoade of the Gnostics : the whole forming the Pan, or system of the Pan-deva, holy Pan; not the to Pan, the Pan of the universe,—but the Pan of our system only. …

Page 785

… The fourth verse of the Revelation or Apocalypse of John, which speaks of him that was, that is, and that is to come, alludes to the Solar triune God, and to the seven cycles, as the author of the Cabala Denudata says; but it also alludes to the same Trinity, and to the seven planets or spirits which stand before the Sun, the throne of God. …

I must now make an observation of importance respecting the word !9" bra, of the first verse of Genesis. We have hitherto adopted the common reading created or formed; but I apprehend the word !9" bra or 9" br has the meaning exclusively neither of creating from nothing, nor of the first forming, or giving the first or the then new form to matter, but a renewal of form; that it means renovare,* regenerare. This is exactly what it ought to be, if I be right, that the first book of Genesis is a Buddhist work. It will then mean, By Wisdom Aleim renovated, regenerated, or renewed the planetary bodies, and the earth. And the earth was ungerminated—not impregnated, unprolific—and without any beautiful (animal or vegetable) form. That is, it was the Iluj or Mud of Sanchoniathon.

* Parkhurst in voce !9" bra, IV.

Page 786

Wisdom was one of the persons of the first triple Æon, and the translation of the word ;*:!9 rasit, by the phrase wisdom, was universally recognized by the early Christians, not, as my expression would induce a person to believe, by a few only; but it was, with one trifling exception, the undisputed meaning attached to it, both by Jews and Christians, in the early times of Christianity, and, indeed, until a change, which I shall hereafter treat of, took place in the Romish Church, when it fell into the Paulite heresy. We have seen that by the Logos God formed the world. But the Logos was Christ, and Christ was the Crhjoj. And this Crhjoj was the first Emanation, the benignant Genius or Spirit—THE Crhjoj, cat' exochn.

… As the Crhj was the Logos, and the Logos was Wisdom, it follows that the Crhj must be Wisdom. Here, in either case, we arrive at Rasit again, and thus Jesus, or the Logos, is the Creator. Here we have a key to much of the recondite and misunderstood doctrines of the Gnostic, that is, the initiated Christians—the initiated Christians, or Gnostici, against whom St. Paul preached, of which I shall say much more hereafter. … The links of the chain are not only there, but they are connected. Need I repeat any thing of Abraham or the Brahmin, from the land of Maturea or the land of the solar fire or aur—the land of Urii or Uriana—Ur of Colchis or Colida—or of the Cal or Culdees, going to Maturea, or Heliopolis, in Egypt—of the promontory of Tamus and St. Thomas, of Bituma, of Malabar, Coromandel, &c., &c., &c. No ! I need say no more : if my reader be blind, I have not the power of working miracles; I cannot restore his sight.

Page 787

A learned Jew, who will shortly publish an English and Hebrew Lexicon, informs me, that the word .!9 ras has the meaning of wisdom in the Talmud.

Many readers will think quite impossible, that all the modern Lexicographers should have wilfully concealed the meaning of the word rasit. This is a question of fact, not of opinion. …

My reader, I imagine, will not have forgotten that a place supposed to be Cortona, in Italy, was called Creston. This was the place where Pythagoras, who was the son of an Apolloniacal Spectre, Holy Ghost, had what was called his school of WISDOM—that Pythagoras who sacrificed at the shrine of the bloodless Apollo at Delos. No doubt the school of this great philosopher from the East—India, Carmel, Egypt, Delphi, Delos, was closely connected with the schools of the Samaneans, Essenians, Carmelites, Gnostic Christians, or Crhjianoi, or CRESTON-ians. The Pythagoreans were Essenians, and the Rev. R. Taylor, A. M., the Deist, now in gaol, infamously persecuted by the Whigs for his religious opinions, in his learned defence of Deism, called the Diegesis, has clearly proved all the hierarchical institutions of the Christians to be a close copy of those of the Essenians of Egypt.

Page 789

It is an admitted fact, that the language of Mani and the first Manichæans was Chaldaic. After an observation that the language of Babylon was not the Chaldee, it will not surprise my reader that I should consider this fact, (of this Persian, as he is called,) as strengthening my opinion that he came from India. He had twelve disciples or followers who were called perfect and elect, himself making the thirteenth. This continued after his death to be the system of his followers. To these twelve only the high secrets of the order were entrusted. They ate no flesh, drank no wine. He had, besides these, seventy-two followers, disciples of a lower class, to whom all the mysteries were not entrusted. Like the Roman Cardinals some of them married, but I think it probable that, from the unmarried only, the twelve elect or perfect were taken. Of course these elect will be said to have been taken in imitation of Jesus Christ. I believe they were neither of them copies of the other : and that Mani's were taken from the system that caused the twelve figures and their president to be carved on the rocks at Oujein, in India—in the Northern India—in the country of Calida—in Ur of the Chaldees—or very near to it.

In the circular part of the church of the Templars in London, the Manichæan heresy is beautifully displayed. It originally had twelve arches; one on the East, for the president, a little larger than any of the others, excepting that on the West, for the door; and they have six seats in each arch, making seventy-two in all, and within are six smaller arches, which might hold the twelve perfecti or the Knights of the Round Table.

Among the Chinese the same sacred numbers are found, as those among the Jews. This can be no accident. Confucius had among his thousands of disciples only seventy-two initiated :* the exact number of the Cardinals of Rome, of the Manwantaras of India, of the chosen or distinguished disciples of Jesus Christ, of the Jewish Sanhedrim, and of Manes. Here is the universal mythos—remains of the kingdom of Pandæa.

* Matter on the Gnostics, Vol. II. p.83.

Between the decalogue of Moses and the rule of morality of the Buddhists of Tibet, as given by Georgius,* there is a wonderful similarity.

Thou shalt not kill any human being or animal.
Thou shalt not commit adultery.
Thou shalt not steal.
Thou shalt not speak ill of others.
Thou shalt not lie.
Thou shalt honour thy father and mother.

* Alp. Tib.

Page 790

Along with the God Kan-ia, or Iao, or Jah, came the oriental system of masonry or mystery; and through all ages, I have little doubt, the Gnostic doctrine has prevailed with its Masons, or Mesqraneon, or Maceonry, as it is called in the York documents, or Monachism. The Monks of Tibet, at Eleusis, in Egypt, at Jerusalem or Carmel, in our circular chapters, were the preservers of the secret Pythagorean doctrines of numbers, of the Ras, or Mystery, or Masonry, or perhaps more properly, the doctrines of the IE, the Jah,—the mesos or meson-ry, or the Saviour, or the cross-borne—renewed in every cycle, as described by Virgil. I need scarcely remind my Masonic reader that all the secrets of Masonry are concealed in the Hebrew or Chaldee language; that is, in the language of the Brahmin of Ur and Colida, where Mr. Ellis was poisoned for being known to possess them. Solomon, the Hakem or wise, who built the temple, succeeded the Brahmin Abraham, who came from Ur of Colida.

The very essence of Freemasonry is equality. All, let their rank in life be what it may, when in the lodge, are brothers—brethren with the Father at their head. No person can read the Evangelists and not see that this is correctly Gospel Christianity. It is the Christianity of the Chaldees, of the Patriarchs, of Abraham, and of Melchizedek. Every part of Christianity refers back to Abraham, and it is all Freemasonry. Jesus Christ at the table, at the head of the twelve, offering the sacrifice of Bread and Wine, is Abraham and Melchizedek over again; such, in fact, it is acknowledged to be by the Romish Church; such is its esoteric religion; and such was the custom not only of the Chaldean Abraham and Melchizedek, but also of the Calidei and Masons at York; and, I have no doubt, of the Templars in their secret round chapter-house in London.

In all the ancient systems there prevailed one universal doctrine, now despised, the metempsychosis, or what is called in old Irish the Nua Breithe. This became corrupted into a transmigration of souls from man to man, and from man to beast; but its original meaning was, a new birth in another cycle or world. This is correctly the doctrine of Moses,* of Philo, of Plato, of the interpretatio Novi Sæculi or the Æneid of Virgil, and of the secret doctrines of the fathers of the church. It is in many places to be seen in the Gospels, in our Liturgy, and particularly in our baptismal service.

* Exhibited in the word !9" bra, renovated.

Many attempts have been made to account for the well-ascertained fact, that, in the Pentateuch, there is not the least trace of a state of future reward or punishment : for though we have the evil spirit in the serpent we have no hell. This arises from the doctrine of the renewal of worlds having been the esoteric religion of the tribe.

Page 791

In Genesis there are no fallen angels. All these came into the Mosaic religion on the return from Babylon. The Destroyer or Serpent of Genesis is correctly the renovator or preserver. In Genesis there is a tree of knowledge and a tree of life. This tree of life evidently proves the meaning of the Mythos to be, that Adam would die at some time—that he would wear out, unless he ate of the fruit of that tree. The serpent, by persuading Eve to taste of the fruit of the tree of knowledge, &c., taught her what is meant by being naked, and thus, by inducing procreation, was the preserver of the species : the very literal meaning of the words shews, that this is one of its meanings. Here we have the origin of the Ophites, or oriental emblematical-serpent worshipers, to account for whom our antiquarians have been so much perplexed. They worshiped the saviour regenerator, but not the devil, in our vulgar meaning of the word. …

I recommend my reader to peruse and think upon several observations too long for insertion made by Spence, on the similarity in the characters or labours of Hercules, and the character or works of Jesus Christ; the ascension; the killing of the serpent; the observation of Bacon respecting the Christian mysteries and the cup of salvation. …

Page 792

One of the Targums says, that !*&( huia¸ a serpent, tempted Adam or the first man, and not %&( hue, Eve his wife. Parkhurst renders this, not a serpent, but a beast, an animal. No person will doubt what this animal was, except he who will not see. It was the serpent, and here we have it, in the drawing, speaking to Adam, not lying dead at the feet of Hercules. Here we have Eva tempting Adam, and we see what Eva was, viz. the female !*&( huia, serpent. Here we have the object of adoration of the Ophites—the female generative power—the destroying, regenerating power. As the secret doctrine of the Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer, began to be known in the middle and Western parts of Asia, at the same time it began to be corrupted, and the absurd idea of a fallen angel to creep in, at first among the ignorant vulgar only, but at last among a higher class, like what we have in Europe; we ought to be ashamed of harbouring nonsense so unworthy of the Supreme Being. …

There being nothing in Genesis or the Pentateuch of the nature of a Devil in our common acceptation of the term, we are naturally induced to inquire, What was the nature of the being which tempted Eve ? This being is described in our translation as a serpent, and properly so described, … The serpent is the only one of all the animals of the creation which possesses the peculiar property of renovating itself. To all appearance, when not destroyed by violence, it possesses eternal life. Throwing off with its skin its old character, it seems to become young again every spring. These are the peculiar reasons why the Cobra, the most deadly of the genus, with its tail in its mouth, was selected as the emblem of renovating life—of the eternal destroying regenerator. …

Among the Ophites, and indeed the Gnostics generally, the serpent was called the Megalistor or Great Builder of the Universe. Here we have, under another name, Ophites, the Cyclopes or the builders of the circular temples at Stonehenge and every where else. With its tail in its mouth, Serpents were the emblem of the eternal creator or renovator of the universe. Shrouding the Linga and the Yoni it was the emblem of the preserver and destroying regenerator. He was the Megalistor or Dhmiqrgoj, because he was the emblem of the Logos, the creator or renewer of cycles, or worlds in cyclic periods.




Page 794

I must now request my reader to reflect deeply upon several parts of what he has read in the preceding books. The ;*:!9 rasit is the first word to which I would wish to recall his attention. It cannot be doubted that in the word rasit, the meaning of which has been so studiously concealed, we have in uninterrupted succession the Logos by which the world was created. It is the Buddha of India. It is the Logos of the Orpheans, and of Zoroaster, and of Plato. It is the Minerva of the Etruscans and Greeks, issuing and emanating from the head of Jove; and Jove himself is IEUE. It is the Mhtij or divine wisdom, and the Sophia of the Cabalists. It is, as Mhtij or divine wisdom, the object of the mystic adoration of the Gnostics of the middle ages; and one of the very few things which we know of these sectaries for a certainty is, that this was, in a peculiar manner, the name under which they represented the Creator : for we know very little else of them, the orthodox having left us nothing of all their works which we can be certain has come to us unadulterated. But all the circumstances which we know relating to them give us reason to believe that they were a race of persons superior to the Papiases, Irenæuses, and Justins, the founders of the modern Roman religion. … It is most surprising to me that such men as Lardner and Beausobre should receive, as credible, the histories of the fathers : very certain I am that no judge in England, France, Germany, or America, would convict an accused person of the lowest crime on such evidence.

It is admitted by the orthodox, that these philosophers were men in the highest grade of society. From this and a careful consideration of all the circumstances, I think we may conclude that they held the doctrines of the orientals respecting the renewal of cycles and incarnations, and that the millenium would take place. I think the fact of their designating the Saviour by the term Crhjoj pretty well proves this. They held him to be the first of the emanations, the logos, the mind. …

Page 795

The Gospel history of John is said, by modern priests, to have been written against the Gnostics. How this can be I do not understand. Its beginning breathes the oriental doctrine in every word. Its Logos, i.e. Sophia, or Buddha, or Rasit, or Trimurti made flesh, or becoming incarnate, is strict Buddhism, Persianism, Platonism, and Philoism or Cabalism. Very justly has Mr. Matter said, "Cependant S. Jean l'apôtre jouisse d'un crédit non moins éminent auprès de plusieurs écoles Gnostiques, qui découvraient dans son évangile et dans son Apocalypse tous les éléments, la terminologie et la symbolique de leurs croyances."* What can be more striking than the first fourteen verses of the first chapter, or than the promise, of the tenth incarnation, of a person to come afterward, even the spirit of truth, in several passages of the fourteenth and fifteenth chapters ? …

* Matter, Ch. iv. p.305.

Page 796

… The prophecy of another person to come connects the whole with the system of the cycles of India, of Virgil, and of Juvenal; it completes the system, and shews that the millenary cycles were an integral part of Gnosticism, and that Gnosticism uncorrupted was Christianity.

Page 797

If we consider the word Afch, it is in every respect the same as ;*:!9 rasit. It is the chief, the head; therefore, if we commence at the top and proceed downwards, it is the first. Here we see the reason why the highest place of every town was called the Acra of the city. It was the head, the peculiar seat of wisdom, whence Minerva sprung. As Arga, the generative power or organ, whence all things descended, it was also the first, and I think the word Arga is porbably the origin of Arca. … Col. Tod says, "The expedition of the Argonauts in search of the Golden fleece is a version of the Arkite worship of Osiris, the Dolayatra of the Hindoos : and Sanscrit etymology, applied to the vessel of the Argonauts, will give the Sun (argha) god's (nat'ha) entrance into the sign of the Ram. The Tauric and Hydra foes, with which Jason had to contend before he obtained the fleece of Aries, are the symbols of the sun-god, both of the Ganges and of the Nile; and this fable, which has occupied almost every pen of antiquity, is clearly astronomical, as the names alone of the Argha-nat'h, sons of Apollo, Mars, Mercury, Sol, Arcus or Argus,* Jupiter, Bacchus, &c., sufficiently testify, whose voyage is entirely celestial."**

* Argha the Sun, in Sanscrit. ** Tod's Hist. p.601.

Page 798

I have not succeeded to my mind, in unravelling the allegory of the Argonautic expedition. I think it probable that we must look for a translation of some Eastern words into Greek : such, for example, as Salivahan into Staurobates, or Meru into the thigh of Jupiter. Now, the ship Argo is clearly the Arga of India, or Omphalos, in which voyages of salvation were made. Jas-on the Captain is IHS-on or the Saviour, Sun, Bacchus—and Hercules one of its passengers, (who took the command after the death of IHS-on or Bacchus,) is Heri-clo. Minerva or Divine Wisdom invented the ship, the Argo, or Afch, or Arca, and supplied its pole, or mast, or Linga. The Nautæ or sailors went to the Golden or Holy Chersonesus, to seek a golden or holy apple, or golden fleece of a Ram, or, perhaps, fleece of a Golden Ram; for the Greek equally means apple and fleece. I can have no doubt that the allegory relates to the lamb, the knowledge of which was necessary to salvation, or to the apples of Genesis, which were desirable to make one wise unto salvation. … It is the remains of a history of sacred character, like the Iliad and Gesta Romanorum or Æneid. "All the religious institutes of the highest antiquity, of which we have any account, were delivered in poetry, and under the shape of history, real or fictitious."* IHS-on or Bacchus, the Sun in Taurus, was killed by the Linga falling upon him; but Heri-clo, or the Sun in Aries, survived the voyage and obtained the fleece. In all this there are evidently the links of a chain—but, to complete it, some are still wanting. I have no doubt whatever that the first books of Genesis, the Maha-bharat, the Argonautic expedition, the Iliad, the plays of Æschylus, and the Æneid, are all different ways of telling the same story. —Substantially the same mythos was at the bottom of all, and of that mythos the constantly-revolving cycles are a most important part. …

* Mason Good's Job, Pref. p. lxxxvi.

Page 799

In Japan, Buddha is adored with the words NAMU AMIDA BUTH, which means Adoration to Amida Buddha, the word Namu is a corruption of Nama, meaning adoration, in the Japan and Sanscrit languages.* This Indian word, I think, will exhibit to us a very remarkable proof of the identity of the Indian and Italian religions. … The explanation of this word confirms what I have said in my CELTIC DRUIDS respecting the Sanscrit language in Italy. It probably came along with the God Ganesa or Janus, and the Saturn-ja and the Pallistini, or Palæstrina, or Sacrum Preneste, and the name of Itala or Bull. Great numbers of VERY ancient pictures of the Bambino are to be seen in Italy with the inscription Deo Soli invicto, and also numbers of inscriptions with the words Nama Mitræ invicto.

* Barthol. System. Brach. P.308.

Page 800

Many of the Gnostics maintained that Christ only appeared to be crucified : in this they also varied from most, but not from all, of the Romists. …

Page 801

The Gnostics held that, "To deliver a soul, a captive in darkness, the Principle of Light, the Genius of the Sun, charged with the redemption (lutfwsij) of the intellectual world, of which the Sun is the type, manifested itself among men; that the light appeared in the darkness, but the darkness comprehended it not; that, in fact, light could not unite with darkness; it put on only the appearance of the human body : that at the crucifixion Jesus Christ only appeared to suffer. His person having disappeared, the by-standers saw in his place a cross of light, over which a celestial voice proclaimed these words : 'The cross of Light is called Logos, Christos, the Gate, the Joy.'" I consider that the book of John contains clear and abundant proofs, that the original doctrine, though perhaps the secret doctrine of the Romish Church, was uncorrupted Gnosticism,—the Pandæan religion of the Golden age, when no icons were used, and when the Gods had no names. …

Page 802

The doctrine of emanations was undoubtedly the universal, though, perhaps, in very early times, the secret doctrine. …

The Cabalistic doctrine of the later Jews is exactly consentaneous to the construction which I have put upon Genesis. It accounts for the origin of things, by making them emanations from a First Cause, and, therefore, pre-existent. They suppose all things to be at last withdrawn into the First Being, by a revolution or restitution to their first state; as if they believed their 4&. 0*3 oin sup, En Soph,* Fountain of Wisdom, or First Being, to contain all things. This En Soph may also be the same as the Greek On and SoFia, Wisdom of the generative power On. From this Being all things are supposed to proceed by effluxes or emanations, like rays, and when the rays are redrawn the external world perishes, and all things again become absorbed in God. He hideth his face; and they are troubled; he taketh away their breath, they die, and return to their dust. He sendeth forth his spirit, and they are created; and he reneweth the face of the earth.** All this harmonizes perfectly with my translation of the first verse of Genesis.

* Matter, Ch. iv. p.403. ** Psalm civ. 29, 30; Universal History, Vol. I.

I do not flatter myself that I can unveil all the secret mysteries of the Cabala of the ancient Israelites, long since buried amidst the ruins of their temples. But yet I think we may be justified in believing that such men as Moses, Zoroaster, Pythagoras, and Plato, had a religion in its fundamental principles, consistent at least with common sense, and altogether different, as they themselves always asserted, from the mythoses which they tolerated among the vulgar. If we take this view of the subject, we shall find in the triune doctrine nothing inconsistent with reason and sense.

The following is the form of adjuration, which Cyril and Justin Martyr give to Orpheus, but which John Malela and the author of the Paschal Chronicle ascribe to Thoth or Hermes Trismegistus. The difference, however, is immaterial : for the Orphic and Tautic systems were fundamentally the same. In the Paschal Chronicle, the oath is exhibited in the following terms : "I adjure thee, the Heaven,1 the wise work of the great God : be propitious. I adjure thee, the voice,2 of the Father, which he first spake, when he established the whole world by his counsel;3 the voice of the Father, which he first uttered, HIS ONLY-BEGOTTEN WORD."4 I think this completely proves the truth of my theory. The doctrine of Hermes-Trismegistus was precisely the same as that of the Hindoos respecting the destruction and renovation of the world—that nothing is destroyed, but only changed in form.5

1 These are the Samin of Genesis, the disposers endowed with understanding or wisdom. G. H.

2 Logos. … G. H. 3 i.e. wisdom. G. H.

4 Logos. G. H.; Faber, Pag. Idol. Vol. I. p.229. 5 Cudworth, Intel. Syst. p.326.

Page 803

In the Christian religion, as in all others, the tangible or worldly sign of the Holy Spirit or Ghost, was supposed to be wind, or air in motion; the Dove its emblem. Thus it is said in John xx. 22, When BREATHING ON THEM, he said to them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost. As air in motion was the tangible or sensible sign of the third person, so the solar, ethereal or spiritual fire was the sign of the second person of the Trinity—Wisdom, Buddha, Protogonos. By Wisdom Aleim formed the planetary system. By Ruh, (&9 :*98 qdis ruh, the Holy Ghost brooding on the waters, he communicated the generative and prolific faculty, which, without moisture, can in no case exist. And, in all cases, by the Holy Ghost or Spirit, or air in motion, regeneration was supposed to take place.

In a similar manner the Logos or Word had its rise. How did God proceed when he made the world ? (Let it not be forgotten that man has his image.) Did he use his hands ? No : he spake the word and it was made. He gave the word and the effect followed. By his word he made it. The word existed before the creation. The word was first, the world instantly followed. Thus says John, "In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God." Here we have the Trinity of the Oriental, the Platonic, and the Christian mystics. The ancient mystics thought that God gave the word and formed the world from previously existing matter; the modern ones thought he created it from nothing. … When God gave the word it was wisely given. It was wisdom itself. Hence again, wisdom was the first emanation from the divine power. It was identified with the word. It was not a creation. It was an emanation. And what was an emanation ? No one knows. Here man gets out of his depth : and whatever he might do before, he now begins to talk nonsense. Unless he avails himself of a simile, and speak of an emanation as a ray of the Sun.

In a former section I have said, that the doctrine of the Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer, arose from the creating, preserving, and destroying powers of the solar ray. This was, I believe, the origin of the doctrine : but when the mind of man improved, and he discovered that the sun was a creature, not a creator, he was, by a very natural process, carried up to another being, from whom all blessings flowed, the Creator of the Sun itself, and of whom he could form no idea; and he called him, perhaps not improperly, ILLUSION; for the moment he began to form an idea of the Creator, like a phantom, like the baseless fabric of a vision, it vanished away. It was Maia, illusion.* But to this unknown Being man gave the attributes, which, in the first instance, he had given to the solar ray, and he gave them with every appearance of truth and justice—for we all know that our Creator is our Preserver, and that destruction is creation throughout this our world, in every case to which our knowledge extends. From this sublime doctrine came first the Father; secondly, the first-begotten Son, the Logos, Divine Wisdom, the Saviour; and thirdly, the Erwj, the Divine Love, the Spirit of God, under the emblem of the mild and affectionate Dove, the type of the most interesting of all passions. The passion itself is closely allied and assimilates to the character of the Creator—the spirit of God though destroying, yet destroying only to regenerate and restore to existence.

* Pophyry says, a ring-dove was sacred to Maia, who is the same as Proserpine, and the Goddess Night, and is at the summit of the intelligible and intellectual order. De Abstin. Lib. iv. Sect. xvi.

Page 804

With most of the ancient philosophers an opinion prevailed, that the soul of man was a portion of the universal mind; that from it the mind of man emanated, and that to it, ultimately, it would return. From this very refined doctrine arose all the incarnations, however degrading. A portion of the universal mind, of divine wisdom, of the protogonos, became instilled into a human being. Thus it is evident that every human being endowed with more than usual wisdom, talent, or excellence, might not inappropriately be said to exhibit an example of an incarnation of the Divine Mind, or of a portion of the Divine Mind. Thus he was of two natures—the divine and human; as the first, as Divine Wisdom, he was prwtogonoj, the first-born Son of the Father, into whom, at his death, he would return. In these refined doctrines, held by such men as Plato, I think we may discover a Trinity, neither inconsistent with reason, nor incomprehensible, like that stated by Athanasius and others.

Thus every person who possessed any striking superiority of mind or talent, would be said to be inspired, or to have a portion of the Divine Mind incarnated in him; and this accounts for the great number of incarnations both among the Hindoos and Jews; … And it was, perhaps, in this way, that Buddha and Cristna, who were merely the Sun, were confounded with the minor incarnations. Then, to what do all the incarnations of Buddha at last amount ? Evidently to a refined Metaphysis—to a figure of speech, an allegory—but an allegory in its foundation true, and in its superstructure beautiful—the Barasit of the Cabala, which will be explained hereafter.

Page 812

Perhaps my reader may think that I have introduced him to a science sufficiently recondite; but, nevertheless, I must carry him a little higher—to a mystery still more profound. When we reflect upon the identity of the Trinitarian doctrines of Plato, of Orpheus, or the Indian or Sindi Orpheans of Thrace, and on the Trimurti of the Indians, and on the Trinitarian explanation which I have given of the word Aleim, of the first verse of Genesis, we cannot deny the justness of the observation of Numenius, the Platonician, that Plato was but Moses speaking Greek, which will be greatly strengthened by what I shall now develop.

Although we have found in Egypt the Goddess Neith, or their Minerva, the Nat of North India; yet we have not found the Ras or Wisdom so marked as in most other countries : but, nevertheless, it was really there, as we might expect. Plutarch says, that Isis means Wisdom;1 that her temple is called Iseion : alluding to that knowledge of the Eternal and Self-existent Being which may be there obtained. … She is also called Athena,2 which we have formerly seen was the name of Helena, and meant Wisdom;—in fact, Athena is only the reverse way of reading the word Neithe a little transposed. … Again3 he observes, that Isis is frequently called by the Egyptians Athena, signifying, in their language, I proceeded from myself. In the same section he says, that Typho is called Seth. In section 9 he says, that Isis is called Minerva.4 … There can be no doubt that the names Isis of Egypt and Isi of India, were derived from the word of the ancient language 3:* iso, to save, and meant Saviour, and consequently Logos as the Saviour : yet, as the Logos, according to my system, it ought to mean Wisdom, as we have every where seen the Logos to mean Wisdom, and this it did, as I have just shewn.

1 Squire's Trans. de Is. et Osir., Sect. 2. 2 Sect. 62.

3 Ib. 4 For Isis, see Drummond on Punic Inscription.

Page 813

The Brahmins maintain that time does not exist with God.* Then what we call time must be created, or called, or produced into a new existence. And as it is certainly a thing, an existence, or ens, of the very first importance, why have we not heard of it before ? … I ask, is it not hidden under the (&9 ruh, the third person of the Trinity,—the destroyer,—with its emblem, the Cobra, having its tail in its mouth ? Every thing which can be predicated of the destroyer, both as destroyer and regenerator, can be predicated of time, past and future. … Seva, of India, the destroyer, was clearly Saturn or Time. In the early periods of the world, man was believed to have been in a state of innocence and simplicity, and consequently of happiness. This was the reason why those times were called Saturnian, as Saturn meant time past as well as time future : and as we have found the same mythos in Guzerat, Syrastrene, and Pallitani, as we have found in Italy, we find in each the same Satrun-ja or Saturn-ia.

* Asiat. Res. Vol. II. p.115.

… I believe that Time and Space were considered but as properties or qualities of the first emanation,—that with it they existed, and, with their absorption into the To On, they would cease to exist. This doctrine is of all others the most refined. From the narrow limits of our faculties we can form no idea of the non-existence of time and space. I believe we can form no idea of the state of the Supreme Being except it be in a state of actual rest, or of moving to form and reform. In like manner, in our present weakness of understanding, we can have no idea of happiness, except as compared with its correlative, misery. …

Page 814

We will now try to penetrate into the Sanctum Sanctorum of the ancient philosophers of India, Egypt, Syria, and Greece; the highest and most important part of whose philosophy was a knowledge of the Pathr agnwstoj, called by Plato To On, WHOM NO PERSON HAS SEEN EXCEPT THE SON*—the wan into which at last all nature was to be resolved. The knowledge of this Being, (so clearly marked in the words of Jesus,) which I now proceed to exhibit to my reader, is named or mystically alluded to in almost every page of the Gospel histories; which might, not improperly, be called histories of the parables of Jesus Christ.

* Gospel History.

In all the histories of the early Christians, called by the Paulites of Rome or Papists heretics, we read that they held the doctrine, that the God of the Jews was not the Great God, but only a Dæmon or Angel. We shall now see the origin of this doctrine, which has always been mentioned by Lardner and others in such a manner as completely to deceive their readers—themselves probably, not seeing the nature of it : and in the explanation will be evident the secret doctrine of the Aleim and Rasit, as I have expounded them in Book II. Chap III. And the injustice will be apparent which has been done to the sages of antiquity, in supposing that they could entertain a belief only fit for minds enfeebled by a modern education, that the book of Genesis was to be understood literally.

The first and most profound secret of the Cabala or Gnosis was the knowledge of the real Cosmogony of the universe, as held by these philosophers. At the head of all beings and their works, the ancient Gnostics or Sophees placed a certain person called Mia Arch; also called Pathr Òlwn, Pathr agnwjoj, Acatonomajoj. This name, mia arche, Mons. Matter* justly says, "Nous rencontrons dans tous les systêmes Gnostiques, et en général dans toutes les doctrines de l'ancien monde, dans l'Inde comme en Perse. Tout est amené de cet être, tout doit rentrer un jour dans son sein."

* Hist. Gnost. Vol. II. p.266.

Page 815

When the ancient philosopher reflected deeply upon what he saw constantly going on around him in the great laboratory of nature, he could not help perceiving, that by one process or other every substance was capable of being resolve, and was in fact constantly resolving, into an invisible, impalpable fluid. As this fluid was too refined to be subject to any of his senses, of course he could form no idea of it; but yet, reasoning from analogy, he was induced to believe in its existence. The fluid here spoken of was called an ethereal or a spiritual fire,* and I suppose more nearly answers to the Galvanic, or Electric, or Magnetic fluid than to any thing with which I am acquainted. When matter was reduced back again by igneous purification, or, in other words, when matter was resolved into this invisible fire as it had originally flowed or emanated from the first To On it approximated to, perhaps arrived at, a state to be ready for re-absorption into the first To On again. Thus when re-absorbed, all nature was God, and God had been all nature previous to emanation. And what was the To On ? A Point, the centre of a circle whose circumference in no where, and its centre every where; Illusion of which our sense cannot lay hold.

* Unmeaning words as here applied, because applied to no idea, man having, in fact, no idea of this fire—too refined to be cognizable by his senses.

We have here the Pantheism, the grossness of which, more or less represented, serves to horrify those priests who teach literally what the words literally express, that the To On walked in the garden, or strove to kill Moses at an inn, but failed. This is the Indian doctrine, which its professors call illusion—an expression which appears to me to be beautifully characteristic : for when, step by step, we arrive at last at this point, every thing appears to slip from under us, or to pass away into nothing—because the subject is beyond the reach of our senses. And now we may see what these ancient philosophers meant by their doctrine of the eternity of matter; for when it was re-absorbed into the To On, how could it be anything but eternal ? By being absorbed, it was not supposed to be destroyed. I need not point out how admirably this elucidates the doctrines of Ammonius, that all the sects of philosophy, including the Christian, were at the bottom the same, and originated from one and the same source.

… As the To On cannot but exist, matter cannot but exist; for it will always exist, either as an emanation, or in the To On.

As every being was an emanation, and would ultimately be re-absorbed into the To On, so every being was a part of the To On; and on this principle the adoration of animals was attempted to be excused. On this principle, also, we find the inferior emanations, the Trinity, or its Persons, receiving epithets, in strictness applicable only to the To On. For instance, I am Alpha and Omega. … This was an effect which must necessarily have followed the concealment of the First Cause from inquiring but uninitiated philosophers, if the secret of initiation were to be preserved.

Page 816

… It was for the purpose of concealing his system that Plato adopted the practice of maintaining doctrines in direct contradiction to each other; and thus he furnished plausible grounds for misrepresentations by his enemies, as the initiated only could understand him …

Plato does not profess to have been the inventor of his own doctrines, but in his epistles he says that he has taken them from ancient and sacred discourses … Mr. Colebrooke says, that many of the tenets of the Hindoos are the same as those of the Platonists and Pythagoreans, and admits the latter appear to be learners, rather than the teachers of them.* It is, indeed, very notorious that those to men went to the East to learn, not to teach.

* Asiat. Trans. Vol. I. p.579.

… It must not be expected that the grand secret, the knowledge of the highest and last secret of the initiated, of the illuminati, will be found clearly described in any work written by one of the initiated.

I have no doubt that the Cabalistic œconomy was similar to that of a lodge of Freemasons, and proceeded to the top by gradation, and that masonry, which was part of it, existed long before the time of the Exod from Egypt. In the time of Moses, the three elders of what might be called the chapter, were Moses, Aholiab, and Bezaleel, the son of URI, the son of Hur,* and to them only was the highest secret confined. When Jesus Christ was (what is called) transfigured or metamorphosed, (is not this mysterious and esoteric enough ?) there were present Jesus, Moses, and Elias, the three teachers, and the three apostles, Peter, James, and John, the three learners, of the Gnosis or secret knowledge, which was transmitted by them to posterity with the greatest care.

* Exod. xxxi. 2-6, xxxv. 30-34. The Jewish Sanhedrim had three presidents.

Page 818

The Jewish Cabala, that is, the Cabala of the tribe of Ioudi—the Cabala of the numerous temples of Solomon which have been mentioned, was divided into two parts—the one consisting of the natural philosophy, called Mercavah; the other of the moral, called Barasith. We will first explain the natural philosophy of the system; and first, the creation. There were various creations. The first creation was effected by way of emanation; and this was the idea or plan of the universe, not the little globe only which we inhabit. From this proceeded the second, which was the Trimurti or Trinity which formed the .*/: smim, our world and system, (but not herein including the stars)* by the agency of one of its persons, who was the Logoj, or Sophia, or Metis, or Buddha. The doctrine of the divine idea is distinctly expressed in the laws of Menu.** It was also clearly the doctrine of Plato and Philo, i.e. of the Cabala. But of course it was not expressed in the book of Genesis, which professed to be only a book or description of the generations or cosmogony of our globe and of the planetary system with which it is connected—viz. the regeneration of the planetary system and the earth. It would clearly have been inconsistent with the object of Moses to have revealed to the vulgar Jews the sublime knowledge of the Mia Arch or the cosmogony of the universe,*** the knowledge of the Pathr agnwjoj, the Brahme-Maia, or, as the Hindoo philosopher called it, Illusion.

* I beg my reader to recollect what I have said of the interpolation of the words the stars in the 16th verse of the first chapter of Genesis.

** Asiat. Res. Advertisement to Vol. V. p. v.; Inst. Of Menu, by G. C. Haughton.

*** And it was on this account that the stars are not named, but were, in consequence, interpolated by persons who did not understand the system.

… Thus the Trimurti was not the Supreme Being, but an emanation.

Page 819

But it will be said, that the first emanation from the Trimurti was Buddha, or Rasit, or Logos. True. But Buddha or Logos was Tri-Vicramaditya or the triple energy, was the Trimurti itself, which Mr. Colebrooke, and all other oriental writers, tell us the Indians held to be three persons and one God, three in one and one in three—though three, yet one; though one, yet three : Buddha in India, Logos in Greece, Ras in Syria, each being the name in the respective countries, of the Creator or person of the three employed by the three or Aleim itself to form anew or reform the world. …

These doctrines constituted the grand article of the Cabala, and are strictly in accordance with the dark allusions or mystic expressions which we find in Philo, Plato,* and the Gospel histories. As no religion remains unchanged, the complication, which is found in the present Cabala, was most of it probably added afterward.

* Matter, Vol. II. p.267.

Philo, in his book de Sacrificiis Abelis et Caini, lays down the doctrine of the Triune nature of the Deity; at the same time he states it to be a secret or mystery not, in ALL its parts, to be revealed to the vulgar. …

Page 820

On EVERY account there is no philosopher, of antiquity, who deserves to rank higher than Philo. If any man could be supposed to understand the Cabala or secret doctrine, it was Philo. He was in the first rank of society, and of unimpeachable moral character. How foolish is it to permit the priests to run him down by their ridiculous, idle assertions, that he attempted to Platonise Moses,—that he was tainted with the Platonic philosophy, &c., &c. ! No doubt he was tainted with his own philosophy, with that philosophy which he had learnt in the adytum of his temple, and which we have found with the Buddhists, with the Zoroastrians or Orpheans, with the followers of Hermes, Pythagoras, and Plato, and which was the same as the secret doctrine of Moses, a fact which was never doubted, (though not publicly known,) till modern priests, whose minds were of too mean a class to understand so sublime a system, denied it, though at the same time they were obliged to allow that the Jews had really FROM THE MOST REMOTE PERIOD, secret doctrines.* Their only reason for misrepresenting the doctrines and learning of Philo is this, that his doctrines place their vulgar nonsense, only fit for such minds as their own, in the shade.

* Enfield, Hist. Phil. Book iv. Ch. iii.

Page 821

I cannot conceive how it is possible to read the Gospel histories with attention, and not to see that a secret doctrine is taught. There is scarcely a chapter without a parable. "In parables spake he unto them, that while seeing they might not perceive, and hearing they might not understand."* What can be clearer than the following passages ? "He answered and said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God : but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables : that seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing, they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time thy should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them." Mark iv. 11, 12; Matt. xiii. 13-15.

* For a complete proof that there was a secret religion, both Mosaic and Christian, concealed under vulgar allegorical histories, the last chapter of Burnet's Archæologia may be consulted.

Page 822

The transfiguration or metamorphosis, as the Greek word means, of Jesus Christ has puzzled all modern divines, as might well be expected. I will now shew what it means. Surely our divines will not see ! Do none of them read the early fathers ?

The Christian religion was divided by the early fathers, in its secret and mysterious character, into three degrees, the same as was that of Eleusis,* viz. Purification, Initiation, and Perfection.** This is a dry matter of fact, and this we have on authority of, and openly declared, among others, by Clemens Alexandrinus, who it cannot be believed would have stated this if it were false,—it being a falsity without any object, and the falsity of which must have been known to all the world.

* Fabric. Bibl. Gr. Vol. VII. p.101. The systems were the same.

** The Perfection applies to the expression of Jesus in Matthew : If thou wilt be perfect, &c., and alludes to dividing his substance with the poor, as the perfecti, or monks, always did—that is, to the order, who no doubt did distribute, after supplying their own necessities, the rents to the poor, keeping the capital or estate. Nimrod, Vol. III. p.419.

When Jesus was transfigured, an operation sufficiently mystical and esoteric I should think, he had with him only three of his disciples—James, John, and Peter. At the time of this transfiguration the secret gnwsij, which was, at least in part, the knowledge of the mia arch, and wathr agnwstoj, WAS BELIEVED to have been conferred on the three. And this we have again on the indisputable authority of Clemens Alexandrinus.* From these three I have little or no doubt, that the Popes yet believe that they have the above-described secret doctrine or Gnosis, handed down in the conclave. Peter was the first Pope or Principal of the sacred chapter of twelve, and of the lodge or conclave of seventy-two or Sanhedrim.

* Mosheim, Com. Cent. ii. xxxv. pp. 165, 167; Matt. xvii. 1, 2; Luke ix. 28, 29.

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We will now explain the second part of the Cabala called Barasit; but it is very difficult entirely to separate the two parts. The second is what Clemens Alexandrinus,* as head of the sacred college or catechetical school of Alexandria, professed to have had delivered to him, by his predecessors; the secret doctrines which he declares were delivered by Jesus Christ himself to James, John, and Peter.

* Mosheim, Com. Cent. II. p.164.

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The doctrine that the Christian religion contained a secret or allegorical meaning is so clearly acknowledged, laid down, and treated on as an admitted fact, by Justin, Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, and indeed by all the very early fathers, that to attempt to give quotations from their works would be wilfully to weaken the evidence of the fact, unless I were to fill fifty pages with them : indeed, I must copy their works. I shall, therefore, say no ore on the subject, for it is a point which cannot be disputed; and so the Christian religion continued till the time of Origen, when the doctrines of Paul prevailed, and Origen was declared by the Paulites a heretic for professing it.

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I now beg my reader to recall to his recollection what I have said about the Crhjoj, and I think he will have no difficulty in agreeing with me that originally the religion of Jesus was Cfhj-ianity, and that it was not, in fact, until the Paulites got possession of the Papal chair, by a compromise, that Paul's pernicious doctrines* were admitted into it,—by which its whole character was changed, and it became Christianity, such as it was for a thousand years,—quarrelling, persecuting, and devil-driving : and very different indeed from the Chrestianity of the first fathers, and from the secret doctrines of the temples of Eleusis and Jerusalem, of the Gentiles, and of Jesus of Nazareth, all of which were the same.

* Paul was really, as is evident from his letters, a well meaning but insane fanatic, in no respect superior, and very little differing from, Brothers, Southcote, and Irving.

In Mosheim's Commentaries,* the secret doctrines of Plato and Moses are compared, and it is shewn that by Clemens Alexandrinus and Philo they were held to be the same in every respect; …

* Cent. II. Sect. xxxv. p.167.

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The whole, I repeat, formed a sublime and beautiful system. At the head of it was the Pathr Agnwjoj, from whom emanated the first created being or hypostasis, the idea or plan of the universe.

The second emanation was the Triune God, the Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer, three persons in ONE God, the whole proceeding from the Pathr agnwjoj—Brahme-Maia or Illusion.

From this ILLUSION, is some way or other, all the innumerable hosts of suns and worlds were supposed to have proceeded, by a gradation of emanations, and into this it was supposed that they would all ultimately return.

Thus we have a double Trinity—first, the Mia Arch, the Divine Idea, and the Trimurti; and secondly, the Trimurti, consisting of Brahma, Vishnu, and Seva—the Creator, the Preserver, and the Destroyer—Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. We have the Mia Arch, with its two additional hypostases, one of which was the Trimurti; and the Trimurti with its two additional hypostases; the last of the first constituting the first of the last; thus forming a chain, and in this manner all nature was a microcosmic chain.

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I think it seems evident that the current of Gnosticism has flowed from India at various times, and in various distinct streams. We have at first, I think, in the Cyclopean builders of our Druidical temples, or in the Hellenians or Ionians. We have it again in the Exod, apoicia, of Abraham and his tribe or Yudi.* We have it again in the Samaneans, Essenians, or Gnostics, about the time of Jesus Christ. We have it again in the Manichæans. We have it again in the Sophees of the Mohamedans; and, lastly, we have it in the Chaldæi, Ishmaelians, the As-chas-din, the Assassins, of the eleventh century. The last were our Chaldæi or Freemasons and Templars.

* Called in the Desatir, p. 188, Jehudi, Yehudi.

… Thus, gentle reader, I flatter myself I have laid before you the grand outlines of the history of moral man—the foundation upon which all his systems have been built; the minutiæ of the different subdivisions I leave to the minute philosophers. No doubt a good PHILOSOPHICAL AND CRITICAL HISTORY of them would be very desirable. But it is, though really a desideratum, not very likely to be supplied.

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Such was the system of moral doctrines of the Gnostics, and such was the moral doctrine of Jesus of Nazareth; and, in my next volume, I shall endeavour to expand it in its native beauty and simplicity, and to rescue it from the filth with which it has been loaded by the meanest-minded of human beings, who, in the dark ages succeeded, by force of their numbers, in obtaining the victory over the enlightened part of mankind, to the subversion of religion, and the exclusion from it of every thing like reason or philosophy. But Priestcraft in its worst form flourished, and the performing of miracles, and the driving out of devils, occupied the attention, and debased the understandings, of mankind for fifteen hundred years together. In the next volume, I propose to inquire into the truth of the system which I have explained.

Gentle reader, as you have gone with me thus far, do you not think that you can travel with me one stage more ? Come, try one stage more; and on this part of my subject I have done. You have seen the planetary cycles of the sages of India extending to millions of years. What think you of THE BEING, the Pathr agnwjoj, placed in the centre of countless millions of stars, suns, and worlds, circulating around it with inconceivable rapidity in boundless space and in cycles of incomprehensible duration ? Now, at last, you come to the Illusion of the sages of India, to their Illusion, but it is a true Illusion. If you doubt, raise your eyes to the stars, and think upon the Wisdom of your Creator ! I have done.


Link to Volume II - Preface.